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Anatomy

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. [1]

359 relations: Abdomen, Achromatic lens, Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy, Adipose tissue, Alessandro Achillini, Alexandria, Allegory, American Association of Anatomists, Amniote, Amphibian, Anatomical terminology, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomical terms of motion, Anatomy, Anatomy Act 1832, Anatomy murder, Ancient Greek, Andrea del Verrocchio, Andreas Vesalius, Angiography, Angular resolution, Animal, Annelid, Antenna (biology), Antonio Benivieni, Anus, Arachnid, Aristotle, Arm, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropod leg, Articular processes, Atrium (heart), Autonomic nervous system, Barber surgeon, Basal (phylogenetics), Basal lamina, Basement membrane, BBC Radio 4, Bile, Biochemistry, Biological neural network, Biology, Blastula, Blood vessel, Body plan, Body snatching, Bologna, Bone, ..., Brachiopod, Bronchus, Buccal pumping, Buccopharyngeal membrane, Cadaver, Caecilian, Calcium carbonate, Carapace, Cardiac muscle, Cartilage, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell biology, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Cephalopod, Cephalothorax, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Chelicerae, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chloroplast, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Cilium, Class (biology), Clinician, Cloaca, Cnidaria, Cochlea, Coelacanth, Collagen, Columnar epithelial cell, Comparative anatomy, Connective tissue, Cretaceous, Crocodile, Crustacean, CT scan, Ctenophora, Cuticle, Cytoplasm, De humani corporis fabrica, Deciduous teeth, Diatom, Digestion, Diploblasty, Dissection, Dragonfly, Duchy of Brabant, Earthworm, Ebers Papyrus, Echidna, Echinoderm, Ectoderm, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electron microscope, Embryogenesis, Embryology, Endoderm, Endoscopy, Endoskeleton, Endotherm, Epidermis, Epidermis (zoology), Epithelium, Erasistratus, Esophagus, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Excretion, Exoskeleton, Extracellular matrix, Eye, Feather, Fetus, Fish fin, Fish scale, Flagellum, Fluoroscopy, Foot, Foundational Model of Anatomy, Frog, Galen, Gamete, Ganglion, Gas exchange, Germ layer, Gill, Gland, Glycoprotein, Gnathostomata, Gray's Anatomy, Gross anatomy, Hand, Harold Ellis (professor), Heart, Herophilos, Heterotroph, Hippocratic Corpus, Histology, Histopathology, History of anatomy, History of anatomy in the 19th century, Homology (biology), Human body, Human gastrointestinal tract, Human head, Human leg, Hypothalamus, Ignaz Semmelweis, In Our Time (radio series), Inner ear, Insect, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Intervertebral disc, Intestinal villus, Invertebrate, Islamic Golden Age, Jan van Calcar, Jellyfish, John Struthers (anatomist), Keratin, Keratinocyte, Kidney, Kingdom (biology), Lateral line, Leonardo da Vinci, Limb (anatomy), List of human anatomical features, List of human anatomical parts named after people, Liver, Lizard, Lobster, Lung, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Mammary gland, Marcello Malpighi, Marsupial, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Medical imaging, Medical manual, Medical school, Medical ultrasound, Medicine, Melvyn Bragg, Mesoderm, Metabolism, Microscope, Microscopic scale, Microscopy, Microtome, Microvillus, Middle ear, Mineralization (biology), Molecular anatomy, Mollusca, Mondino de Liuzzi, Monotreme, Motility, Motor neuron, Mucous gland, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Muscle tissue, Myocyte, Myofibril, Neck, Nerve, Nerve net, Nervous tissue, Neural tube, Neuron, Nipple, Notochord, Nursing, Occupational therapy, Octopus, Operculum (fish), Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Organism, Osteichthyes, Outline of human anatomy, Oviparity, Ovoviviparity, Palpal bulb, Palpation, Paramecium, Paramedic, Parietal eye, Pedipalp, Pelvic spur, Peripheral nervous system, Personal grooming, Phagocytosis, Pharyngeal arch, Philosophy, Phospholipid, Photoreceptor cell, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Physical therapy, Physiology, Pinacoderm, Placenta, Plant anatomy, Plant cell, Platypus, Polychaete, Polyp, Pouch (marsupial), Praxagoras, Primitive (phylogenetics), Protein, Protozoa, Pseudopodia, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Ptolemaic dynasty, Puerperal infections, Radiography, Radiolaria, Radiology, Regius Professor of Anatomy (Aberdeen), Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory tract, Royal College of Physicians, Salamander, Sea anemone, Sea cucumber, Segmentation (biology), Sensory neuron, Sessility (zoology), Sex organ, Silicon dioxide, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple eye in invertebrates, Skeletal muscle, Skeleton, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Somatic nervous system, Spawn (biology), Spider, Spinal cord, Spine (zoology), Spleen, Sponge, Squamous epithelial cell, Stomach, Striated muscle tissue, Sturgeon, Surface anatomy, Surgery, Sweat gland, Swim bladder, Synapomorphy, Tail, Tay Whale, Tetrapod, The Renaissance, Theodor Schwann, Thomas Jefferson University, Thoracic diaphragm, Thorax, Thorax (insect anatomy), Tissue (biology), Titian, Tooth enamel, Torso, Triassic, Triploblasty, Tuatara, Tubercle, Turtle, Turtle shell, Ultrastructure, University of Aberdeen, University of Padua, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Uropygial gland, Uterus, Vein, Ventricle (heart), Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Veterinary surgery, Video camera, Visual perception, Vivipary, Vivisection, William S. Forbes, Wing, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Yolk, Zygote. Expand index (309 more) »

Abdomen

The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Achromatic lens

An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.

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Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy

Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy is a series of anatomy lessons on video presented by Robert Acland.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Alessandro Achillini

Alessandro Achillini (Latin Alexander Achillinus; 29 October 1463 – 2 August 1512) was an Italian philosopher and physician.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Allegory

As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor.

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American Association of Anatomists

The American Association of Anatomists (AAA), based in Bethesda, MD, was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1888 for the "advancement of anatomical science." AAA is the professional home for an international community of biomedical researchers and educators focusing on anatomical form and function.

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Amniote

Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds and mammals that lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother.

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Amphibian

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anatomical terminology

Anatomical terminology is used by anatomists and zoologists, in scientific journals, textbooks, and by doctors and other health professionals.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anatomical terms of motion

Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.

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Anatomy

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Anatomy Act 1832

The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. IV c.75) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave freer licence to doctors, teachers of anatomy and bona fide medical students to dissect donated bodies.

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Anatomy murder

An anatomy murder (sometimes called burking in British English) is a murder committed in order to use all or part of the cadaver for medical research or teaching.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrea del Verrocchio

Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was master of an important workshop in Florence.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514–15 October 1564) was a Brabançon anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Angiography

Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.

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Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Annelid

The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 17,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Antenna (biology)

Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Antonio Benivieni

Antonio Benivieni (1443–1502) was a Florentine physician who pioneered the use of the autopsy, a postmortum dissection of a deceased patient's body used to understand the cause of death.

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Anus

The anus (which is from the Proto-Indo-European ano–, meaning "ring") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Arachnid

Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Arm

In human anatomy, the arm is the upper limb of the body, comprising regions between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.

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Artery

The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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Arthropod leg

The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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Articular processes

The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium (plural: atria) is one of the two blood collection chambers of the heart.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs.

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Barber surgeon

The barber surgeon was one of the most common medical practitioners of medieval Europe – generally charged with looking after soldiers during or after a battle.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Basal lamina

The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.

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Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the epithelium (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, etc), mesothelium (pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity, etc) and endothelium (blood vessels, lymph vessels, etc) from underlying connective tissue.

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BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.

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Bile

Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological neural network

In neuroscience, a biological neural network (sometimes called a neural pathway) is a series of interconnected neurons whose activation defines a recognizable linear pathway.

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Biology

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Blastula

The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Body plan

A body plan (also written bodyplan), Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is "an assemblage of morphological features shared among many members of a phylum-level group".

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Body snatching

Body snatching is the secret disinterment of corpses from graveyards or other burial sites.

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Bologna

Bologna (Emilian: Bulåggna pronounced; Bononia) is the largest city (and the capital) of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy.

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Bone

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.

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Brachiopod

Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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Bronchus

A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs.

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Buccal pumping

Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.

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Buccopharyngeal membrane

The region where the crescentic masses of the ectoderm and endoderm come into direct contact with each other constitutes a thin membrane, the buccopharyngeal membrane (or oropharyngeal membrane), which forms a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx.

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Cadaver

A cadaver, also called a corpse in medical literary and legal usage or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.

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Caecilian

Caecilians (New Latin, blind ones) are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Carapace

A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates such as turtles and tortoises.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.

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Cartilage

Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue in animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell adhesion molecule

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "contain") is a branch of biology that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division, death and cell function.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cephalopod

A cephalopod (pronounced) is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet").

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Cephalothorax

The cephalothorax is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.

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Cetacea

Cetacea is a widely distributed and diverse infraorder of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Chelicerae

The chelicerae, are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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Chemoreceptor

A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Chondrichthyes

Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Chordate

Chordates are animals possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail for at least some period of their life cycles.

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Cilium

A cilium (Latin for eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is.

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Clinician

A clinician is a health care practitioner that works as a primary care giver of a patient in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, clinic, or patient's home.

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Cloaca

In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animal species, opening at the vent.

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Cnidaria

Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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Cochlea

The cochlea (κοχλίας, kōhlias, meaning spiral or snail shell) is the auditory portion of the inner ear.

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Coelacanth

The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).

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Collagen

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.

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Columnar epithelial cell

Columnar epithelia are epithelial cells whose height are at least four times their width.

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Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological tissue that support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

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Cretaceous

The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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Crocodile

Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Crustacean

Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Ctenophora

Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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Cuticle

A cuticle, or cuticula, is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

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De humani corporis fabrica

De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.

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Deciduous teeth

Deciduous teeth, otherwise known as baby teeth, temporary teeth, milk teeth, and now more commonly primary teeth, are the first set of teeth in the growth development of humans and other diphyodont mammals.

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Diatom

Diatoms are a major group of algae, and are among the most common types of phytoplankton.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Diploblasty

Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

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Dissection

Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization, from Greek anatomia, from ana- "up" and temnein "to cut") is the process of disassembling and observing something to determine its internal structure and as an aid to discerning the functions and relationships of its components.

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Dragonfly

A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, suborder Anisoptera (from Greek ανισος anisos "uneven" + πτερος pteros, "wings", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).

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Duchy of Brabant

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.

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Earthworm

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to c. 1550 BC.

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Echidna

Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

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Echinoderm

Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the Phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Ectoderm

Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Edwin Smith Papyrus

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an Ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatiseWilkins, Robert H. Neurosurgical Classics. USA: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Thieme, 1992.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Embryogenesis

Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

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Embryology

Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

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Endoderm

Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo.

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Endoscopy

Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body.

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Endoskeleton

An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.

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Endotherm

An endotherm (Greek: endon.

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Epidermis

The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of cells in the skin,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005) Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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Epithelium

Epithelium (''epi-'' + ''thele'' + ''-ium'') is one of the four basic types of animal tissue.

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Erasistratus

Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.

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Esophagus

The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Eukaryote

A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eumetazoa

Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and several other obscure or extinct life forms, such as Dickinsonia.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth.

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Excretion

Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Eye

Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Feather

Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

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Fetus

In human development, a fetus (plural "fetuses"), also spelled foetus, is a prenatal human between its embryonic state and its birth.

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Fish fin

Fish fins are the most distinctive features of a fish, composed of bony spines protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks.

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Fish scale

The skin of most fishes are covered with scales.

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Flagellum

A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

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Foot

The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.

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Foundational Model of Anatomy

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy.

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Frog

Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek an-, without + oura, tail).

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Galen

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; AD 129 – /), better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire.

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Gamete

A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Ganglion

In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface.

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Germ layer

A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.

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Gill

A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Gland

A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance such as hormones for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.

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Gnathostomata

Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.

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Gray's Anatomy

Gray's Anatomy is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter.

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Gross anatomy

Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level.

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Hand

A hand (med./lat.: manus, pl. manūs) is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Harold Ellis (professor)

Harold Ellis CBE FRCS (born 13 January 1926 in London, England) is a retired Surgeon.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Herophilos

Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος), sometimes Latinized Herophilus (335–280 or 255 BC), was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.

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Heterotroph

A heterotroph (ἕτερος heteros.

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Hippocratic Corpus

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.

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Histology

Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", and -λογία ''-logia'' "science") is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

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Histopathology

Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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History of anatomy

The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.

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History of anatomy in the 19th century

The history of anatomy in the 19th century saw anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive human anatomy of the previous century.

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Homology (biology)

In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species.

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Human body

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

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Human gastrointestinal tract

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Human head

In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.

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Human leg

The human leg is the entire lower extremity or limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region; however, the precise definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle (called "crus" in Latin or "sura" for the backpart).

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, "room, chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (born Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of German extraction now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.

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In Our Time (radio series)

In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.

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Inner ear

The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.

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Insect

Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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Insect mouthparts

Insects exhibit a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.

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Insect wing

Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.

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Intervertebral disc

An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.

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Intestinal villus

Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall.

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Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.

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Jan van Calcar

Jan Steven van Calcar (Giovanni da Calcar, Joannes Stephanus Calcarensis) (c. 1499–1546) was a German-born Italian painter.

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Jellyfish

Jellyfish or jelliesVan Patten, Peg.

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John Struthers (anatomist)

Sir John Struthers FRSE FRCSEd (–) was the first Regius Professor of Anatomy at the University of Aberdeen.

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Keratin

Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Keratinocyte

A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

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Kidney

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (latin: regnum, pl. regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank below domain.

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Lateral line

The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, mainly fish, used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Limb (anatomy)

A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.

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List of human anatomical features

The detailed list of human anatomical features.

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List of human anatomical parts named after people

This is a list of human anatomical parts named after people.

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Liver

The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Lizard

Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with approximately over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Lobster

Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Lung

The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.

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Magnetic resonance angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammal

Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Mammary gland

A mammary gland is an organ in female mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.

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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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Marsupial

Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in Australasia and the Americas.

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.

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Medical manual

A medical manual is literature (usually a book) describing diagnosis, treatment, management, and prognosis of various disorders.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Medicine

Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melvyn Bragg

Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, (born 6 October 1939) is a British broadcaster, author and parliamentarian.

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Mesoderm

In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Microtome

A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections.

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Microvillus

Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Middle ear

The Middle Ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.

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Mineralization (biology)

In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an organism produces an inorganic substance.

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Molecular anatomy

Molecular anatomy is the investigation of the molecular changes of cells, tissues, and organs in a developing embryo.

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Mollusca

The molluscs or mollusksSpelled mollusks in the USA, see reasons given in Rosenberg's; for the spelling mollusc see the reasons given by compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals known as the Mollusca.

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Mondino de Liuzzi

Mondino de Luzzi, or de Liuzzi or de Lucci, (ca. 1270 – 1326), also known as Mundinus, was an Italian physician, anatomist, and professor of surgery who lived and worked in Bologna.

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Monotreme

Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria).

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Motility

In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a nerve cell (neuron) whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control muscles.

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Mucous gland

Mucous glands, found in several different parts of the body, typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.

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Myocyte

A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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Myofibril

A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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Neck

The neck is the part of the body, on many terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk.

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Nerve

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nerve net

A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue is the main component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryo's precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord.

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Neuron

A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Nipple

In its most general form, a nipple is a structure from which a fluid emanates.

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Notochord

The notochord is a flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates.

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Nursing

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder.

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Octopus

An octopus (or; plural: octopuses, octopi, or octopodes; see below) is a cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Operculum (fish)

The operculum of a bony fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills.

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Organ (anatomy)

In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

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Organism

In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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Osteichthyes

Osteichthyes, also called bony fish, are a taxonomic group of fish that have bone, as opposed to cartilaginous, skeletons.

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Outline of human anatomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.

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Oviparity

Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.

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Ovoviviparity

Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Palpal bulb

The two palpal bulbs or palpal organs are the copulatory organs of a male spider.

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Palpation

Palpation is the process of using one's hands to examine the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.

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Paramecium

Paramecium is a genus of unicellular ciliated protozoan, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.

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Paramedic

A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.

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Parietal eye

A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.

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Pedipalp

Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of the prosoma in arthropods of the subphylum Chelicerata, lateral to the chelicerae and anterior to the first pair of walking legs.

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Pelvic spur

Pelvic spurs are the externally visible portion of the vestigial remnants of legs found on each side of the vent in primitive snakes, such as boas and pythons.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.

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Personal grooming

Personal grooming (also called preening) is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body.

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Phagocytosis

In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.

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Pharyngeal arch

In the development of vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches (which develop into the branchial arches or gill arches in fish) are primordia for a multitude of structures.

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Philosophy

Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Phospholipid

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

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Phylogenetics

Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy or physiotherapy (often abbreviated to PT) is a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialty that remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical intervention (therapy using mechanical force and movements).

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

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Pinacoderm

The pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms.

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Placenta

The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy.

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Plant anatomy

Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.

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Plant cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.

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Platypus

The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) also known as the duck-billed platypus is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

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Polychaete

The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.

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Polyp

A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Pouch (marsupial)

The pouch is a distinguishing feature of female marsupials (and rarely in the males as in the water opossum and the extinct thylacine); the name marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, meaning "pouch".

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Praxagoras

Praxagoras (Πραξαγόρας ὁ Κῷος) was an influential figure of medicine in ancient Greece.

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Primitive (phylogenetics)

Primitive in the sense most relevant to phylogenetics means resembling evolutionary ancestors of living things and in particular resembling them in the nature of their anatomy and behaviour.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protozoa

In some systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

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Pseudopodia

Pseudopods or pseudopodia (singular: pseudopodium) (from the Greek word ψευδοπόδια, ψευδός "false" + πόδια "feet") are temporary projections of eukaryotic cell membranes or unicellular protists.

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

A pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that, though comprising only a single layer of cells, has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of stratified epithelia.

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Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.

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Puerperal infections

Puerperal infections, also known as postpartum infections, puerperal fever or childbed fever, is any bacterial infection of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.

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Radiography

Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.

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Radiolaria

The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of (diameter 0.1–0.2 mm) that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.

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Radiology

Radiology is a medical specialty that uses imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body.

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Regius Professor of Anatomy (Aberdeen)

The Regius Professor of Anatomy is a Regius Professorship at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

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Reptile

Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy involved with the process of respiration.

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Royal College of Physicians

The Royal College of Physicians, sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other similarly-named bodies, is a British professional body of doctors of general medicine and its subspecialties.

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Salamander

Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Sea anemone

Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

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Sea cucumber

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Segmentation (biology)

Segmentation in biology refers to the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

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Sessility (zoology)

In zoology, sessility is a characteristic of some aquatic animals, such that they are not able to move about.

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Sex organ

A sex organ or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any anatomical part of the body involved in sexual reproduction and constituting the reproductive system in a complex organism, especially the external sex organs; the external sex organs are also commonly referred to as the genitalia or genitals.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system.

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Skeleton

The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Skin

Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Snake

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears.

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Somatic nervous system

The somatic nervous system (SoNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements.

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Spawn (biology)

Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited, usually into water, by aquatic animals.

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Spider

Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spine (zoology)

In a zoological context, a spine is a hard, needle-like anatomical structure.

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Spleen

The spleen (from Greek σπλήν—splḗn) is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Sponge

Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer").

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Squamous epithelial cell

In anatomy, squamous epithelium (''squama-'' + ''-ous'') is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells.

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Stomach

The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in many animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs.

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Striated muscle tissue

Striated muscle tissue is muscle tissue that has repeating sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue.

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Sturgeon

Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum).

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Sweat gland

Sweat glands (also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands), are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.

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Swim bladder

The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.

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Synapomorphy

In cladistics, a synapomorphy or synapomorphic character state is a trait that is shared ("symmorphy") by two or more taxa and inferred to have been present in their most recent common ancestor, whose own ancestor in turn is inferred not to possess the trait.

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Tail

The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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Tay Whale

The Tay Whale, known locally as The Monster, was a humpback whale that swam into the Firth of Tay of eastern Scotland in 1883.

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Tetrapod

The superclass Tetrapoda (Ancient Greek τετραπόδηs tetrapodēs, "four-footed"), or the tetrapods, comprises the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants, including the living and extinct amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds, and some extinct fish.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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Theodor Schwann

Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.

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Thomas Jefferson University

Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States.

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Thoracic diaphragm

In human anatomy, the thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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Thorax

The thorax or chest (θώραξ (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"), thorax is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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Thorax (insect anatomy)

The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.

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Titian

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Tooth enamel

Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.

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Torso

Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.

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Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from roughly 250 to 200 Mya (to million years ago), an interval of 51.04 million years.

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Triploblasty

Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

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Tuatara

Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand and which, although resembling most lizards, are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia.

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Tubercle

A tubercle is generally a wart-like projection, but it has slightly different meaning depending on which family of plants or animals it is used to refer to.

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Turtle

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Turtle shell

The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.

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Ultrastructure

Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the nanostructure of a biological specimen, such as a cell, tissue, or organ, at scales smaller than can be viewed with light microscopy.

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University of Aberdeen

The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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Urea

Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Uropygial gland

The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.

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Uterus

The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals, including humans.

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Vein

In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Ventricle (heart)

In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Vertebra

In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate animal.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is a bony skeletal structure found in vertebrates.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Veterinary surgery

Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy), etc. are performed by Veterinary Surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some also perform additional procedures. The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, situation is a bit like in human beings, and more and more complex operations are performed, with sophisticated anaesthesia techniques. In the latter, the cost of the operation must not exceed the economic benefit in surgically treating the illness.

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Video camera

A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.

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Vivipary

Vivipary has two different meanings.

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Vivisection

Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.

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William S. Forbes

William Smith Forbes (10 February 1831–17 December 1905)Staff report (December 18, 1905) Dr.

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Wing

A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid.

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X-ray

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Yolk

The yolk is a part of an egg (or just of the egg cell in non-egg-laying animals) that feeds the developing embryo in animals.

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Zygote

A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Anatomic, Anatomical, Anatomically, Anatomist, Anatomy and physiology, Animal anatomy, Female anatomy, Male anatomy, Vertebrate anatomy, Zootomy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy

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