244 relations: Acetylcholine, Adatanserin, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aggression, Agonist, Alnespirone, Alpha-Ethyltryptamine, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Alprenolol, Alzheimer's disease, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Analgesic, Anorexia (symptom), Antagonist, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antihypertensive drug, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Aripiprazole, Asenapine, Atypical antipsychotic, Autoradiograph, Autoreceptor, Axon, Bacoside, Basal ganglia, Bay R 1531, Befiradol, Behavioral addiction, Binospirone, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, BMY-7,378, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bufotenin, Buspirone, Cannabidiol, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Chemical synapse, Clozapine, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cyanopindolol, Dendrite, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, ..., Dietary supplement, Dihydroergotamine, Dopamine, Dorsal raphe nucleus, Dotarizine, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug, Ebalzotan, Edinger–Westphal nucleus, Eltoprazine, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme inhibition, Eptapirone, Erection, Ergotamine, Etoperidone, F-15,599, Fenfluramine, Flesinoxan, Flibanserin, Flopropione, G protein–coupled receptor, GABBR2, Gene, Gepirone, Gi alpha subunit, Ginkgo biloba, Glutamic acid, GPCR oligomer, Growth hormone, Haloperidol, Heart rate, Heat, Heat transfer, Heteroreceptor, Hippocampus, Hormone, Human, Human brain, Human sexual activity, Hypoventilation, Impulsivity, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Iodocyanopindolol, Ipsapirone, Iris sphincter muscle, Isamoltane, Lamotrigine, Learning, Lecozotan, Lesopitron, Ligand, List of French expressions in English, Lisuride, Locus coeruleus, LPAR1, LPAR3, Lurasidone, LY-293284, Lysergic acid diethylamide, MDAI, MDMA, Mefway (18F), Memory, Mental disorder, Methysergide, Metitepine, Miosis, MMAI, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, MPPF, Mydriasis, Naluzotan, NAN-190, Nausea, NBUMP, Nefazodone, Neocortex, Nerve, Neuromodulation (medicine), Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, NK1 receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, Olanzapine, Opioid, Osemozotan, Oxprenolol, Oxytocin, Parkinson's disease, Partial agonist, Peripheral, Perospirone, Pharmaceutical drug, Piclozotan, Pindobind, Pindolol, Polymorphism (biology), Positron emission tomography, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Primate, Prolactin, Propranolol, Protein–protein interaction, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Quetiapine, Radioligand, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rauwolscine, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Religious experience, Renin, Repinotan, Risperidone, Robalzotan, Rodent, Rostral ventrolateral medulla, Rs6294, Rs6295, RU-24,969, S-15535, S1PR1, S1PR3, Sarizotan, SB-649,915, Schizophrenia, Secretion, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Septum pellucidum, Serenic, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sexual arousal, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Skin, Sleep, Social relation, Soma (biology), Spiperone, Spiramide, Spiroxatrine, Striatum, Substance P, Sunepitron, Sympatholytic, Synapse, Synonymous substitution, Tachykinin receptor 1, Tandospirone, Tetracyclic antidepressant, Thalamus, Thermoregulation, Tiospirone, Trazodone, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, Tritium, Tryptophan, U-92,016-A, UH-301, Urapidil, Vagus nerve, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vilazodone, Vomiting, Vortioxetine, WAY-100,135, WAY-100,635, Xaliproden, Xylamidine, Yohimbine, Zalospirone, Ziprasidone, 5-Carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-Methoxytryptamine, 8-OH-DPAT. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
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Adatanserin (WY-50,324, SEB-324) is a mixed 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin (INN, BAN) (brand names Acortan, ACTH, Acthar, Acton, Cortigel, Trofocortina), is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
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Alnespirone (S-20,499) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone chemical class.
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α-Ethyltryptamine (αET, AET), also known as etryptamine (INN, BAN, USAN), is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogenic drug of the tryptamine class.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT; former brand Indopan) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
Alprenolol, or alfeprol, alpheprol, and alprenololum (Gubernal, Regletin, Yobir, Apllobal, Aptine, Aptol Duriles), is a non-selective beta blocker as well as 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of angina pectoris.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
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The amygdalae (singular: amygdala;; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil'), are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
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Anorexia is the decreased sensation of appetite.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution, or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
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An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
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Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.
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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
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Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the effectiveness of the oral form in schizophrenia is not very strong, as many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
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Asenapine (USAN, rINNM and BANM; trade names Saphris (AU, US, RU), Sycrest (EU, UK)) is an atypical antipsychotic developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder by Schering-Plough after its November 19, 2007 merger with Organon International.
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The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
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An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis), also known as a nerve fibre, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.
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Bacosides are a class of chemical compounds isolated from Bacopa monnieri.
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The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
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Bay R 1531 is a tricyclic tryptamine derivative which acts as a selective serotonin receptor 5-HT1A agonist.
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Befiradol (F-13,640; NLX-112) is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
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Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to repeatedly perform a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social, and/or financial well-being.
Binospirone (MDL-73,005-EF) is a drug which acts as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors but as an antagonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.
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The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.
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BMY-7,378 is a 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonist/antagonist and α1D-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, N,N-dimethylserotonin) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
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Buspirone, trade name Buspar, is an anxiolytic psychotropic drug of the azapirone chemical class.
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals.
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Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
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Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, and is also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.
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Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands in rodents and other non-human animals.
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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones, and is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.
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Cyanopindolol (INN) is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
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Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree") (also dendron) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
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Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.
Dihydroergotamine (brand names D.H.E. 45 and Migranal) is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines.
Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.
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The dorsal raphe nucleus is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus, consisting of the rostral and caudal subdivisions.
Dotarizine is a drug used in the treatment of migraine, which acts as a calcium channel blocker, and also as an antagonist at the 5HT2A receptor, and to a lesser extent at the 5HT1A and 5HT2C receptors.
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Downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external variable.
A drug is, in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans or other animals.
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Ebalzotan (NAE-086) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist.
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The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.
Eltoprazine (DU-28,853) is a drug of the phenylpiperazine class which is a serenic or antiaggressive agent.
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Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzyme inhibition refers to the decrease of enzyme-related processes.
Eptapirone (F-11,440) is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone family.
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An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firmer, engorged and enlarged.
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Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
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Etoperidone (Axiomin, Centren, Depracer, Etonin, Etoran, Staff, Tropene), also known as clopradone and triazolinone, is an antidepressant of the phenylpiperazine class which was introduced in Europe in 1977.
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F-15,599, also known as NLX-101, is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
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Fenfluramine (3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine, trade names Pondimin, Ponderax and Adifax) is a drug that, along with phentermine, was part of the anti-obesity medication Fen-phen.
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Flesinoxan (DU-29,373) is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial/near-full agonist of the phenylpiperazine class.
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Flibanserin (INN, USAN), sold under the trade name Addyi, is a medication approved for the treatment of pre-menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).
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Flopropione (Compacsul, Cospanon, Ecapron, Pellegal, Argobyl, Floveton, Saritron, Spamorin, Labrodax, Tryalon, Mirulevatin, Padeskin, Profenon) is a spasmolytic or antispasmodic agent.
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G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 (GABAB2) is a G-protein coupled receptor subunit encoded by the GABBR2 gene in humans.
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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
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Gepirone (Ariza, Variza; BMY-13,805, ORG-13,011) is an antidepressant and anxiolytic of the azapirone class.
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Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
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Ginkgo biloba, known as ginkgo or gingko and also as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
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Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-23 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG.
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A GPCR oligomer is a complex of a small number of G protein-coupled receptors, which is held together by covalent bonds or by intermolecular forces.
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Growth hormone (GH or HGH), also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals.
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Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
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Heart rate, or heart pulse, is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per unit of time — typically beats per minute (bpm).
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In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.
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Heat transfer is the exchange of thermal energy between physical systems, depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat.
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A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.
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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
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A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.
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Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behavior is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
In medicine, hypoventilation (also known as) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
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Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a multifactorial construct that involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
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An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Iodocyanopindolol (INN) is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoreceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
Ipsapirone is a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist of the piperazine and azapirone chemical classes.
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The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.
Isamoltane (CGP-361A) is a drug used in scientific research.
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Lamotrigine, marketed in most of the world as Lamictal by GlaxoSmithKline, is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
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Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
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Lecozotan is an investigational drug by Wyeth tested for improvement of cognitive functions of Alzheimer's disease patients.
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Lesopitron (E-4424) is a selective full agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor which is structurally related to the azapirones.
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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
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English contains many words of French origin, such as art, competition, force, machine, money, police, publicity, role, routine, table, and many other anglicized French words.
Lisuride (Dopergin, Proclacam, Revanil) is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs.
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The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
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Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 also known as LPA1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LPAR1 gene.
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Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 also known as LPA3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LPAR3 gene.
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Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the USA.
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LY-293284 is a research chemical developed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and used for scientific studies.
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Lysergic acid diethylamide (or or), abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide (INN) and colloquially as acid, is a psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects - which can include altered thinking processes, closed- and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time, and spiritual experiences - as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture.
5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.
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MDMA (contracted from) is a psychoactive drug of the substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine and substituted amphetamine classes of drugs that is consumed primarily for its euphoric and empathogenic effects.
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Mefway is a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist used in medical research, usually in the form of mefway (18F) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer.
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In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness, psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder, is mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life.
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Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) is a prescription drug formerly used for prophylaxis of cluster headaches/migraine headaches, but is no longer recommended due to retroperitoneal/retropulmonary fibrosis.
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Metitepine (INN), also commonly known as methiothepin, is a drug that acts as an antagonist at various serotonin and dopamine receptors.
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Miosis (or myosis, from Ancient Greek μύειν, mūein, "to close the eyes") is a term with various definitions, which generally include constriction of the pupil.
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5-Methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI), is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.
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L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are chemicals which inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family.
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
MPPF, with the full name 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-fluoro-benzamidoethyipiperazine, is a compound that binds to the serotonin-1A receptor.
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Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually defined as when having a non-physiological cause, but sometimes defined as potentially being a physiological pupillary response.
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Naluzotan (INN, USAN; PRX-00023) is a serotonergic drug of the phenylpiperazine class that was under investigation by EPIX Pharmaceuticals Inc for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.
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NAN-190 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.
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NBUMP is a highly selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist (Ki.
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Nefazodone (Dutonin, Nefadar, Serzone) is an antidepressant marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb.
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The neocortex (Latin for "new bark" or "new rind"), also called the neopallium ("new mantle") and isocortex ("equal rind"), is a part of the mammalian brain.
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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
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Neuromodulation, defined by the International Neuromodulation Society as “the alteration of nerve activity through the delivery of electrical stimulation or chemical agents to targeted sites of the body,” is carried out to normalize – or modulate – nerve function.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
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Neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonists are a novel class of medications that possesses unique antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antiemetic properties.
Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
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Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an atypical antipsychotic.
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An "opioid" is any synthetic narcotic not derived from opium.
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Osemozotan (MKC-242) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist with some functional selectivity, acting as a full agonist at presynaptic and a partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.
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Oxprenolol (Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
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Oxytocin (Oxt) is a nonapeptide hormone in mammals. It is also available as a medication.
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Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
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A peripheral is a "device that is used to put information into or get information out of the computer." There are two different types of peripherals: input devices, which interact with or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, etc.), and output devices, which provide output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etc.). Some peripherals, such as touchscreens, can be used both as input and output devices.
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Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family.
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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Piclozotan (SUN-N4057) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, which has neuroprotective effects in animal studies.
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Pindobind is a chemical patented by IBM.
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Pindolol (originally marketed as Visken, now marketed under many brands as a generic drugDrugs.com Page accessed Sept 4, 2015) is a beta blocker.
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Polymorphism in biology is said to occur when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species—in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that in humans is best known for its role in enabling female mammals to produce milk; however, it is influential over a large number of functions with over 300 separate actions of PRL having been reported in various vertebrates.
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Propranolol (INN) is a sympatholytic nonselective beta blocker.
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Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) refer to physical contacts established between two or more proteins as a result of biochemical events and/or electrostatic forces.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
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Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
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Quetiapine (developed and marketed as Seroquel by AstraZeneca) is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and along with an antidepressant to treat major depressive disorder.
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A radioligand is a radioactive biochemical substance (in particular, a ligand) that is used for diagnosis or for research-oriented study of the receptor systems of the body.
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The raphe nuclei ("raffe", Greek: ῥαφή.
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Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of the eyes, low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Rauwolscine, also known as isoyohimbine, α-yohimbine, and corynanthidine, is an alkaloid found in various species within the genera Rauwolfia and Pausinystalia (formerly known as Corynanthe).
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In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses rather than provoking a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis—that mediates extracellular volume (i.e., that of the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
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Repinotan (BAYx3702), an aminomethylchroman derivative, is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist with high potency and efficacy.
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Risperidone (trade name Risperdal and generics) is an antipsychotic drug mainly used to treat schizophrenia (including adolescent schizophrenia), schizoaffective disorder, the mixed and manic states of bipolar disorder, and irritability in people with autism.
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Robalzotan (NAD-299, AZD-7371) is a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor.
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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
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Control of blood pressure is crucially dependent on the integrity of a small region of the brainstem called the ventrolateral medulla.
Rs6294, also called G294A, is a gene variation—a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)— in the HTR1A gene.
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rs6295, also called C(-1019)G, is a gene variation—a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)—in the HTR1A gene.
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RU-24,969 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
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S-15535 is a phenylpiperazine drug which is a potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand that acts as an agonist and antagonist (weak partial agonist) at the presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, respectively.
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P receptor 1 or S1P1), also known as endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S1PR1 gene.
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 also known as S1PR3 is a human gene which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the lipid signaling molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).
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Sarizotan (EMD-128,130) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist, which has antipsychotic effects, and has also shown efficacy in reducing dyskinesias resulting from long-term anti-Parkinsonian treatment with levodopa.
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SB-649,915 is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist which is being investigated for its antidepressant effects.
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.
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Secretion is the process of elaborating, releasing, and oozing chemicals, or a secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
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Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
The septum pellucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain.
A serenic, or antiaggressive agent, is a type of drug which reduces the capacity for irritability and aggression.
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Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "working on the neurotransmitter serotonin".
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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
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A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft, with less significant or no efficacy in producing neurotransmitter efflux at other types of monoamine neurons.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), also known as serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are a class of antidepressant drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other mood disorders.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
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A single nucleotide polymorphism, also known as simple nucleotide polymorphism, (SNP, pronounced snip; plural snips) is a DNA sequence variation occurring commonly within a population (e.g. 1%) in which a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes.
Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates.
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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
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In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
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The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), cyton, or "cell body" is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
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Spiperone (Spiroperidol; brand name: Spiropitan (JP)) is a typical antipsychotic and research chemical belonging to the butyrophenone chemical class.
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Spiramide (AMI-193) is a selective 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and D2 receptor antagonist.
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Spiroxatrine is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist at both the 5-HT1A receptor and the α2C adrenergic receptor.
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The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain and a critical component of the reward system.
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Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family.
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Sunepitron (CP-93,393) is a combined 5-HT1A receptor agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
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A sympatholytic (or sympathoplegic) drug is a medication which inhibits the postganglionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
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A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.
The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) also known as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) or substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Tandospirone (Sediel), also known as metanopirone, is an anxiolytic and antidepressant used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma.
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Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) are a class of antidepressants that were first introduced in the 1970s.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain.
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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
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Tiospirone (BMY-13,859), also sometimes called tiaspirone or tiosperone, is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone class.
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Trazodone (sold under the brand names: Depyrel (IL†), Desyrel (CA, US†), Mesyrel (TW†), Molipaxin (IE, ZA, UK), Oleptro (US), Trazodil (IL), Trazorel (CA), Trialodine (US), Trittico (AT, HK, IL†, SG, RU)) is an antidepressant of the serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI) class.
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Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are chemical compounds used primarily as antidepressants.
3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) is a recreational drug of the piperazine chemical class.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
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Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in the human diet.
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U-92,016-A is a psychoactive drug and research chemical used in scientific studies.
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UH-301 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
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Urapidil is a sympatholytic antihypertensive drug.
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The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart and digestive tract.
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Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels.
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Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or argipressin, is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals.
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Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Clinical Data for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Vortioxetine (trade name Brintellix and Trintellix in Canada) is an atypical antidepressant (a serotonin modulator and stimulator) made by Lundbeck and Takeda.
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WAY-100,135 is a serotonergic drug of the phenylpiperazine family which is used in scientific research.
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WAY-100,635 is a piperazine drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
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Xaliproden (codenamed SR57746) is a drug which acts as a 5HT1A agonist.
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Xylamidine is a drug which acts as an antagonist at the 5HT2A receptor, and to a lesser extent at the 5HT1A receptor.
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Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
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Zalospirone (WY-47,846) is a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist of the azapirone chemical class.
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Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox by Pfizer and Zipwell by Actavis) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain approval (February 2001) in the United States.
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5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
The serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
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The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily w 2 of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
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5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
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5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
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The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
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The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan.
5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a powerful psychedelic tryptamine.
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5-Methoxytryptamine (5-MT), also known as mexamine, is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor.
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