207 relations: Abkhaz alphabet, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz phonology, Adyghe language, Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Alania, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Alcohol, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar ridge, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Australian English, Ł, Bashkir language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Belarusian language, Belarusian phonology, Brazilian Portuguese, Bulgarian alphabet, Bulgarian language, Canadian English, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Co-articulated consonant, Complementary distribution, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Dental consonant, Denti-alveolar consonant, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, ..., Eastern Armenian, Emilian-Romagnol language, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Ethanol, European Portuguese, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Flemish, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Gaj's Latin alphabet, General American, German language, German orthography, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gulf Arabic, Gurmukhī alphabet, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hiberno-English, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Icelandic phonology, Index of phonetics articles, Interdental consonant, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Juncture, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Kashubian language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Kyrgyz alphabets, Kyrgyz language, L-vocalization, Laminal consonant, Language, Lateral consonant, Lillooet language, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian orthography, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Madeira, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Mallaig, Mandarin Chinese, Mapuche language, Marathi language, Marathi phonology, Modern Greek phonology, Modern Hebrew phonology, New York City English, New Zealand English, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Ossetian language, Palatalization (phonetics), Pashto, Persian alphabet, Pharyngealization, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Punjabi language, Received Pronunciation, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Arabic, Romanization of Bulgarian, Romanization of Greek, Romanization of Macedonian, Russian alphabet, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Scottish Gaelic phonology, Secondary articulation, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Sino-Tibetan languages, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Slovene alphabet, Slovene language, Soft palate, South African English, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Standard Tibetan, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Syllabic consonant, Tamil language, Tamil phonology, Tamil script, Taos dialect, Taos phonology, Tibetan alphabet, Tooth, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Uzbek language, Velarization, Viana do Castelo District, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant, Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, Walter de Gruyter, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, West Frisian language, X-SAMPA, Zero (linguistics). Expand index (157 more) » « Shrink index
The Abkhaz alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа) is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people.
Abkhaz is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгaбзэ, adyghabze), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans (proto-Ossetians) that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from the 8th or 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39.
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
An alveolar ridge (or; also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the Polish, Kashubian, Sorbian, Łacinka (Latin Belarusian), Łatynka (Latin Ukrainian), Wymysorys, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet.
New!!: Alveolar lateral approximant and Ł ·
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле başqort tele, pronounced) is part of the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, and Poland.
The phonological system of the modern Belarusian language consists of at least 44 phonemes: 5 vowels and 39 consonants.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the variety of English spoken in Canada.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Co-articulated consonants or complex consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind, where one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (i.e. complementary) set of environments.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant (or dento-alveolar) is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
Emilian-Romagnol (emiliân-rumagnōl or langua emiglièna-rumagnôla), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is a Gallo-Italic language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.
European Portuguese (Português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (Português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (Português de Portugal) in Brazil, refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
Flemish or Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands, or Vlaams) is the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "")..
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin).
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is an umbrella variety of American English—a continuum of accents—commonly attributed to a majority of Americans and perceived as lacking any notably regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Iraq, Bahrain, eastern Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran and northern Oman.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
Hiberno‐English or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelt and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds, due to the relatively small number of speakers and the concentration of these speakers in mostly one area.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
Juncture, in linguistics, is the manner of moving (transition) or mode of relationship between two consecutive sounds.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
Kabardian (Kabardian: адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ or къэбэртай адыгабзэ or къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a language variety of the Lechitic group, of the Slavic languages.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
The Kyrgyz alphabets (кыргыз алфавити) are the alphabets used to write the Kyrgyz language.
Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (natively кыргызча/قىرعىزچا, or кыргыз тили/قىرعىز تىلى) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
In linguistics, l-vocalization is a process by which a lateral approximant such as sound is replaced by a vowel or semivowel sound.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Lillooet, also known as St’át’imcets (Lillooet: St’át’imcets), is the Interior Salishan language of the St’át’imc, spoken in southern British Columbia, Canada, around the middle Fraser and Lillooet Rivers.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.
Lithuanian orthography employs a Latin alphabet of 32 letters, two of which denote sounds not native to the Lithuanian language.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
Madeira (or; or) is a Portuguese archipelago located in the north Atlantic Ocean, west and slightly south of Portugal.
The modern Malay alphabet (in Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", in Indonesia, "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
Mallaig; (Malaig) is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mapudungun (from mapu 'earth, land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'earth' and che 'people').
Marathi (मराठी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by Marathi people of Maharashtra.
The phoneme inventory of the Marathi language is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
Modern Israeli Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
New York City English is a regional dialect of the English language spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.
New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ) is the dialect of the English language used in New Zealand.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, Northern Norwegian (nordnorsk), Central Norwegian (trøndersk), Western Norwegian (vestlandsk), and Eastern Norwegian (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic (endonym: Ирон æвзаг, Iron ævzag), is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
In linguistics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system based on the Arabic script.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants).
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is regarded as the standard accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐlfɐˈvʲit) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
The Sino-Tibetan languages are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. The family is second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.2 billion speakers), Burmese (33 million) and the Tibetic languages (8 million). Many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non-Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated, and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. A minority of researchers call the whole family "Tibeto-Burman", and the name "Trans-Himalayan" has also been proposed.
Slovak (slovenský jazyk,; slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
Slovak orthography uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters.
The Slovene alphabet is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with slovenčina, the native name of Slovak) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The soft palate (also known as velum or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects spoken by South Africans.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
A syllabic consonant is a consonant which either forms a syllable on its own, or is the nucleus of a syllable.
Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
Tamil phonology is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonants and multiple rhotic consonants.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
The Taos dialect of the Northern Tiwa language is spoken in Taos Pueblo, New Mexico.
The main description of Taos phonology was contributed by George L. Trager in a (pre-generative) structuralist framework.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as Dzongkha, the Sikkimese language, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a small, calcified, whitish structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
The Viana do Castelo District (Distrito de Viana do Castelo) is a district located in the northwest of Portugal, bordered by Spain from the north and Braga District from the south.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
A zero, in linguistics, is a constituent needed in analysis but not realized in speech.
/l/, /ɫ/, Alveolar lateral, Clear L, Clear l, Dark /l/, Dark L, Dark el, Dark ell, Dark l, Dental lateral approximant, Denti-alveolar lateral approximant, L (IPA), Lateral alveolar approximant, Light /l/, Light L, Light l, Lˠ, Pharyngealized alveolar lateral approximant, Pharyngealized dental lateral approximant, Pharyngealized denti-alveolar lateral approximant, Post-alveolar lateral approximant, Postalveolar lateral approximant, Velarised alveolar lateral, Velarised alveolar lateral approximant, Velarised dental lateral approximant, Velarised lateral alveolar approximant, Velarized alveolar lateral, Velarized alveolar lateral approximant, Velarized dental lateral approximant, Velarized denti-alveolar lateral approximant, Velarized lateral alveolar approximant, Voiced alveolar lateral, Voiced alveolar lateral approximant, Voiced dental lateral approximant, Voiced denti-alveolar lateral approximant, Voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant, Voiced postalveolar lateral approximant, ɫ, Ɫ.