119 relations: Absolute hot, Adiabatic process, Albert Einstein, Antoine Lavoisier, Asymptote, Black body, Boltzmann constant, Boomerang Nebula, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Carbon, Carl Wieman, Cartesian coordinate system, Celsius, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Cosmic microwave background, Cryocooler, Crystal, CUORE, Debye model, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Delisle scale, Derivative, Dilution refrigerator, Einstein solid, Electron, Empiricism, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entropy, Equipartition theorem, Eric Allin Cornell, European Space Agency, Exothermic process, Exponential function, Fahrenheit, Femto-, Fermi energy, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Gas thermometer, Gibbs free energy, Graphite, Ground state, ..., Guillaume Amontons, Heat, Heat capacity, Helsinki University of Technology, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Internal energy, International System of Units, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Isothermal process, James Prescott Joule, JILA, Johann Heinrich Lambert, John Dalton, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Laser cooling, Lattice (group), Laws of thermodynamics, Line–line intersection, List of adiabatic concepts, Macroscopic scale, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Planck, Maxwell relations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negative number, Nernst heat theorem, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Niter, Nova (TV series), Orders of magnitude (temperature), Orthogonality, Particle statistics, Phenomenon, Photon, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planck temperature, Potential, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Rankine scale, Rhodium, Robert Boyle, Rubidium, Satyendra Nath Bose, Spin (physics), State of matter, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Symmetry, Thermal expansion, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Third law of thermodynamics, Triple point, Ultracold atom, United States customary units, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Hanover, Velocity, Walther Nernst, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Zeitschrift für Physik, Zero-point energy. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.
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An adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a system and its surroundings; energy is transferred only as work.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
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In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as they tend to infinity.
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A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
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The Boltzmann constant (kB or k), named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature.
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The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.
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A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (that is, very near or). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point macroscopic quantum phenomena become apparent.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics at the University of Colorado for the production, in 1995 with Eric Allin Cornell and Wolfgang Ketterle, of the first true Bose–Einstein condensate.
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A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.
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In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.
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A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
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A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.
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The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation left over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology.
A Cryocooler is a standalone cooler, usually of table-top size.
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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
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The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a particle physics facility located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in central Italy.
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In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.
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In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The Delisle scale (°D) is a temperature scale invented in 1732 by the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (1688–1768).
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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of a quantity (a function value or dependent variable) which is determined by another quantity (the independent variable).
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A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.
The Einstein solid is a model of a solid based on two assumptions.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
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In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.
Enthalpy is defined as a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: Since U, p and V are all functions of the state of the thermodynamic system, enthalpy is a state function.
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The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid.
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The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure, as in STP).
In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.
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In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem is a general formula that relates the temperature of a system with its average energies.
Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
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In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form The input variable x occurs as an exponent – hence the name.
Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), after whom the scale is named.
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Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or.
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The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.
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A Fermi gas is an ensemble of a large number of fermions.
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In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.
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A gas thermometer measures temperature by the variation in volume or pressure of a gas.
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In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.
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The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
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Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.
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In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.
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Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
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The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) (Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles that do not interact except when they collide elastically.
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The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
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In thermodynamics, the internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system.
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The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
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James Prescott Joule FRS ((24 December 1818 – 11 October 1889) was an English physicist and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work (see energy). This led to the law of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after James Joule. He worked with Lord Kelvin to develop the absolute scale of temperature the kelvin. Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is now called Joule's first law.
JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.
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Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
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Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is a particle physics laboratory of the INFN, situated near the Gran Sasso mountain in Italy, between the towns of L'Aquila and Teramo, about 120 km from Rome.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero through the interaction with one or more laser fields.
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In mathematics, especially in geometry and group theory, a lattice in \mathbb^n is a discrete subgroup of \mathbb^n which spans the real vector space \mathbb^n.
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The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems.
In Euclidean geometry, the intersection of a line and a line can be the empty set, a point, or a line.
Adiabatic (from Gr. ἀ negative + διάβασις passage; transference) refers to any process that occurs without heat transfer.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.
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The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
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Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.
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In statistics the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.
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The Nernst heat theorem was formulated by Walther Nernst early in the twentieth century and was used in the development of the third law of thermodynamics.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Niter (American English) or nitre (most English-speaking countries) is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter in America or saltpetre in other English-speaking countries.
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Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
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Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the relation of two lines at right angles to one another (perpendicularity), and the generalization of this relation into n dimensions; and to a variety of mathematical relations thought of as describing non-overlapping, uncorrelated, or independent objects of some kind.
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Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενoν, phainomenon, from the verb φαίνειν, phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena), is any thing which manifests itself.
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Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy.
Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
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Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction.
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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of a quantum system.
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Rankine is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.
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Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
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Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.
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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
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Satyendra Nath Bose, FRS (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Shottendronath Boshū,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian Bengali physicist specialising in mathematical physics.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
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In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on.
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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
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Superfluidity is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in a way that defies the forces of gravity and surface tension.
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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, when the body is heated its dimension(size) increase.This increase in dimension is called thermal expansion.
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Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of classical thermodynamics.
A thermodynamic system is the content of a macroscopic volume in space, along with its walls and surroundings; it undergoes thermodynamic processes according to the principles of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: At absolute zero (zero kelvin), the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy, and the above statement of the third law holds true provided that the perfect crystal has only one minimum energy state.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
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Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (absolute zero), typically below temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK).
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United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Hannover, officially the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, short Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public university located in Hannover, Germany.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
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Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry.
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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a British mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
Zeitschrift für Physik is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.
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-273 C, -273 °C, -273.15 °C, -459.67 °F, 0 K, 0 Kelvin, 0-K, Absolute 0, Absolute Zero, Coldest place, Coldest place in the universe, Coolest place, Coolest place in the universe, The coldest place, Zero temperature, −459.67 °F.