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Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the others being subtraction, multiplication and division. [1]

## Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere.

## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written (the axiom of commutativity).

## Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

## Abstract algebra

In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

In electronics, an adder or summer is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers.

An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.

In mathematics the additive identity of a set which is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings.

In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.

## Affix

An affix (in modern sense) is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.

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## Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

## Algebraic structure

In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, the term algebraic structure generally refers to a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more finitary operations defined on it that satisfies a some list of axioms.

## Analog computer

An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

## Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

## Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

## Angle

In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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## Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals or Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

## Arithmetic

Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics.

## Arithmetic mean

In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.

## Arithmetic overflow

The term arithmetic overflow or simply overflow has the following meanings.

## Ascending chain condition

In mathematics, the ascending chain condition (ACC) and descending chain condition (DCC) are finiteness properties satisfied by some algebraic structures, most importantly, ideals in certain commutative rings.

## ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme (the IANA prefers the name US-ASCII).

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## Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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## Asian elephant

The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## Axiom of choice

In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.

## Axle

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.

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## −1

In mathematics, &minus;1 is the additive inverse of 1, that is, the number that when added to 1 gives the additive identity element, 0.

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## Bhāskara II

Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskarācārya ("Bhāskara the teacher"), and as Bhāskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Binary operation

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set (more formally, an operation whose arity is two, and whose two domains and one codomain are (subsets of) the same set).

## Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.

## Boethius

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius,Hodgkin, Thomas.

## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

## Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598–c.670 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote two works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) (628), a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.

## Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta

The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta ("Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma", abbreviated BSS) is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628.

## C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

## C++

C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus) is a general-purpose programming language.

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## Cardinal number

In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.

## Carry (arithmetic)

In elementary arithmetic, a carry is a digit that is transferred from one column of digits to another column of more significant digits.

A carry-lookahead adder (CLA) is a type of adder used in digital logic.

A carry-skip adder (also known as a carry-bypass adder) is an adder implementation that improves on the delay of a ripple-carry adder with little effort compared to other adders.

## Category theory

Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a collection of objects and of arrows (also called morphisms).

## Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

## Circle

A circle is a simple shape in Euclidean geometry.

## Classical limit

The classical limit or correspondence limit is the ability of a physical theory to approximate or "recover" classical mechanics when considered over special values of its parameters.

## Classical mechanics

In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.

## Common chimpanzee

The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers and is the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation.

## Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

## Computer

A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware devices used to store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

## Congruence (geometry)

In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other.

## Construction of the real numbers

In mathematics, there are several ways of defining the real number system as an ordered field.

## Continuum (set theory)

In the mathematical field of set theory, the continuum means the real numbers, or the corresponding (infinite) cardinal number, \mathfrak.

## Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

## Convolution

In mathematics and, in particular, functional analysis, convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions f and g, producing a third function that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the area overlap between the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Coproduct

In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a category-theoretic construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces.

## Cotton-top tamarin

The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a small New World monkey weighing less than.

## Counting

Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.

## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base 10 or occasionally denary) has ten as its base.

## Dedekind cut

In mathematics, a Dedekind cut, named after Richard Dedekind, is a partition of the rational numbers into two non-empty sets A and B, such that all elements of A are less than all elements of B, and A contains no greatest element.

## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

## Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a particular type of simple planetary gear train that has the property that the angular velocity of its carrier is the average of the angular velocities of its sun and annular gears.

## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their fundamental dimensions (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms vs. grams) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

## Direct sum

The direct sum is an operation from abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics.

## Disjoint union

In set theory, the disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets is a modified union operation that indexes the elements according to which set they originated in.

## Distributive property

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from elementary algebra.

## Division (mathematics)

In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division (denoted ÷ or / or —) is an arithmetic operation.

## Eggplant

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.

## Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

## Elementary arithmetic

Elementary arithmetic is the simplified portion of arithmetic that includes the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

## Empty set

In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.

## Empty sum

In mathematics, an empty sum, or nullary sum, is a summation where the number of terms is zero.

## English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

## Equality (mathematics)

In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.

## Equals sign

The equals sign or equality sign (.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra.

## European Mathematical Society

The European Mathematical Society (EMS) is a European organization dedicated to the development of mathematics in Europe.

## Exclusive or

Exclusive disjunction or exclusive or is a logical operation that outputs true only when both inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).

## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form The input variable x occurs as an exponent – hence the name.

## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases: In that case, bn is called the n-th power of b, or b raised to the power n. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base.

## Expression (mathematics)

In mathematics, an expression (or mathematical expression) is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.

## Extended real number line

In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system R by adding two elements: +∞ and −∞ (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).

## Fibonacci

Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

## Field of fractions

In abstract algebra, the field of fractions of an integral domain is the smallest field in which it can be embedded.

## Floating point

In computing, floating point is the formulaic representation which approximates a real number so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## Frontinus

Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was one of the most distinguished Roman senators of the late 1st century AD.

## Game theory

Game theory is the study of strategic decision-making.

## Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## Georg Cantor

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.

## Gerundive

A gerundive is a verb form, usually non-finite, occurring in certain languages.

## Giovanni Poleni

Giovanni Poleni (b. Venice, around 1683; d. Padua, Nov., 1761) was a Marquess, physicist, mathematician and antiquarian.

## Glenda Lappan

Glenda T. Lappan (born 1939) is a professor emerita of mathematics at Michigan State University.

## Greatest element

In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Formally, given a partially ordered set (P, ≤), an element g of a subset S of P is the greatest element of S if Hence, the greatest element of S is an upper bound of S that is contained within this subset.

## Grothendieck group

In mathematics, the Grothendieck group construction in abstract algebra constructs an abelian group from a commutative monoid in the most universal way.

## Ground (electricity)

In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.

## Habituation

Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases to respond to a stimulus after repeated presentations.

## Herbert Enderton

Herbert Bruce Enderton (April 15, 1936 – October 20, 2010) was a Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at UCLA and a former member of the faculties of Mathematics and of Logic and the Methodology of Science at the University of California, Berkeley.

## High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

## Identity element

In mathematics, an identity element (or neutral element) is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set.

## Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the very young offspring of a human or animal.

## Infix notation

Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.

## Instruction set

An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first, literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Integral

The integral is an important concept in mathematics.

## Intuition

Intuition, a phenomenon of the mind, describes the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason.

## Inverse function

In mathematics, an inverse function is a function that "reverses" another function.

## Iteration

Iteration is the act of repeating a process with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

## John C. Baez

John Carlos Baez (born June 12, 1961) is an American mathematical physicist and a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) in Riverside, California.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

## Karen Wynn

Karen Wynn (born December 18, 1962) is a Canadian and American Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Yale University.

## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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## Lever

A lever is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.

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## Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (not) is a vector space together with a non-associative multiplication called "Lie bracket".

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning vector spaces and linear mappings between such spaces.

## Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).

In electronics, an adder is a combinatorial or sequential logic element which computes the n-bit sum of two numbers.

## List of Indian mathematicians

The chronology of Indian mathematicians spans from the Indus valley civilization and the Vedas to Modern times.

## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation.

## Loss of significance

Loss of significance is an undesirable effect in calculations using floating-point arithmetic.

## Lowest common denominator

In mathematics, the lowest common denominator or least common denominator (abbreviated LCD) is the least common multiple of the denominators of a set of fractions.

## Mahāvīra (mathematician)

Mahāvīra (or Mahaviracharya, "Mahavira the Teacher") was a 9th-century Jain mathematician from Mysore, India.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish a given statement for all natural numbers.

## Mathematical table

Before calculators were cheap and plentiful, people would use mathematical tables &mdash;lists of numbers showing the results of calculation with varying arguments&mdash; to simplify and drastically speed up computation.

## Mathematics education

In contemporary education, mathematics education is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.

## Mathematics Made Difficult

Mathematics Made Difficult is a book by Carl E. Linderholm that uses advanced mathematical methods to prove results normally shown using elementary proofs.

## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array—of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns—that is interpreted and manipulated in certain prescribed ways.

## McGraw Hill Financial

McGraw Hill Financial, Inc. is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

## Memorization

Memorization is the process of committing something to memory.

In computing, memory address is a data concept used at various levels by software and hardware to access the computer's primary storage memory.

## Method of complements

In mathematics and computing, the method of complements is a technique used to subtract one number from another using only addition of positive numbers.

## Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the official mascot of The Walt Disney Company.

## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

## Middle English

Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus.

## Monoid

In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element.

## Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 680x0/m68000/68000/m68k/68k series is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "·" or by the absence of symbol) is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

## Multiplication and repeated addition

In mathematics education, there was a debate on the issue of whether the operation of multiplication should be taught as being a form of repeated addition.

## National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine serve (collectively) as the scientific national academy for the United States (US).

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers (sometimes called the whole numbers): "whole number An integer, though sometimes it is taken to mean only non-negative integers, or just the positive integers." give definitions of "whole number" under several headwords: INTEGER … Syn. whole number.

## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

## Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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## Nth root

In mathematics, the nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x where n is the degree of the root.

## Number bond

In mathematics education at primary school level, a number bond (sometimes alternatively called an addition fact) is a simple addition sum which has become so familiar that a child can recognise it and complete it almost instantly, with recall as automatic as that of an entry from a multiplication table in multiplication.

## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

## Operation (mathematics)

The general operation as explained on this page should not be confused with the more specific operators on vector spaces.

## Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

## Order of magnitude

Orders of magnitude are written in powers of 10.

## Order of operations

In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that define which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.

## Ordinal number

In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is the order type of a well-ordered set.

## Parallel algorithm

In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is an algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then combined together again at the end to get the correct result.

## Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a (non self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

## Partially ordered set

In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (or poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.

## Pascal's calculator

Blaise Pascal was the inventor of the mechanical calculator in the early 17th century.

## Piston

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.

## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics.

## Plus and minus signs

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.

## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

## Primary education

Primary education or elementary education often in primary school or elementary school is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education.

## Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

## Primitive recursive function

In computability theory, primitive recursive functions are a class of functions that are defined using primitive recursion and composition as central operations and are a strict subset of the total µ-recursive functions (µ-recursive functions are also called partial recursive).

## Probability distribution

In probability and statistics, a probability distribution assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey, or procedure of statistical inference.

## Proto-Indo-European root

The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of a quantum system.

## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, aleatory variable or stochastic variable is a variable whose value is subject to variations due to chance (i.e. randomness, in a mathematical sense).

## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, p and q, with the denominator q not equal to zero.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.

## Recursion

Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way.

## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

## Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

## Richard Dedekind

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), algebraic number theory and the definition of the real numbers.

## Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, and more specifically in algebra, a ring is an algebraic structure with operations that generalize the arithmetic operations of addition and multiplication.

## Rote learning

Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.

## Round-off error

A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as "standard form" or "standard index form") is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form and is commonly used by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.

## Series (mathematics)

A series is, informally speaking, the sum of the terms of a sequence.

## Set theory

Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

## Set theory (music)

Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number to be positive or negative.

## Slide rule

The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.

## Software bug

A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

## Strategy (game theory)

In game theory, player's strategy is any of the options he or she can choose in a setting where the outcome depends not only on his own actions but on the action of others.

## Subtraction

Subtraction is a mathematical operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

## Successor function

In mathematics, the successor function or successor operation is a primitive recursive function S such that S(n).

## Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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## Summation

In mathematics, summation (symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.

## Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using a small, round bat.

## Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

## The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

## Toddler

A toddler is a child between the ages of one and three.

## Torus

In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

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## Transfinite number

Transfinite numbers are numbers that are "infinite" in the sense that they are larger than all finite numbers, yet not necessarily absolutely infinite.

## Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

## Tropical geometry

Tropical geometry is a relatively new area in mathematics, which might loosely be described as a piece-wise linear or skeletonized version of algebraic geometry.

## Unary operation

In mathematics, a unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input.

## Underline

An underline, also called an underscore, is a more or less horizontal line immediately below a portion of writing.

## Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

## Union (set theory)

In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all distinct elements in the collection.

## Units of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context.

## Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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## Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De Architectura.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (denoted or) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge.

## Wedge sum

In topology, the wedge sum is a "one-point union" of a family of topological spaces.

## Word problem (mathematics education)

In mathematics education, the term word problem is often used to refer to any mathematical exercise where significant background information on the problem is presented as text rather than in mathematical notation.

## X86

x86 is a family of backward compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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## Year 2000 problem

The Year 2000 problem (also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or simply Y2K) was a problem for both digital (computer-related) and non-digital documentation and data storage situations that resulted from the practice of truncating a four-digit year to two digits.

## 0 (number)

0 (zero; BrE: or AmE) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

## 1 (number)

1 (one; or, also called "unit", "unity", and "(multiplicative) identity", is a number, a numeral, and the name of the glyph representing that number. It represents a single entity, the unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of "unit length" is a line segment of length 1.

## References

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