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13th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. [1]

314 relations: Aceh, Acre, Israel, Afonso III of Portugal, Al Mansur Qalawun, Al-Andalus, Al-Ashraf Khalil, Albertus Magnus, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander of Hales, Alexios III Angelos, Algarve, Andrea da Grosseto, Andrew II of Hungary, Anthony of Padua, Antioch, Arabs, Aragon, Ariq Böke, Ars antiqua, Art Institute of Chicago, Ayyubid dynasty, Baghdad, Baibars, Baldwin I, Latin Emperor, Banu Hilal, Battle of Adrianople (1205), Battle of Bouvines, Battle of La Forbie, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, Battle of Legnica, Battle of Mohi, Battle of Muret, Battle of Samara Bend, Battle of the Kalka River, Battle of Yamen, Battle on the Ice, Batu Khan, Béla IV of Hungary, Berbers, Birger Jarl, Bishop of Ely, Bonaventure, Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Caliphate, Canton of Uri, Century, Chaouia (Morocco), Charles I of Naples, ..., Chelif River, China, Christian, Christianity in the 13th century, Cimabue, Classical music, Common Era, Constantinople, County of Tripoli, Crusader states, Crusades, Damietta, Dante Alighieri, Doge, Dominican Order, Duke of Aquitaine, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Edward I of England, Egypt, Elizabeth of Hungary, England, Enrico Dandolo, Estonians, Fibonacci, Fifth Crusade, Fourth Crusade, France, Francis of Assisi, Franciscan, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Friar, Genghis Khan, George IV of Georgia, Georgia (country), Germany, Gertrude the Great, Giotto, Glasses, Golden Bull of 1222, Golden Horde, Great Council of Venice, Guan, Haakon IV of Norway, Hanbali, High Middle Ages, History of the firearm, Holy Roman Empire, House of Plantagenet, Hungary, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn Taymiyyah, Islam, Isyana dynasty, Italy, Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, James Joseph Walsh, Jayakatwang, Jerusalem, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Julian calendar, Kaloyan of Bulgaria, Kamakura period, Kansas City, Missouri, Kediri Kingdom, Ken Arok, Kertanegara of Singhasari, Khagan, Khwarezm, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Knight, Kublai Khan, Land mine, Latin Empire, Lembitu, Liber Abaci, List of Bohemian monarchs, List of English monarchs, Livonian Crusade, Lombard League, London, Louis IX of France, Madhvacharya, Magna Carta, Majapahit, Mali Empire, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Manuscript culture, Marco Polo, Marinid dynasty, Melayu Kingdom, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Middle Ages, Moinuddin Chishti, Mongol and Tatar states in Europe, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Java, Mongol siege of Kaifeng, Mongols, Motet, Movable type, Muhammad, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Muslim world, National Central Library (Florence), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Ninth Crusade, Nogai Khan, Normandy, Normans, Norway, Old Covenant (Iceland), Oriental (Morocco), Ottokar II of Bohemia, Pamalayu expedition, Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, Perlak, Aceh, Peterhouse, Cambridge, Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt, Philip II of France, Philip IV of France, Poland, Pope, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Gregory X, Pope Innocent III, Portugal, Raden Wijaya, Raigō, Rajasa dynasty, Ramon Llull, Real-time tactics, Reconquista, Republic of Venice, Robert Grosseteste, Rocket, Roger Bacon, Rumi, Runnymede, Russia, Russians, Rusudan of Georgia, Saadi Shirazi, Saint Dominic, Salafi movement, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Schwyz, Scottish people, Second Council of Lyon, Seventh Crusade, Sicilian Vespers, Sicily, Siege of Acre (1291), Signoria, Singhasari, Sixth Crusade, Snorri Sturluson, Song dynasty, Spain, Spread of Islam in Indonesia, Sri Indraditya, State church of the Roman Empire, Stockholm, Sukhothai Kingdom, Summa Theologica, Sundiata Keita, Switzerland, Tamar of Georgia, Ternate Sultanate, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, Thailand, Thomas Aquinas, Time, Toluid Civil War, Treaty of Paris (1259), Triptych, Turkish people, University of Paris, Unterwalden, Veliky Novgorod, Venice, Video game, Vladimir, Volga Bulgaria, Wang Zhen (official), William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, William Wallace, Windmill, Wuzhun Shifan, Xia Gui, Yuan dynasty, Yunus Emre, Zadar, Zenata, 1200s (decade), 1201, 1202, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1210s, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1217, 1220s, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1226, 1227, 1228, 1229, 1230, 1230s, 1232, 1233, 1237, 1238, 1239, 1240, 1240s, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244, 1248, 1249, 1250, 1250s, 1254, 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260, 1260s, 1261, 1262, 1265, 1268, 1270s, 1271, 1272, 1274, 1275, 1279, 1280s, 1282, 1284, 1285, 1289, 1290s, 1291, 1292, 1293, 1297, 1298, 1300, 1907. Expand index (264 more) »

Aceh

Aceh; (Jawi: اچيه); Atjeh (Dutch); or Acheh is a special region of Indonesia.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAkko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the northern coastal plain region of northern Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay.

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Afonso III of Portugal

Afonso III (rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês), King of Portugal (5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279) was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249.

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Al Mansur Qalawun

Saif ad-Dīn Qalawun aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (also Qalāʾūn or Kalavun) (قلاوون الصالحي) (epithet: al-Malik al-Manṣūr Saif ad-Dīn Qalāʾūn al-Alfi as-Ṣālihī an-Najmī al-ʿAlāʾī (Arabic: الملك المنصور سيف الدين قلاوون الألفى الصالحى النجمى العلاءى) (c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Mamluk sultan of Egypt. He was in the Baḥrī line and ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.

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Al-Andalus

al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Ashraf Khalil

Al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn (الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون.); (c.1262 – 14 December 1293) was the eighth Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293.

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Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, O.P. (before 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, is a Catholic saint.

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Alexander Nevsky

Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский;; Олександр Ярославович Не́вський); 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263) served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history.

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Alexander of Hales

Alexander of Hales, O.F.M., (c. 118521 August 1245) (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius) also called Doctor Irrefragibilis (by Pope Alexander IV in the Bull De Fontibus Paradisi) and Theologorum Monarcha was a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.

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Alexios III Angelos

Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (c. 1153–1211) was Byzantine Emperor from 1195 to 1203.

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Algarve

The Algarve (from الغرب, trans. Al-Gharb, meaning "The West") is the southernmost region of mainland Portugal.

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Andrea da Grosseto

Andrea da Grosseto was an Italian writer of the 13th century.

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Andrew II of Hungary

Andrew II (II András, Andrija II., Ondrej II., Андрій II; 117721 September 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235.

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Anthony of Padua

Saint Anthony of Padua, O.F.M. (born Fernando Martins de Bulhões; 1195 – 13 June 1231), also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order.

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Antioch

Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek - Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River.

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Arabs

Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.

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Aragon

Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.

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Ariq Böke

Ariq Böke (after 1219–1266), the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka (Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥), was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui (1192–1232), a son of Genghis Khan.

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Ars antiqua

Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the music of Europe of the late Middle Ages between approximately 1170 and 1310, covering the period of the Notre Dame school of polyphony, and the subsequent years which saw the early development of the motet.

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Art Institute of Chicago

The Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) is an encyclopedic art museum located in Chicago's Grant Park.

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Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; دووگەلی ئەییووبی; Eyyûbîler) was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.

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Baibars

Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari), nicknamed Abu l-Futuh (Literally "The father of conquest"; Arabic: أبو الفتوح) (1223 – 1 July 1277), was the fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.

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Baldwin I, Latin Emperor

Baldwin I (July 1172 –), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the catastrophic Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Constantinople and the conquest of large parts of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romània.

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Banu Hilal

The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال) are a confederation of Arab tribes, masters of vast plateaus of Najd in Arabian Peninsula, yet therein during Abbasid rule and migrated to North Africa in 11th century.

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Battle of Adrianople (1205)

The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14, 1205 between Bulgarians and Cumans under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, who only months before had been crowned Emperor of Constantinople.

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Battle of Bouvines

The Battle of Bouvines, which took place on 27 July 1214, was a medieval battle which ended the 1202–1214 Anglo-French War.

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Battle of La Forbie

The Battle of La Forbie, also known as the Battle of Harbiyah, was fought October 17, 1244 – October 18, 1244 between the allied armies (drawn from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the crusading orders, the breakaway Ayyubids of Damascus, Homs and Kerak) and the Egyptian army of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, reinforced with Khwarezmian mercenaries.

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Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa

The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab (معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.

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Battle of Legnica

The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.

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Battle of Mohi

The Battle of Mohi (today Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó River or Battle of the Tisza River (11 April 1241), was the main battle between the Mongol Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary during the Mongol invasion of Europe.

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Battle of Muret

At the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213 the Crusader army of Simon IV de Montfort defeated the Catharist, Aragonese and Catalan forces of Peter II of Aragon, at Muret near Toulouse.

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Battle of Samara Bend

The Battle of Samara Bend or the Battle of Kernek was the first battle between Volga Bulgaria and the Mongols, probably the first battle the Mongols lost.

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Battle of the Kalka River

The Battle of the Kalka River (Битва на реке Калке, Битва на річці Калка) was fought between the Mongol Empire—whose armies were led by Jebe and Subutai the Valiant—and a coalition of several Rus' principalities, including Kiev and Galich, and the Cumans.

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Battle of Yamen

The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan Dynasty.

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Battle on the Ice

The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye; Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee; битва на Чудском озере, bitva na Chudskom ozere) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus.

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Batu Khan

Batu Khan (Бат хаан, хан Баты́й, 拔都, Бату хан; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire.

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Béla IV of Hungary

Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258.

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Berbers

The Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen/imazighen/, singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ/Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.

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Birger Jarl

(c. 1200 – 21 October 1266), or Birger Magnusson, was a Swedish statesman, Jarl of Sweden and a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role in the consolidation of Sweden.

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Bishop of Ely

The Bishop of Ely is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury.

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Bonaventure

Saint Bonaventure, O.F.M. (San Bonaventura; 1221 – 15 July 1274), born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Byzantine Greeks

The Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines were the medieval Greek or Hellenised citizens of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), centered mainly in Constantinople, the southern Balkans, the Greek islands, Asia Minor (modern Turkey), Cyprus and the large urban centres of the Levant and northern Egypt.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (خَليفة)—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community.

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Canton of Uri

The Canton of Uri (German: Kanton) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation.

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Century

A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is 100 years.

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Chaouia (Morocco)

The Chaouia (الشاوية.) is a historical and ethno-geographical region of Morocco, located between the river Oum Rabia to its southwest, the river Charrate to its northeast, the plain of Tadla to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest.

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Charles I of Naples

Charles I (21 March 12277 January 1285), known also as Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262 and was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.

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Chelif River

Chelif River (Wadi ash-Shalif) (also spelled Chéliff, or Sheliff) is a long river in Algeria and also the longest one in the country.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Christianity in the 13th century

Bibliothèque Nationale de France --> The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority.

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Cimabue

Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Common Era

Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.

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County of Tripoli

The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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Crusades

The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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Damietta

Damietta (دمياط), also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.

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Doge

A doge (plural dogi or doges) was an elected, chief-of-state lordship, the ruler of the republic in many of the Italian city-states during the medieval and renaissance periods, in the Italian "crowned republics".

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, hence the abbreviation OP used by members), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216.

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Duke of Aquitaine

The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Edward I of England

Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elizabeth of Hungary

Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F., (Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet, 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231) was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo (1107? – May 1205) — anglicised as Henry Dandolo and Latinized as Henricus Dandulus — was the 42nd Doge of Venice from 1192 until his death.

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Estonians

Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic people related to the Finns that mainly inhabit the country Estonia south of Finland and the Finnish Gulf.

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Fibonacci

Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

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Fifth Crusade

The Fifth Crusade (1213–1221) was an attempt by Catholic Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European armed expedition originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi); born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, but nicknamed Francesco; 1181/1182 October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Francis' father was Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant. Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon gathered followers. His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (commonly called the Third Order). In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas nativity scene. In 1224, he received the stigmata, making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died during the evening hours of October 3, 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142 (141). On July 16, 1228, he was proclaimed a saint by Pope Gregory IX. He is known as the patron saint of animals and the environment, and is one of the two patron saints of Italy (with Catherine of Siena). It is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of October 4. He is also known for his love of the Eucharist, his sorrow during the Stations of the Cross, and for the creation of the Christmas crèche or Nativity Scene.

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Franciscan

Franciscans are people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St Francis of Assisi and of his main associates and followers, such as St Clare of Assisi, St Anthony of Padua, and St Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen.

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Friar

A friar, or occasionally fray, is a man who is a member of a mendicant Christian religious order.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan (often pronounced;; c. 1162 18 August 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise.

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George IV of Georgia

George IV Lasha (ლაშა გიორგი; Lasha Giorgi) (1191–1223) of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1213 to 1223.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gertrude the Great

Gertrude the Great (or Saint Gertrude of Helfta) (Santa Gertrude) (January 6, 1256 – ca. 1302) was a German Benedictine, mystic, and theologian.

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Giotto

Giotto di Bondone (1266/7 – January 8, 1337), known as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages.

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Glasses

Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes used for vision correction.

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Golden Bull of 1222

The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ordu, Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; r; Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Great Council of Venice

The Great Council of Venice or Major Council (Maggior Consiglio), originally the Consilium Sapientis (Latin for "Council of Wise Men") was a political organ of the Republic of Venice between 1172 and 1797 and met in a special large hall of the Palazzo Ducale.

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Guan

Guan may refer to any of at least four Chinese family names (all rendered in Cantonese as Kwan, or also in English as Kuan).

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Haakon IV of Norway

Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.

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Hanbali

The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four orthodox Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300).

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History of the firearm

The firearm was originally invented in China during the 13th century AD, after the Chinese invented gunpowder during the 9th century AD.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House of Plantagenet

The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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Ibn Taymiyyah

Tāqī ad-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية) known as Ibn Taymiyyah (22 January 1263 - 26 September 1328) was a Islamic scholar (alim), theologian and logician.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Isyana dynasty

The Isyana Dynasty, rulers of the Kingdom of Medang, was a dynasty of the Hindu Medang Kingdom on the island of Java.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

Ivan Asen II (Иван Асен II, pronounced; also Йоан Асен II, Yoan Asen II) in English sometimes known as John Asen II, ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241, during the Second Bulgarian Empire.

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James Joseph Walsh

James Joseph Walsh, M.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Sc.D. (1865–1942) was an American physician and author.

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Jayakatwang

Jayakatwang (died 1293) was the king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty (Jurchen: Anchun Gurun); Manchu: Aisin Gurun; Khitan language: Nik, Niku; Altan Ulus; 1115–1234), officially the Great Jin, also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchen people, the ancestors of the Manchu people who established the Qing dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Kin to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identically spelled using the Latin alphabet. The Jurchen tribes were united by the chieftain and later first Jin emperor, Wanyan Aguda, who overthrew the Khitan Liao dynasty. During the reign of Aguda's successor, the Jin declared war against the Song dynasty and conquered much of northern China. The Song were forced to flee south of Yangtze River. The Jin dynasty fell after their defeat against the rising Mongol Empire, a steppe confederation that had formerly been a Jurchen vassal.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kaloyan of Bulgaria

Ivan II (Иван II, also Йоан II, Ioan II, John II), known as Kaloyan the Greek-slayer or alternatively as the Roman-slayer (Калоян Гръкоубиец, Калоян Ромеоубиец), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria between 1197 and 1207.

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Kamakura period

The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shogun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.

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Kansas City, Missouri

Kansas City, or K.C., is the largest city in the state of Missouri.

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Kediri Kingdom

Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

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Ken Arok

Ken Arok (or Ken Angrok), Rajasa, (died c. 1227) was the founder and first ruler of the Singhasari (also Singasari) Kingdom, an ancient Hindu–Buddhist kingdom in the East Java area of Indonesia.

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Kertanegara of Singhasari

Kertanegara of Singasari (full name Sri Maharajadiraja Sri Kertanegara Wikrama Dharmatunggadewa), Kritanagara, or Sivabuddha, (died 1292), was the last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292.

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Khagan

Kha Khan or Khagan or Qagan (хаан, Khaan) is a title in the Mongolian language equal to the status of emperor and used to refer to someone who rules a khaganate or empire.

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Khwarezm

Khwarezm or Chorasmia (خوارزم) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.

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Kingdom of Aragon

The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920).

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Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade.

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Knight

A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the Monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan (Хубилай хаан, Xubilaĭ xaan; Qubilai Qaγan, "King Qubilai"; September 23, 1215 – February 18, 1294), born Kublai (Хубилай, Xubilaĭ; Qubilai;, Kubilay Han; also spelled Khubilai) and also known by the temple name Shizu (Emperor Shizu of Yuan), was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire (Λατινική Αυτοκρατορία) or Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire.

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Lembitu

Lembitu (Estonian also: Lembit, died September 21, 1217) was an ancient Estonian elder of Sakala County and military leader in the struggle against conquest of the Estonian lands by the German Livonian Brothers of the Sword at the beginning of the 13th century.

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Liber Abaci

Liber Abaci (1202, also spelled as Liber Abbaci) is a historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci.

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List of Bohemian monarchs

This is a list of Bohemian monarchs or a list of Czech monarchs who ruled the Czech lands (known in English as Bohemia prior to early 20th century) from the establishment of the Duchy of Bohemia in 870 (from 1004 to 1806 a part of Holy Roman Empire), as Kingdom of Bohemia from 1212, and in 1620-1918 as a part of Austria-Hungary.

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List of English monarchs

The monarchy of the Kingdom of England began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the German and Danish conquest of medieval Livonia, the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia, during the Northern Crusades.

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Lombard League

The Lombard League (Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167 to counter the attempts by the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Hohenstaufen to assert Imperial influence over Italy.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis IX of France

Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1226 until his death.

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Madhvacharya

Madhva Acharya (born Vasudeva 1238–1317 CE), also known as Purna Prajña and Ananda Tīrtha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita school of Vedanta.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta (Latin for "the Great Charter"), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Majapahit

The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: Karaton Mojopahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a vast archipelagic empire based on the island of Java (modern-day Indonesia) from 1293 to around 1500.

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Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni; Niani), also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was a Mandinka/Bambara empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to c. 1600.

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Mamluk

Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king, also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (Memlük Sultanlığı, سلطنة المماليك Sulṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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Manuscript culture

Manuscript culture uses manuscripts to store and disseminate information; in the West, it generally preceded the age of printing.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (September 15, 1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.

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Marinid dynasty

The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, Arabic: Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.

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Melayu Kingdom

The Melayu Kingdom (also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi Kingdom;, reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation mat-la-yu kwok)Muljana, Slamet, (2006), Sriwijaya, Yogyakarta: LKIS, ISBN 979-8451-62-7.

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Michael VIII Palaiologos

Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Moinuddin Chishti

Moinuddin Chishti (1141 - 1236) also known as Gharīb Nawāz (Benefactor of the Poor), was an Imam, Islamic scholar and philosopher from South Asia.

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Mongol and Tatar states in Europe

The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasion of Java

The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty (one of the fragments of the Mongol Empire), to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia.

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Mongol siege of Kaifeng

In the Mongol siege of Kaifeng from 1232 to 1233, the Mongol Empire captured Kaifeng, the capital of the Jurchen Jin dynasty.

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Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Motet

In classical music, a motet is a highly varied choral musical composition.

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Movable type

Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).

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Muhammad

Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.

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Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Museum of Fine Arts (or MFA) in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the largest museums in the United States.

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Muslim world

The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.

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National Central Library (Florence)

The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze is a public national library in Florence, the largest in Italy and one of most important in Europe, one of the two central libraries of Italy, along with the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Rome.

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Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art is an art museum in Kansas City, Missouri, known for its neoclassical architecture and extensive collection of Asian art.

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Ninth Crusade

The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.

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Nogai Khan

Nokhai (died 1299), also called Nohai, Kara Nokhai, Isa Nogai, was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan.

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Normandy

Normandy (Normandie, pronounced, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical region of France corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy.

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Normans

The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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Old Covenant (Iceland)

The Old Covenant (Gamli sáttmáli) was the name of the agreement which effected the union of Iceland and Norway.

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Oriental (Morocco)

Oriental (Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏⵜ, Tagmuḍant; Arabic: الجهة الشرقية; French: Oriental) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco, located in the northeastern part of the country.

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Ottokar II of Bohemia

Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.

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Pamalayu expedition

The Pamalayu expedition was a military expeditionary force sent by Javanese King Kertanegara of Singhasari to conquer the Sumatran Melayu Kingdom.

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Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art

The Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art is a collection of Chinese ceramics and related items in London.

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Perlak, Aceh

Perlak is a town in Aceh, Indonesia.

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Peterhouse, Cambridge

Peterhouse is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England.

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Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt

Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt (Latin), Pierre Pelerin de Maricourt (French), or Peter Peregrinus of Maricourt (fl. 1269), was a 13th-century French scholar who conducted experiments on magnetism and wrote the first extant treatise describing the properties of magnets.

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Philip II of France

Philip II, called Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was a King of France from the House of Capet who reigned from 1180 to 1223.

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Philip IV of France

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Pope

The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Gregory IX

Pope Gregory IX (Gregorius IX; 1145 – 22 August 1241), born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.

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Pope Gregory X

Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.

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Pope Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Raden Wijaya

Raden Wijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana), Raden Vijaya, (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire.

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Raigō

A is an appearance of Amida Buddha on a purple cloud at the time of one's death.

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Rajasa dynasty

Rajasa was the ruling dynasty of Singhasari kingdom and later Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th century eastern Java.

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Ramon Llull

Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary.

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Real-time tactics

Real-time tactics or RTT(Article at IGN discussing their perception of RTS and related genres as of 2006. RTT is discussed as a new and not yet established genre from the publisher's perspective, so currently all RTT possible titles are still considered RTS.) is a subgenre of tactical wargames played in real-time simulating the considerations and circumstances of operational warfare and military tactics.

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Reconquista

The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a historical period of approximately 770 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning after the Islamic conquest 711-718, to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.

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Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste or Grossetete (c. 1175 – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.

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Rocket

A rocket (Italian rocchetta‚ "little fuse") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon, OFM (c. 1214 – June 1292?; scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, meaning "wonderful teacher"), was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empirical methods.

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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mawlānā/Mevlânâ (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Runnymede

Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over west of central London.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.

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Rusudan of Georgia

Queen Rusudan (რუსუდანი) (c. 1194–1245), from the Bagrationi dynasty, ruled Georgia in 1223–1245.

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Saadi Shirazi

Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (ابومحمد مصلح الدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saʿdī (سعدی) or simply Saadi, was one of the major Persian poets and literary men of the medieval period.

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Saint Dominic

Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (1170 – August 6, 1221), was a Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican Order.

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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement is an ultra-conservative orthodoxical movement within Sunni Islam that references the doctrine known as Salafism.

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Samudera Pasai Sultanate

Samudera Pasai, also known as Samudera and Pasai sometimes called Samudera Darussalam was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 15th centuries CE.

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Schwyz

The town of Schwyz (Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.

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Scottish people

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Second Council of Lyon

The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1272–1274.

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Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.

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Sicilian Vespers

The Sicilian Vespers (Italian: Vespri siciliani; Sicilian: Vespiri siciliani) is the name given to the successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out on the Easter of 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I, who had ruled the Kingdom of Sicily since 1266.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.

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Siege of Acre (1291)

The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Muslims.

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Signoria

A Signoria (from Signore, or Lord) was an abstract noun meaning (roughly) 'government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship' in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.

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Singhasari

Singhasari was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292 (today Indonesia).

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Sixth Crusade

The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.

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Snorri Sturluson

Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Spread of Islam in Indonesia

Islam was brought into Indonesia by traders from Gujarat, India during the 13th century.

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Sri Indraditya

King Sri Indraditya (พ่อขุนศรีอินทราทิตย์;; ? – 1270) ruled the Sukhothai Kingdom from the year 1238 to circa 1270.

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State church of the Roman Empire

Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 CE, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.

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Stockholm

Stockholm () is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic region, with 914,909 people living in the municipality, approximately 1.4 million in the urban area, and 2.2 million in the metropolitan area.

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Sukhothai Kingdom

The Kingdom of Sukhothai (สุโขทัย) was an early kingdom in the area around the city Sukhothai, in north central Thailand.

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Summa Theologica

The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).

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Sundiata Keita

Sundiata Keita (IPA (Mandinka, Malinke, Bambara)) (c. 1217 – c. 1255) was a puissant prince and founder of the Mali Empire, the renowned hero celebrated by the Mandinka people in the semi-historical Epic of Sundiata, which is primarily known through oral tradition, transmitted by generations of Mandinka griots (djeli or jeliw).

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Switzerland

Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Tamar of Georgia

Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as Queen regnant of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.

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Ternate Sultanate

The Sultanate of Ternate is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia, established by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257.

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Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Land of Mary) was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (today: German Order, also Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), was a German medieval military order, and became in modern times a purely religious Catholic order.

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Thailand

Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.

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Thomas Aquinas

Tommaso d'Aquino, OP (1225 – 7 March 1274), also known as Thomas Aquinas, was an Italian Dominican friar and Catholic priest who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis".

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Time

Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.

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Toluid Civil War

The Toluid Civil War was fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264.

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Treaty of Paris (1259)

The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.

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Triptych

A triptych (from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open.

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Turkish people

Turkish people (Türk milleti), or Turks (Türkler), are a Turkic ethnic group.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (L'Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a French university, founded circa 1150 in Paris, France, recognised 1200 by King Philip II and 1215 by Pope Innocent III, as one of the first universities.

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Unterwalden

Unterwalden (Latinized as Sylvania, later also Subsylvania as opposed to Supersylvania) is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne, consisting of two valleys or Talschaften, now organized as two half-cantons, an upper part, Obwalden, and a lower part, Nidwalden.

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia; alternative obsolete form: Vinegia; Venetian: Venèxia; Venetiae; Benetke) is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Vladimir

Vladimir (a) is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow.

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Volga Bulgaria

Volga Bulgaria, or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the seventh and thirteenth centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.

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Wang Zhen (official)

Wang Zhen (fl. 1290 – 1333) was an official of the Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368 AD) of China.

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William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke

William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame le Mareschal; Anglo-Norman: Guillaume le Marechal), was an English (or Anglo-Norman) soldier and statesman.

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William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

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Windmill

A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.

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Wuzhun Shifan

Wuzhun Shifan (Wade-Giles: Wu Chun Shih Fan; 1178–1249 AD) was a Chinese painter, calligrapher, and prominent Zen Buddhist monk who lived during the late Song Dynasty (960-1279).

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Xia Gui

Xia Gui (fl. 1195–1224), courtesy name Yuyu (禹玉), was a Chinese landscape painter of the Song dynasty.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Mongolian:, Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yunus Emre

Yunus Emre (1240?–1320?) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic.

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Zadar

Zadar (see other names) is the 5th largest city in Croatia situated on the Adriatic Sea.

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Zenata

Zenata (Berber: Iznaten or Izennaten or Ijenaden) are a major old Berber ethnic group of North Africa.

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1200s (decade)

No description.

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1201

Year 1201 (MCCI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1202

Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1204

Year 1204 (MCCIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1205

Year 1205 (MCCV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1206

Year 1206 (MCCVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1210s

No description.

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1212

Year 1212 (MCCXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1213

Year 1213 (MCCXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1214

Year 1214 (MCCXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1215

Year 1215 (MCCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1217

Year 1217 (MCCXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1220s

No description.

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1221

Year 1221 (MCCXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1222

Year 1222 (MCCXXII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1223

Year 1223 (MCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1226

Year 1226 (MCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1227

Year 1227 (MCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1228

Year 1228 (MCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1229

Year 1229 (MCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1230

Year 1230 (MCCXXX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1230s

No description.

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1232

Year 1232 (MCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1233

Year 1233 (MCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1237

Year 1237 (MCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1238

Year 1238 (MCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1239

Year 1239 (MCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1240

Year 1240 (MCCXL) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1240s

No description.

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1241

Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1242

Year 1242 (MCCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1243

Year 1243 (MCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1244

Year 1244 (MCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1248

Year 1248 (MCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1249

Year 1249 (MCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1250

Year 1250 (MCCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1250s

The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.

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1254

Year 1254 (MCCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1257

Year 1257 (MCCLVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1258

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1259

Year 1259 (MCCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1260

Year 1260 (MCCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1260s

The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269.

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1261

Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1262

Year 1262 (MCCLXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1265

Year 1265 (MCCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1268

Year 1268 (MCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1270s

The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.

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1271

Year 1271 (MCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1272

Year 1272 (MCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1274

Year 1274 (MCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1275

Year 1275 (MCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1279

Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1280s

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.

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1282

Year 1282 (MCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1284

Year 1284 (MCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1285

Year 1285 (MCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1289

Year 1289 (MCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1290s

No description.

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1291

Year 1291 (MCCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1292

Year 1292 (MCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1293

Year 1293 (MCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1297

Year 1297 (MCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1298

Year 1298 (MCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1300

Year 1300 (MCCC) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1907

No description.

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Redirects here:

13 Century, 13th Century, 13th centuries, 13th century AD, 13th-century, Thirteenth Century, Thirteenth century, Thirteenth-century, XIII Century, XIII century, Year in Review 13th Century.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/13th_century

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