234 relations: Absolute zero, Absorbing element, Abstract algebra, Additive identity, Al-Mansur, Alain Prost, Algebra, Algebraic number, ALGOL 58, Algorism, American English, Amir Aczel, Ancient Greece, Andale Mono, Andes, Anemoi, Anno Domini, Arabic, Arabic numerals, Array data type, Aryabhata, Association football, Astrolabe, Astronomical year numbering, Astronomy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Śūnyatā, Babylonian mathematics, Babylonian numerals, Bede, Bengali language, Binary number, Brahmagupta, Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, British English, Business telephone system, Byzantine Empire, C (programming language), Calendar era, Cardinality, Category (mathematics), Category theory, Charles Seife, Chaturbhuj Temple (Orchha), Chemical element, Chiapas, Chinese numerals, COBOL, ..., Compile time, Complex number, Composite number, Computability theory, Computable function, Computer monitor, Computer science, Computus, Constant function, Counting rods, Cricket, Damon Hill, Decibel, Decimal, Definition, Determinant, Devanagari, Dionysius Exiguus, Division by zero, Divisor, DVD region code, Eastern Arabic numerals, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Egyptian numerals, Empty product, Empty set, Empty sum, Exponentiation, Factorial, FE-Schrift, Fibonacci, Fibonacci Quarterly, Floating point, Formula One, Fortran, Free variables and bound variables, Gandhara, Glyph, Grammatical number, Greatest element, Greece, Greek numerals, Gwalior, Han dynasty, Hieroglyph, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, Hinduism, Hipparchus, History of mathematics, Holomorphic function, Iberian Peninsula, IBM 3270, Identity element, Inca Empire, Indeterminate form, Infinity, Initial and terminal objects, Integer, Isaac Asimov, Italian language, Japanese numerals, Java (programming language), Java Database Connectivity, Johannes de Sacrobosco, John D. Barrow, Kelvin, Khmer numerals, Kim Plofker, Kish (Sumer), L'Hôpital's rule, Latin, Lattice (order), Leading zero, Lemma (mathematics), Limit of a function, Lisp (programming language), List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, List of international call prefixes, Lokavibhaga, Mathematical Association of America, Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections, Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Matter, Maya numerals, Melting point, Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, Moors, Morse code, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi, Multiplicative inverse, Muslim, Names for the number 0 in English, NaN, Natural number, Negative temperature, Neutron, Neutronium, Nicolas Bourbaki, Nigel Mansell, Null (SQL), Null pointer, Number, Number line, Number theory, Numeral system, Numerical digit, O, Old World, Olmec, Omicron, Operator assistance, Ordinal number, Oxford University Press, Parity (mathematics), Parity of zero, Peano axioms, Periodic table, Persian people, Phon, Physical system, Physics, Pingala, Pope Sylvester II, Portable Document Format, Positional notation, Prime number, Propositional calculus, Proton, Ptolemy, Qin Jiushao, Quantum mechanics, Quatrefoil, Quipu, Rational number, Real number, Roman numerals, Roulette, Sanskrit, Set theory, Sexagesimal, Sign (mathematics), Signed number representations, Signed zero, Slashed zero, Stationary state, Sutra, Tennis, Tetraneutron, Thai numerals, The Huffington Post, The Mathematical Classic of Sunzi, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, Thermodynamic temperature, Three-valued logic, Tortoise, Trunk prefix, Truth value, Turing degree, Turtle shell, Two's complement, Typewriter, Vacuum, Vehicle registration plates of Germany, Vigesimal, Von Neumann cardinal assignment, Walter Eugene Clark, Well-defined, Well-order, Zeno of Elea, Zeno's paradoxes, Zero (complex analysis), Zero element, Zero morphism, Zero of a function, Zero-based numbering, Zero-point energy, Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea, 0 (number), 0 (year), 0th, 1 (number), 2 (number). Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reaches its minimum value, taken as 0.
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In mathematics, an absorbing element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set.
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In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.
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In mathematics the additive identity of a set which is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings.
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Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD – 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD).
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Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (born 24 February 1955) is a French former racing driver.
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Algebra (from Arabic and Farsi "al-jabr" meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
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An algebraic number is a possibly complex number that is a root of a finite, non-zero polynomial in one variable with rational coefficients (or equivalently – by clearing denominators – with integer coefficients).
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ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
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Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits.
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American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.
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Amir D. Aczel (born November 6, 1950) is an Israeli-born American lecturer in mathematics and the history of mathematics and science, and an author of popular books on mathematics and science.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Andalé Mono (usually appearing as Andale Mono) is a monospaced sans-serif typeface designed by Steve Matteson for terminal emulation and software development environments, originally for the Taligent project by Apple Inc. and IBM.
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The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world.
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In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi (Greek: Ἄνεμοι, "Winds") were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came (see Classical compass winds), and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions.
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The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabic numerals or Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system.
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In computer science, an array type is a data type that is meant to describe a collection of elements (values or variables), each selected by one or more indices (identifying keys) that can be computed at run time by the program.
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Aryabhata (आर्यभट; IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos, "star-taker"), Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.
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Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly.
Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
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In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.
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Śūnyatā (Sanskrit, also shunyata; Pali: suññatā), translated into English as emptiness, voidness, openness, spaciousness, or vacuity, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
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Babylonian mathematics (also known as Assyro-Babylonian mathematics) was any mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC.
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record.
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Bede (Bǣda or Bēda; 672/673 – 26 May 735), also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth and its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow (see Monkwearmouth-Jarrow), County Durham, both of which were then in the Kingdom of Northumbria.
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Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.
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In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
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Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598–c.670 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote two works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) (628), a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.
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The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta ("Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma", abbreviated BSS) is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628.
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British English is the English language as spoken and written in Great Britain or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles.
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A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.
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In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set".
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In mathematics, a category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" that are linked by "arrows".
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a collection of objects and of arrows (also called morphisms).
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Charles Seife is an American author and journalist, a professor at New York University.
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Chaturbhuj Temple (Devanagri: चतुर्भुज मंदिर), dedicated to Vishnu, is situated at Orchha in Madhya Pradesh, India.
A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
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Chiapas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
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Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.
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COBOL (an acronym for common business-oriented language) is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
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In computer science, compile time refers to either the operations performed by a compiler (the "compile-time operations"), programming language requirements that must be met by source code for it to be successfully compiled (the "compile-time requirements"), or properties of the program that can be reasoned about during compilation.
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A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers and is the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation.
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A composite number is a positive integer that has at least one positive divisor other than one or the number itself.
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Computability theory, also called recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
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Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.
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A monitor or a display is an electronic visual display for computers.
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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
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Computus (Latin for "computation") is the calculation used to determine the calendar date of Easter.
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In mathematics, a constant function is a function whose (output) value is the same for every input value.
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Counting rods (算木, sangi) are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.
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Damon Graham Devereux Hill (born 17 September 1960) is a retired British racing driver from England.
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The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that expresses the ratio of two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity.
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The decimal numeral system (also called base 10 or occasionally denary) has ten as its base.
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A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
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In linear algebra, the determinant is a useful value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.
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Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
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Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Small, Dennis the Dwarf, Dennis the Little or Dennis the Short, meaning humble) (–) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, which is in Romania and Bulgaria).
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In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero.
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In mathematics a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer that can be multiplied by some other integer to produce n.
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DVD region codes are a digital rights management technique designed to allow film distributors to control aspects of a release, including content, release date, and price, according to the region.
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The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Arabic–Indic numerals and Arabic Eastern numerals) are the symbols used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Arab east, and its variant in other countries.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch computer scientist and mathematical scientist.
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The system of ancient Egyptian numerals was used in Ancient Egypt in around 3000 BC until the early first millennium AD.
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In mathematics, an empty product, or nullary product, is the result of multiplying no factors.
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In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.
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In mathematics, an empty sum, or nullary sum, is a summation where the number of terms is zero.
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Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases: In that case, bn is called the n-th power of b, or b raised to the power n. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base.
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In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. For example, The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product.
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Fälschungserschwerende Schrift (forgery-impeding typeface) or FE-Schrift has been the only typeface used on new vehicle registration plates of Germany since November 2000, except for plates issued to military-registered vehicles, which still use the former DIN 1451 typeface.
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Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
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The Fibonacci Quarterly is a scientific journal on mathematical topics related to the Fibonacci numbers, published four times per year.
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In computing, floating point is the formulaic representation which approximates a real number so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
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Fortran (previously FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
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In mathematics, and in other disciplines involving formal languages, including mathematical logic and computer science, a free variable is a notation that specifies places in an expression where substitution may take place.
Gandhāra (ګندارا, گندھارا, Avestan: Vaēkərəta, Sanskrit Puruṣapura, Old Persian Para-upari-sena, Bactrian Paropamisadae, Greek Caspatyrus) is the ancient term for the city, and old kingdom of Peshawar, which encompassed the Swat valley, and the Potohar Plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of modern-day Afghanistan.
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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing and thereby expressing thoughts, ideas and concepts.
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In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
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In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Formally, given a partially ordered set (P, ≤), an element g of a subset S of P is the greatest element of S if Hence, the greatest element of S is an upper bound of S that is contained within this subset.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.
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Gwalior is a historic and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh (MP).
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.
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The Hindu numeral system or Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 is a positional decimal numeral system, nowadays the most common symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
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The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
In mathematics, holomorphic functions are the central objects of study in complex analysis.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
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The IBM 3270 is a class of block oriented computer terminal (sometimes called display devices) introduced by IBM in 1971 normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes.
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In mathematics, an identity element (or neutral element) is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
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In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, limits involving an algebraic combination of functions in an independent variable may often be evaluated by replacing these functions by their limits; if the expression obtained after this substitution does not give enough information to determine the original limit, it is said to take on an indeterminate form.
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Infinity (symbol) is an abstract concept describing something without any limit and is relevant in a number of fields, predominantly mathematics and physics.
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In category theory, an abstract branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category C is an object I in C such that for every object X in C, there exists precisely one morphism I → X. The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): T is terminal if for every object X in C there exists a single morphism X → T. Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first, literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
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Isaac Asimov (born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov; circa January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language.
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Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
JDBC is a Java database connectivity technology (Java Standard Edition platform) from Oracle Corporation.
Johannes de Sacrobosco, also written Ioannis de Sacro Bosco (1195 – 1256) was a scholar, monk, and astronomer who was a teacher at the University of Paris.
John David Barrow FRS (born 29 November 1952) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language.
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Kim Leslie Plofker (born November 25, 1964) is an American historian of mathematics, specializing in Indian mathematics.
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Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiŝki; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient city of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, some 12 km east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
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In mathematics, and more specifically in calculus, L'Hôpital's rule uses derivatives to help evaluate limits involving indeterminate forms.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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In mathematics, a lattice is a partially ordered set in which every two elements have a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet).
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A leading zero is any 0 digit that comes before the first nonzero digit in a number string in positional notation.
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In mathematics, a "helping theorem" or lemma (plural lemmata or lemmas) from the Ancient Greek λῆμμα (lemma, "anything which is received, such as a gift, profit, or a bribe”) is a proven proposition which is used as a stepping stone to a larger result rather than as a statement of interest by itself.
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Although the function (sin x)/x is not defined at zero, as x becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin x)/x becomes arbitrarily close to 1.
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Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation.
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.
Not to be confused with 'country calling codes'. An international call prefix or dial out code is a trunk prefix used to select an international telephone circuit for placing an international call.
The Lokavibhaga is a Jain cosmological text originally composed in Prakrit by a Digambara monk, Sarvanandi, surviving in a Sanskrit version compiled by one Simhasuri.
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The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.
The Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections is a mathematical text written by Chinese Southern Song dynasty mathematician Qin Jiushao in the year 1247.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array—of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns—that is interpreted and manipulated in certain prescribed ways.
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Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
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The Maya numeral system is a vigesimal (base-twenty) positional numeral system used by the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization.
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The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
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The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is a non-repeating, vigesimal (base-20) and base-18 calendar used by several pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya.
The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
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There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is or.
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf al-Kātib al-Khwārizmī, also referred to as al-Balkhī, was a 10th-century Persian encyclopedist and the author of the early encyclopedia Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm (“Key to the Sciences”) in the Arabic language.
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.
A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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There are many names for the number 0 in English and related concepts, and there are concomitant names for the decades whose tens column contains the number 0.
In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.
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In mathematics, the natural numbers (sometimes called the whole numbers): "whole number An integer, though sometimes it is taken to mean only non-negative integers, or just the positive integers." give definitions of "whole number" under several headwords: INTEGER … Syn. whole number.
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In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.
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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium) is a proposed name for a substance composed purely of neutrons.
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Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym under which a group of (mainly French) 20th-century mathematicians, with the aim of reformulating mathematics on an extremely abstract and formal but self-contained basis, wrote a series of books beginning in 1935.
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Nigel Ernest James Mansell, (born 8 August 1953) is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship (1992) and the CART Indy Car World Series (1993).
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Null is a special marker used in Structured Query Language (SQL) to indicate that a data value does not exist in the database.
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In computing, a null pointer has a value reserved for indicating that the pointer does not refer to a valid object.
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A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label.
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In basic mathematics, a number line is a picture of a straight line on which every point is assumed to correspond to a real number and every real number to a point.
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Number theory (or arithmeticEspecially in older sources; see two following notes.) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
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A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
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A digit is a numeric symbol (such as "2" or "5") used in combinations (such as "25") to represent numbers (such as the number 25) in positional numeral systems.
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O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the second-to-last vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Old World consists of Africa, Europe, and Asia, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to Europeans before contact with the Americas.
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The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
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Omicron (uppercase Ο, lowercase ο, literally "small o": Όμικρον, o mikron, micron meaning 'small' in contrast to omega) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet.
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An operator-assisted call is one in which the calling party places a telephone call which requires an operator to provide some form of assistance in completing the call.
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In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is the order type of a well-ordered set.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Parity is a mathematical term that describes the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.
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Zero is an even number.
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In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are a set of axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano.
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The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
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The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.
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The phon is a unit of loudness level for pure tones.
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In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) is the traditional name of the author of the (also), the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
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Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (c. 946 – 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
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Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.
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A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.
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Propositional calculus (also called propositional logic, sentential calculus, or sentential logic) is the branch of mathematical logic concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true or false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of logical connectives, and how their value depends on the truth value of their components.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Qin Jiushao (ca. 1202–1261), courtesy name Daogu (道古), was a Chinese mathematician.
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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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In art, architecture, and traditional Christian symbolism, the quatrefoil is a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially overlapping circles of the same diameter.
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Quipus, sometimes known as khipus or talking knots, were recording devices historically used in the region of Andean South America.
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In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, p and q, with the denominator q not equal to zero.
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In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.
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Roman numerals, the numeric system used in ancient Rome, employs combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet to signify values.
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Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel.
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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
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Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.
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In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number to be positive or negative.
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In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems.
Signed zero is zero with an associated sign.
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The slashed zero is a representation of the number '0' (zero), with a slash through it.
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In quantum mechanics, a stationary state is an eigenvector of the Hamiltonian, implying the probability density associated with the wavefunction is independent of time.
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A sutra (Sanskrit sūtra Pali: sutta, Ardha Magadhi: sūya) is an aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a text in Hinduism or Buddhism.
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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A tetraneutron is a hypothesised stable cluster of four neutrons.
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Thai numerals (เลขไทย, IPA) constitute a numeral system of Thai number names for the Khmer numerals traditionally used in Thailand, also used for the more common Arabic numerals, and which follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system.
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The Huffington Post (sometimes abbreviated Huff Post or HuffPo) is a liberal-oriented American online news aggregator and blog, that has both localised and international editions founded by Arianna Huffington, Kenneth Lerer, Andrew Breitbart, and Jonah Peretti, featuring columnists.
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The Mathematical Classic of Sunzi (孙子算经, Sunzi Suanjing) was a mathematical treatise written during the 5th century and was listed as one of The Ten Computational Canons during the Tang dynasty.
The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th–2nd century BCE, its latest stage being from the 2nd century CE.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
In logic, a three-valued logic (also trinary logic, trivalent, ternary, or trilean, sometimes abbreviated 3VL) is any of several many-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true, false and some indeterminate third value.
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Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae, of land-dwelling vertebrates in the order Testudines.
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A trunk prefix is a digit sequence to be dialed before a domestic telephone number to initiate a telephone call for the purpose of selecting an appropriate longer distant telecommunications circuit by which the call is to be routed.
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In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
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In computer science and mathematical logic the Turing degree (named after Alan Turing) or degree of unsolvability of a set of natural numbers measures the level of algorithmic unsolvability of the set.
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The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.
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Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, as well as a binary signed number representation based on this operation.
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A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer ink or carbon impressions onto paper.
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Vacuum is space void of matter.
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German vehicle registration plates (Kraftfahrzeug-Kennzeichen or, more colloquially, Nummernschilder) indicate the place where the vehicle bearing them was once registered.
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten).
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The von Neumann cardinal assignment is a cardinal assignment which uses ordinal numbers.
Walter Eugene Clark (8 September 1881 – 30 September 1960), was an American philologist.
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In mathematics, an expression is called well-defined or unambiguous if its definition assigns it a unique interpretation or value.
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In mathematics, a well-order relation (or well-ordering) on a set S is a total order on S with the property that every non-empty subset of S has a least element in this ordering.
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Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
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Zeno's paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (ca. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides's doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one's senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion.
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In complex analysis, a zero (sometimes called a root) of a holomorphic function f is a complex number a such that f(a).
In mathematics, a zero element is one of several generalizations of the number zero to other algebraic structures.
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In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a zero morphism is a special kind of morphism exhibiting properties like the morphisms to and from a zero object.
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In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation In other words, a "zero" of a function is an input value that produces an output of zero (0).
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Zero-based numbering or index origin.
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Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.
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Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea is the debut non-fiction book by American author and journalist Charles Seife.
0 (zero; BrE: or AmE) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
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Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (or Common Era) system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar.
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0th or zeroth is an ordinal for the number zero sometimes used under zero-based numbering, and can refer to.
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1 (one; or, also called "unit", "unity", and "(multiplicative) identity", is a number, a numeral, and the name of the glyph representing that number. It represents a single entity, the unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of "unit length" is a line segment of length 1.
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2 (Two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
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