90 relations: A (Cyrillic), A-list, Abjad, Aleph, Algebra, Alpha, Alphabet, Ampere, Ancient Greece, Arabic script, Argentine austral, ASCII, At sign, À, Á, Â, Ã, Ä, Å, Æ, Ā, Ă, B, Bar (diacritic), Blackletter, Bra, C, Carolingian minuscule, Caron, Categorical proposition, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Collier's Encyclopedia, Consonant, Cursive, Dot (diacritic), EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Encyclopædia Britannica, English orthography, Etruscan civilization, Geometry, Glottal stop, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Greek Dark Ages, Handwriting, Hebrew alphabet, Insular script, International System of Units, ISO basic Latin alphabet, ..., Italian Peninsula, Italic type, Italy, Latin, Latin alpha, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Line (geometry), Line segment, Logic, Merovingian script, Motivation, Near-open central vowel, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Old Italic script, Open back unrounded vowel, Open central unrounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, Ordinal indicator, Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician language, Phoneme, Physics, Pictogram, Predicate logic, Proto-Sinaitic script, Ring (diacritic), Roman Empire, Saanich dialect, Samuel Johnson, Semitic languages, Serif, Tau, Triangle, Uncial script, Universal quantification, Visigothic script, Vowel, X-SAMPA. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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A-list is a term that alludes to major movie stars, or the most bankable in the Hollywood film industry or to major recording artists, major international sports stars or miscellaneous occupations such as the most successful film directors, certain high profile media and entertainment moguls and the most notable international TV broadcasters.
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An abjad is a type of writing system where each symbol always or usually stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
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Aleph is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, and Arabic ا. The Phoenician letter is derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph depicting an ox's head and gave rise to the Greek Alpha (Α), being re-interpreted to express not the glottal consonant but the accompanying vowel, and hence the Latin A and Cyrillic А. In phonetics, aleph originally represented the glottal stop, often transliterated as, based on the Greek spiritus lenis ʼ, for example, in the transliteration of the letter name itself,.
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Algebra (from Arabic and Farsi "al-jabr" meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
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Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α; Άλφα Álpha) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
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The ampere (SI unit symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, dialects of Mandinka, the Sorani and Luri dialects of Kurdish, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and others.
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The austral was the currency of Argentina between June 15, 1985 and December 31, 1991.
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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme (the IANA prefers the name US-ASCII).
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The at-sign, @, normally read aloud as "at", also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at, and less commonly a wide range of other terms (such as the strudel), is originally an accounting and commercial invoice abbreviation meaning "at a rate of" (e.g. 7 widgets @ £2.
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(a-grave) is a letter of the Catalan, French, Galician, Italian, Portuguese, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages consisting of the letter A of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and a grave accent.
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(a-acute) is a letter of the Czech, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Sámi and Slovak languages.
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(a-circumflex) is a letter of the French, Friulian, Frisian, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish, Vietnamese, Walloon, and Welsh alphabets.
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Ã/ã (a-tilde) is a letter used in some languages, generally considered a variant of the letter A. In Portuguese, Ã/ã represents a nasal near-open central vowel, (its exact height varies from near-open to mid according to dialect).
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"Ä" and "ä" are both characters that represent either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.
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Å (lower case: å) represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
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Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named aesc or ash, formed from the letters a and e. Originally a ligature representing a Latin diphthong, it has been promoted to the full status of a letter in the alphabets of some languages, including Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese.
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Ā, lowercase ā, is a grapheme, a Latin A with a macron, is used in several orthographies.
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Ă (upper case) or ă (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language and Vietnamese language orthographies.
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B or b (pronounced) is the 2nd letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.
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Blackletter, also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
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A bra (or brassiere or) is a form-fitting undergarment that women wear to support their breasts.
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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
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Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
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A caron (ˇ) or háček (from Czech háček) or mäkčeň (from Slovak mäkčeň or), also known as a wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization, iotation, or postalveolar pronunciation in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber and other languages.
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In logic, a categorical proposition, or categorical statement, is a proposition that asserts or denies that all or some of the members of one category (the subject term) are included in another (the predicate term).
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The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Collier's Encyclopedia (full title Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index) was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan.
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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
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Cursive, also known as longhand, script, looped writing, joined-up writing, joint writing, running writing, or handwriting is any style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
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When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' and 'combining dot below' which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
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Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an 8-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
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Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio.
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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
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The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
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The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1700.
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
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The Greek Dark Age or Ages and Geometric or Homeric Age (ca. 1100–800 BC) are terms that have regularly been used to refer to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC, to the first signs of the Greek poleis in the 9th century BC.
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Handwriting refers to a person's writing created with a writing utensil such as a pen or pencil.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
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Insular script was a medieval script system originally used in Ireland that spread, by way of Anglo-Saxon England, to continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
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The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
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The ISO Basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
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The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
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In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin alpha (majuscule:, minuscule) or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).
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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing, such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants.
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In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule (see ''Terminology'') and smaller lower case (also small letters, or more formally minuscule, see ''Terminology'') in the written representation of certain languages. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case versions of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the font used): Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height, whilst the height of the minuscules varies, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the average, i.e. ascenders and descenders. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. Further to this, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts—although most do have a set of alternative Lining Figures— 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Letter case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the uppercase is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lowercase the more common variant in text. In mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects with uppercase letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x). Engineering design drawings are typically labelled entirely in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than lowercase, especially when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
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The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.
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In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its end points.
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Logic (from the λογική, logike) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the use and study of valid reasoning.
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Merovingian script was a medieval script so called because it was developed in the Frankish Kingdom during the Merovingian dynasty.
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Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior.
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The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
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Old Italic is any of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
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The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
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The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
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The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in most spoken languages. According to the official standards of the International Phonetic Association, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is. In practice, however, it is very common to approximate this sound with (officially a ''near-open'' (near-low) front unrounded vowel), and to use as an open (low) ''central'' unrounded vowel. This is the normal practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. See open central unrounded vowel for more information. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, they can use symbols like (with "advanced" diactric), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
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In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a character, or group of characters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number.
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The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
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Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Arabic, Greek, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in Ancient Egyptian.
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A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and also an 'icon', is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
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In mathematical logic, predicate logic is the generic term for symbolic formal systems like first-order logic, second-order logic, many-sorted logic, or infinitary logic.
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Proto-Sinaitic is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Phoenician and South Arabian scripts, and by extension of most historical and modern alphabets.
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A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Saanich (also, written as SENĆOŦEN in Saanich orthography) is the language of the First Nations Saanich people.
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Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer.
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The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
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In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
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Tau (uppercase Τ, lowercase τ; ταυ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet.
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A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
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Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
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In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".
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Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).
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In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
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The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
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