314 relations: Afghanistan, Agrippina the Elder, Agrippina the Younger, Akiva ben Joseph, Ambassador, Anatolia, Angkor, Anno Domini, Antonia Minor, Apollonius of Tyana, Apostle (Christian), Arena, Arminius, Asconius Pedianus, Augustus, Augustus of Prima Porta, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Baekje, Balts, Ban Chao, Bantu peoples, Bellows, Blasphemy, Blast furnace, Blemmyes, Bookbinding, Boscoreale, Boudica, Brahmin, Britannia, Buddhism, Bunlap, Caligula, Camulodunum, Caribbean, Cartimandua, Cast iron, Catuvellauni, Celts, Census of Quirinius, Central Africa, Central America, Central Asia, Central Europe, Century, Chain pump, Chang'an, Chiefdom, China, Christian, ..., Christianity, City-state, Civilization, Classical antiquity, Claudia Octavia, Claudius, Codex, Colchester, Columella, Common Era, Constantine the Great, Conversion of Paul the Apostle, Council of Jamnia, Council of Jerusalem, Crucifixion of Jesus, Cunobeline, Dacia, Dacians, Dahae, Decebalus, Domitian, Du Shi, East Africa, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Emperor Guangwu of Han, Emperor Ming of Han, England, Extinction, Finns, First Jewish–Roman War, Fitzwilliam Museum, Flavian dynasty, Gaetuli, Galba, Galilee, Gan Ying, Garamantes, Gautama Buddha, Gemma Augustea, Germanic peoples, Germanicus, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Goguryeo, Gothiscandza, Goths, Government Museum, Mathura, Great Commission, Great Fire of Rome, Gur languages, Han dynasty, Hebrew Bible, Herculaneum, Hero of Alexandria, Herod Agrippa, Hillel the Elder, History by period, History of Cambodia, History of the Han dynasty, House of the Silver Wedding, Hydraulics, Ignatius of Antioch, India, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Iranian peoples, Ise, Mie, Italy, James (brother of Jesus), Jerusalem, Jerusalem in Christianity, Jesus, Jews, Johanan ben Zakai, John the Baptist, John the Evangelist, Josephus, Julian (emperor), Julian calendar, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Kalinga (India), Kansas City, Missouri, Kaundinya, Khoisan, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Funan, Kingdom of Kush, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Kushan Empire, Lion, Liu Xin, Livia, Livilla, Livy, Luoyang, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Madhya Pradesh, Mandala (Southeast Asian political model), Mandé peoples, Margherita of Savoy, Martial, Martyr, Masoretes, Mathura, Mauri people, Maya civilization, Messalina, Meteorology, Metropolis of Smyrna, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mie Prefecture, Ministry of Jesus, Missouri, Moche culture, Mount Vesuvius, Nanyang, Henan, Naples, Naples National Archaeological Museum, Nazareth, Nazca culture, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Nero, Nero Claudius Drusus, Nerva, New Testament, New York, Nok culture, North Africa, North America, North India, Northern Europe, Otho, Ovid, Pakistan, Pali, Parthian Empire, Paul the Apostle, Pentecost Island, Persecution of Christians, Petronius, Phaedrus (fabulist), Philo, Philo of Byzantium, Philoxenus of Eretria, Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, Plutarch, Poland, Polycarp, Pompeii, Pontius Pilate, Pope Clement I, Publius Quinctilius Varus, Pula Arena, Punics, Quintilian, Quintus Curtius Rufus, Rainer Riesner, Resurrection of Jesus, Roman Empire, Rome, Sabaeans, Saint Peter, Sami people, Sarmatians, Satavahana dynasty, Scroll, Second Temple, Sejanus, Seneca the Younger, Silius Italicus, Silla, Solar eclipse, Son of God, Soninke people, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Southern Europe, Sri Lanka, State religion, Statius, Steam turbine, Strabo, Swedes, Swedes (Germanic tribe), Tacitus, Tairona, Tamilakam, Tanakh, Tannaim, Teotihuacan, Teutoburg Forest, Theodosius I, Thomas the Apostle, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Tiberius, Titus, Trajan, Tribe, Trinovantes, University of Cambridge, Valerius Maximus, Vatican Museums, Vespasian, Via Labicana, Vienna, Villa Farnesina, Vitellia (gens), Volta–Niger languages, Wang Chong, Wang Mang, Water cycle, Water organ, Water wheel, West Africa, West Slavs, Western Asia, Western Europe, Western Satraps, Wielbark culture, Xianbei, Xin dynasty, Xiongnu, Yamatai, Yayoi period, Year of the Four Emperors, Zapotec civilization, Zhang Heng, Zhangzhung, 1, 100, 14, 1893, 1st century BC, 20 BC, 23, 28, 29, 31, 310 BC, 33, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 52, 54, 6, 60, 66, 68, 69, 7, 70, 73, 75, 78, 79, 8, 9. Expand index (264 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Vipsania Agrippina, most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder (Major Latin for the elder, Classical Latin: AGRIPPINA•GERMANICI, 14 BCE – 17 October 33), was a distinguished and prominent Roman woman of the first century CE.
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Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after AD 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (Minor; Latin for the "younger"; 7 November 15 (or possibly 7 November AD 14 or 6 November 16) – 19/23 March 59), was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Akiva ben Joseph (עקיבא בן יוסף; c. 40 – c. 137 CE), widely known as Rabbi Akiva (רבי עקיבא), was a tanna of the latter part of the 1st century and the beginning of the 2nd century (3rd tannaitic generation).
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An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a highest ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state, or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Angkor (អង្គរ or នគរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
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The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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Antonia Minor (PIR2 A 885), also known as Julia Antonia Minor, Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BC - September/October AD 37) was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor.
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Apollonius of Tyana (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD), sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor.
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According to the Bible's New Testament, the Apostles were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
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An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.
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Arminius (18/17 BC – AD 21) was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.
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Quintus Asconius Pedianus (c. 9 BC – c. AD 76) was a Roman historian.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Augustus of Prima Porta (Augusto di Prima Porta) is a 2.03mHonour, H. and J. Fleming, (2009) A World History of Art.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Baekje or Paekche (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
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The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
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Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
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Bantu peoples is used as a general label for the 300–600 ethnic groups in Africa who speak Bantu languages.
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A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.
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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for God, to religious or holy persons or things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
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A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
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The Blemmyes (Latin Blemmyae) were a nomadic Nubian tribal kingdom that existed from at least 600 BC to the 8th century AD.
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Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets.
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Boscoreale is an Italian comune and town in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania, with a population of 27,457 in 2011.
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Boudica (alternative spelling: Boudicca, also known as Boadicea and in Welsh as Buddug) (d. AD 60 or 61) was a queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
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Brahmin is a varna in Vedic Hinduism and also a caste of people who are members of it.
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Britannia was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region of Great Britain which was inhabited by the Britons and is the name given to the female personification of the island.
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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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Bunlap is a village in the south-east of Pentecost Island in the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu.
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Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37–41).
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Camulodunum (or; camvlodvnvm), the Ancient Roman name for what is now Colchester in Essex, was an important town in Roman Britain, and the first capital of the province.
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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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Cartimandua or Cartismandua (reigned) was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England.
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Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
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The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of south-eastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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The Census of Quirinius was a census of the Roman provinces of Syria and Judaea taken by Publius Sulpicius Quirinius after the imposition of direct Roman rule.
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Central Africa is a core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
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Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.
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A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is 100 years.
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Caution, the definition does not correspond to the given examples; either the definition, or the examples are inaccurate.
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Chang'an is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
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A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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A city-state is a sovereign state consisting of a city and its dependent territories.
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A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
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Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
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Claudia Octavia (Classical Latin: CLAVDIA•OCTAVIA) (late AD 39 or early AD 40 – 8 June AD 62) was an Empress of Rome.
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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
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A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book; plural codices) is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials, with hand-written content.
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Colchester is an historic town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in Essex, England.
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Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) is the most important writer on agriculture of the Roman empire.
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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
The Conversion of Paul the Apostle, was, according to the New Testament, an event in the life of Paul the Apostle that led him to cease persecuting early Christians and to become a follower of Jesus.
The Council of Jamnia, presumably held in Yavneh, was a hypothetical late 1st-century council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible was alleged to have been finalized.
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Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied by historians and theologians to a Christian Apostolic Age council that was held in Jerusalem and dated to around the year 50 AD.
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The crucifixion of Jesus occurred during the 1st century AD, most probably between the years 30 and 33.
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Cunobeline (or Cunobelin, from Latin Cunobelinus, derived from Greek Kynobellinus, Κυνοβελλίνος) was a king in pre-Roman Britain from the late first century BC until the 40s AD.
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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
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The Dacians (Daci, loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
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The Dahae (Dahae; Δάοι, Δάαι, Δᾶαι Daai, Δάσαι Dasai; Sanskrit: Dasa), Daae, Dahas or Dahaeans --> were a confederation of three tribes in Central Asia: the Parni, Xanthi and Pissuri – in Central Asia.
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Decebalus (ruled 87-106) was the last king of Dacia.
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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
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Du Shi (d. 38Crespigny, 183.) was a Chinese governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China.
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East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics.
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Emperor Guangwu (born Liu Xiu; 13 January 5 BC – 29 March AD 57), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty).
Emperor Ming of Han, (Wade-Giles: Han Ming-ti), (28–75) was second emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
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The terms Finns and Finnish people (suomalaiset, finnar) may refer in English to ethnic Finns, not including other ethnic groups in Finland, such as Finland Swedes and Russians in Finland.
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The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great Revolt (המרד הגדול,, Primum populi Romani bellum in Iudaeos), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judea Province (Iudaea) against the Roman Empire.
The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge, located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge, England.
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For the Roman imperial dynasty beginning with Constantine (the Great) and sometimes called "Neo-Flavian", see Constantinian dynasty.
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Gaetuli was the Romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia, covering the large desert region south of the Atlas Mountains, bordering the Sahara.
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Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69), was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69.
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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil; الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel which overlaps with much of the administrative Northern District and Haifa District of the country.
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Gan Ying (Hanyu Pinyin: Gān Yīng), was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in 97 CE by the Chinese general Ban Chao.
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The Garamantes (possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a people who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya.
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Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
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The Gemma Augustea (Latin, Gem of Augustus) is a low-relief cameo engraved gem cut from a double-layered Arabian onyx stone.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire.
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Gnaeus Julius Agricola (13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), or Goryeo, was one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea, located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of inner and outer Manchuria.
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According to a tale related by Jordanes, Gothiscandza was arguably the first settlement of the Goths (Getae) after their migration from Scandinavia (Scandza) during the first half of the 1st century A.D. Jordanes relates that the East Germanic tribe of Goths were led from Scandza by their king Berig.
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The Goths (*Gut-þiuda,Most commonly translated as "Gothic people".; Gutar/Gotar; Gothi; Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Government Museum, Mathura commonly referred as Mathura museum is an archaeological museum in Mathura city of Uttar Pradesh state in India.
In Christianity, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world.
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The Great Fire of Rome was an urban fire that started on the night between 18 and 19 July in the year 64 AD.
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The Gur languages, also known as Central Gur, belong to the Niger–Congo languages.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.
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Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
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Hero of Alexandria (Ἥρων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria c. 10 – c. 70 AD) was a Greek mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.
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Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod or Agrippa I (11 BC – 44 AD), was a Judean monarch during the 1st century AD.
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Hillel (Hebrew: הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli; born Babylon traditionally c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.
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Whether one can precisely define a time window as 'High Middle Ages' or 'Early Middle Ages' the title evokes an image and expectations in the reader of certain sets of characteristics—the essential essence of such labeling—a communications tool from one mind to another.
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The history of Cambodia, a country in mainland Southeast Asia, can be traced back to at least the 5th millennium BC.
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The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.
The House of the Silver Wedding is the name given to the archaeological remains of a Roman house in Pompeii, buried in the ash from the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids.
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Ignatius of Antioch (Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; or 50 – 98 to 117), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing"), was an Apostolic Father and the third bishop of Antioch.
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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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The Gondopharid dynasty and other Indo-Parthian rulers were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia, who ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD.
The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of Iranian languages.
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, formerly called Ujiyamada (宇治山田), is a city located on the eastern tip of Kii Peninsula, in central Mie Prefecture, on the island of Honshū, Japan, facing Ise Bay.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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James (Hebrew: יעקב Ya'akov; Greek Ίάκωβος Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as Jacob), who died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD, was an important figure of the Apostolic Age.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Yohanan ben Zakkai(יוחנן בן זכאי, 30 BCE- 90 CE), also known as Johanan B. Zakkai, or in short ריב״ז (Ribaz), was one of the tannaim, an important Jewish sage in the era of the Second Temple, and a primary contributor to the core text of Rabbinical Judaism, the Mishnah.
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John the Baptist (Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής Ioannēs ho baptistēs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων Ioannēs ho baptizōn Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub ISBN 9004172548 Page 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" was an itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article "John the Baptist, St" and a major religious figureFunk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper; "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268 in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism. John is described as having the unique practice of baptism for the forgiveness of sins.Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The Essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books; p. 146 Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus. Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of JohnSanders, E.P. (1985) Jesus and Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; p. 91 and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John.Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself,Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; "Mark," pp. 51–161. and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah.Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ISBN 1-55934-655-8.
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John the Evangelist (also John the Theologian or John the Divine; Εὐαγγελιστής Ἰωάννης) is traditionally regarded as the author of the Gospel of John, and other Johannine works in the New Testament — the three Epistles of John and the Book of Revelation.
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Titus Flavius Josephus (37 – 100), born Joseph ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
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Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
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The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
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The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
Kalinga/Kalingi is an Indian caste of temple priests and cultivators, found mainly in Srikakulam.
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Kansas City, or K.C., is the largest city in the state of Missouri.
Kauṇḍinya (Sanskrit; Pali: Koṇḍañña) also known as Ājñātakauṇḍinya, Pali: Añña Koṇḍañña) was a Buddhist monk follower of Gautama Buddha and the first to become an arhat. He lived during the 6th century BCE in what is now Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India.
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"Khoisan" (also spelled Khoesaan, Khoesan or Khoe–San) is a unifying name for two groups of peoples of Southern Africa, who share physical and putative linguistic characteristics distinct from the Bantu majority of the region.
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The Kingdom of Aksum or Axum, also known as the Aksumite Empire, was a trading nation in the area of northern Ethiopia and Eritrea pre-Islamic Arabs, which existed from approximately 100–940 AD.
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Kingdom of Funan (អាណាចក្រហ្វូណន) was the name given by the Chinese to an ancient kingdom located in southern Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
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The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient African kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.
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The Kunsthistorisches Museum (English: "Museum of Art History", also often referred to as the "Museum of Fine Arts") is an art museum in Vienna, Austria.
The Kushan Empire (Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS:; 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓 Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic Empire formed by Yuezhi in the Greco-Bactrian territories of the early 1st century.
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The lion (Panthera leo) is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae.
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Liu Xin (c. 50 BC – AD 23), courtesy name Zijun, was a Chinese astronomer, historian, and editor during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 9) and Xin Dynasty (AD 9–23).
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Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, LIVIA•AVGVSTA) (30 January 58 BC– 28 September AD 29), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
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Claudia Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA) (c. 13 BC – 31 AD) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor and sister of the Roman Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, and thus the paternal aunt of the emperor Caligula and maternal great-aunt of emperor Nero.
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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 17)—known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.
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Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China.
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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Madhya Pradesh (MP) (meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
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Maṇḍala is a Sanskrit word that means "circle".
Mandé or Manden is a family of ethnic groups in West Africa who speak any of the many related Mande languages of the region.
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Princess Margherita of Savoy (Margherita Maria Teresa Giovanna; 20 November 1851 – 4 January 1926), was the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Italy during the reign (1878–1900) of her husband, Umberto I.
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Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD), was a Roman poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
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A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is somebody who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a belief or cause of either a religious or secular nature.
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__notoc__ The Masoretes (Hebrew:, ba'alei hamasorah) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in present-day Israel in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
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Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
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Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the population of Mauretania, the part of Africa west of Numidia, corresponding roughly to the territory of modern Morocco.
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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
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Valeria Messalina, sometimes spelled Messallina, (c. 17/20–48) married (as his third wife) the Roman Emperor Claudius.
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Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere.
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The Metropolis of Smyrna (Μητρόπολη Σμύρνης) was an ecclesiastical territory (diocese) of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, modern Turkey.
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The Metropolitan Museum of Art (colloquially The Met), located in New York City, is the largest art museum in the United States and among the most visited art museums in the world.
is a prefecture of Japan, which is part of the Kansai region on the main Honshu island.
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In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.
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Missouri (see pronunciations) is a state located in the Midwestern United States.
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The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche and Trujillo, from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch.
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Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio, Mons Vesuvius) is a stratovolcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
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Nanyang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Henan province, People's Republic of China.
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Naples (Napoli, Neapolitan: nNapule; Neapolis; Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan.
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The Naples National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli, MANN) is a museum in Naples, southern Italy, at the northwest corner of the original Greek wall of the city of Neapolis.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Naṣrat; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira) is the largest city in the North District of Israel.
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The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 BC to 800 AD beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.
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The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art is an art museum in Kansas City, Missouri, known for its neoclassical architecture and extensive collection of Asian art.
Nero (Latin: Nerō Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
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Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – Summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
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Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus; 8 November, 30 AD – 27 January, 98 AD), was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98.
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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.
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New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
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The Nok culture appeared in Northern Nigeria around 1000 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 AD in the region of West Africa.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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North India (उत्तर भारत, ਉੱਤਰ ਭਾਰਤ, شمالي هندستان) is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
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Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe.
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Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69), was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69.
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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Pali is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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Paul the Apostle (Paulos; c. 5 – c. 67), originally known as Saul of Tarsus (שאול התרסי; Saulos Tarseus), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
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Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu.
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Persecution of Christians can be traced historically based on the biblical account of Jesus in the first century of the Christian era to the present time.
Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 – 66 AD) was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero.
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Phaedrus (Φαῖδρος; dates unknown fl. first century CE), Roman fabulist, was a Latin author and versifier of Aesop's fables.
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Philo of Alexandria (Φίλων, Philōn; ידידיה הכהן, Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; c. 25 BCE – c. 50 CE), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
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Philo of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος, Philōn ho Byzantios, ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC), also known as Philo Mechanicus, was a Greek engineer and writer on mechanics, who lived during the latter half of the 3rd century BC.
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For other uses, see Philoxenus Philoxenus of Eretria was a painter from Eretria, the disciple of Nicomachus of Thebes, whose speed in painting he imitated and even surpassed, having discovered some new and rapid methods of colouring Nevertheless, Pliny states that there was a picture of his which was inferior to none, of a battle of Alexander the Great with Darius, which he painted for king Cassander.
Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.
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Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; AD 69 – 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
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The city of Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
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Pontius Pilate (or; Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος, Pontios Pīlātos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea from AD 26–36.
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Pope Clement I (Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 92 to his death in 99.
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Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 BC Cremona, Roman Republic – 9 AD Germania) was a Roman General and Politician under the first Roman emperor Augustus.
The Pula Arena is the name of the amphitheatre located in Pula, Croatia.
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The Punics (from Latin pūnicus, pl. pūnici) are usually known as Carthaginians, and were a people from Ancient Carthage in modern-day Tunisia, North Africa, who traced their origins to Phoenicians and North African Berbers.
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Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35 – c. 100 CE) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
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Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian, probably of the 1st century, author of his only known and only surviving work, Historiae Alexandri Magni, "Histories of Alexander the Great," or more fully Historiarum Alexandri Magni Macedonis Libri Qui Supersunt, "All the Books That Survive of the Histories of Alexander the Great of Macedon." Much of it is missing.
Rainer Riesner (born 2 June 1950 in Friedberg) is a German pastor and theologian.
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The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death to take the punishment deserved by others for the sins of the world, Jesus rose again from the dead.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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The Sabaeans or Sabeans (السبئيون) (סבא) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in what is today Yemen, in the south west of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Saint Peter (Petrus, Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, שמעון בר יונה; died 64 AD), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church.
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The Sami people (also Sámi or Saami), traditionally known in English as Lapps or Laplanders, are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting the Arctic area of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Kola Peninsula of Russia, and the border area between south and middle Sweden and Norway.
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The Sarmatians (Latin: Sarmatæ or Sauromatæ, Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large confederation of Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
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The Sātavāhana Empire was an Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra.
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A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
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The Second Temple was an important Jewish Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Bet HaMikdash HaSheni; بيت القدس: Beit al-Quds) which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
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Lucius Aelius Seianus (20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus (English pronunciation), was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.
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Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
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Silius Italicus, in full Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus (c. 28 – c. 103), was a Roman consul, orator, and Latin epic poet of the 1st century AD, (Silver Age of Latin literature).
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Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo can be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the world's longest sustained dynasties.
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As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
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Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of god, son of a god or son of Heaven.
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The Soninke (also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli) are a Mandé people who descend from the Bafour and are closely related to the Imraguen of Mauritania.
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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
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Most definitions of Southern Europe include the countries of the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the Italian peninsula, France (only Southern France) and Greece.
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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.
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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45, in Naplesc. 96 AD, in Naples) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).
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A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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Swedes (svenskar) are a nation and ethnic group native to Sweden, mostly inhabiting Sweden and the other Nordic countries, with descendants living in a number of countries.
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The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe. The first author who might have written about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Sueones. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56 – after 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
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Tairona was a group of chiefdoms in the region of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in present-day Cesar, Magdalena and La Guajira Departments of Colombia, South America, which goes back at least to the 1st century CE and had significant demographic growth around the 11th century.
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Tamiḻakam or the Ancient Tamiḻ country refers to the Sangam period (3rd century BCE - 4th century CE) territory of old South Indian kingdoms covering modern Tamil Nadu, Kerala and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.
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The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ, or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra is the canon of the Hebrew Bible.
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Teotihuacan, also written Teotihuacán (Spanish), was an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
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The Teutoburg Forest (Teutoburger Wald, colloquially: Teuto) is a range of low, forested hills in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia which is believed to be the scene of a decisive battle in 9 A.D. Until the 19th century the official name of the hill ridge was Osning.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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Thomas the Apostle (called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament.
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The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (百濟), Silla (新羅) and Goguryeo (高句麗).
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Dīvī Augustī Fīlius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD.
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Titus (Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81) was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; September 18, 53 – August 8, 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death in 117 AD.
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A Tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.
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The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes of pre-Roman Britain.
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The University of CambridgeThe corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes.
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The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the museums of the Vatican City and are located within the city's boundaries.
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Vespasian (Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Roman Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects. He built the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural sonJulius Caesar was succeeded by his adopted son Augustus, but Caesar was not styled an emperor, nor was he Augustus's biological father. and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
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The Via Labicana was an ancient road of Italy, leading east-southeast from Rome.
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Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.
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The Villa Farnesina is a Renaissance suburban villa in the Via della Lungara, in the district of Trastevere in Rome, central Italy.
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The Gens Vitellia or Vitelii were a gens in ancient Rome.
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The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers.
Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.
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Wang Mang (c. 45 BCE – 6 October 23 CE), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 CE.
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The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
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The water organ or hydraulic organ (ὕδραυλις) (early types are sometimes called hydraulis, hydraulos, hydraulus or hydraula) is a type of pipe organ blown by air, where the power source pushing the air is derived by water from a natural source (e.g. by a waterfall) or by a manual pump.
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A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
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West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.
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The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages.
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Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).
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The Wielbark culture (Wielbark-Willenberg-Kultur, Kultura wielbarska, Вельбарська культура/Vel’bars’ka kul’tura) or East Pomeranian-Mazovian is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 1st century AD to the 4th century AD.
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The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
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The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (although strictly speaking it had only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.
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The Xiongnu (Old Chinese: /qʰoŋ.naː/, Wade-Giles: Hsiung-nu), were a large confederation of Eurasian nomads who dominated the Asian Steppe from the late 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
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or is the Sino-Japanese name of an ancient country in Wa (Japan) during the late Yayoi period Chinese history Records of the Three Kingdoms first recorded as Yamatai guo or Yemayi guo as the domain of Priest-Queen Himiko (died Generations of Japanese historians, linguists, and archeologists have debated where Yamatai-koku was located and whether it was related to the later.
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The is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC to AD 300.
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The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
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Zhang Heng (Chinese: t 衡, s 衡, p Zhāng Héng; AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Hêng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.
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Zhangzhung was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet.
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Year 1 (I) was a common year starting on Saturday or Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Saturday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.
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Year 100 (C) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 14 (XIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
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The 1st century BC, also known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC.
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Year 20 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.
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Year 23 (XXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 28 (XXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 29 (XXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 31 (XXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 310 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
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Year 33 (XXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 36 (XXXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 38 (XXXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 40 (XL) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 41 (XLI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 42 (XLII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 43 (XLIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 44 (XLIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 52 (LII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 54 (LIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 6 (VI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 60 (LX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 66 (LXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 68 (LXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 69 (LXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 7 (VII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 70 (LXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 73 (LXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 75 (LXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 78 (LXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 79 (LXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 8 (VIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Year 9 (IX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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1 Century, 1st CE, 1st Century, 1st Century AD, 1st century A.D., 1st century AD, 1st century CE, 1st-century, First Century, First century, First century A.D., First century AD, First century C.E., First century CE, First-century, Firstcentury, I century, Year in Review 1st Century.