245 relations: Acanthocephala, Acoelomorpha, Algae, Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Amphibian, Anatomy, Animal, Animal attacks, Animal coloration, Annelid, Anti-predator adaptation, Archaea, Archaeocyatha, Archenteron, Aristotle, Arthropod, Asexual reproduction, Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Bacteria, Bilateria, Biological interaction, Bird, Blastula, Body cavity, Body plan, Bone, Brachiopod, Breathing, Bryozoa, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Cambridge University Press, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Cell wall, Centipede, Cestoda, Chaetognatha, Chemosynthesis, Choanoflagellate, Chordate, Cladogram, Clam, Cleavage (embryo), Cnidaria, Coelom, Cold seep, ..., Collagen, Convergent evolution, Coral, Crab, Cryogenian, Ctenophora, Dendrogramma, Desmosome, Detritivore, Deuterostome, Developmental biology, Dicyemida, Digestion, Diploblasty, Drosophila melanogaster, Earthworm, Ecdysis, Ecdysozoa, Echinoderm, Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems, Ectoderm, Ediacaran biota, Egg cell, Embryo, Endoderm, Entoprocta, Ernst Haeckel, Ethology, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Evolutionary arms race, Exoskeleton, Extinction, Extracellular matrix, Fauna, Fish, Flagellate, Flagellum, Flatworm, Food chain, Fragmentation (reproduction), Fungus, Gamete, Gap junction, Gastrotrich, Gastrulation, Gene, Genetic linkage, Genome, Genome project, Germ layer, Glucose, Glycoprotein, Gnathifera (clade), Gnathostomulid, Graptolithina, Gromia sphaerica, Helminths, Hemichordate, Herbivore, Heterotroph, Holocene, Homoscleromorpha, House mouse, Human, Hydrothermal vent, Hyolitha, Inorganic compound, Insect, Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Intron, Invagination, Jellyfish, Kingdom (biology), Kinorhyncha, Latin, Leech, Life, Limnognathia, List of animal names, List of animals by number of neurons, List of feeding behaviours, Lists of animals, Lists of organisms by population, Lobster, Lophophore, Lophotrochozoa, Loricifera, Mammal, Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Meiosis, Merriam-Webster, Mesoderm, Mesozoa, Metamorphosis, Millipede, Model organism, Molecule, Mollusca, Monophyly, Motility, Moulting, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Myxozoa, Nematode, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Nephrozoa, Nervous system, Octopus, Omnivore, Onychophora, Opisthokont, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Organ (anatomy), Organic matter, Organism, Orthonectida, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Oyster, ParaHoxozoa, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Parazoa, Parthenogenesis, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Phenotypic trait, Phoronid, Phylum, Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Placozoa, Platyzoa, Precambrian, Predation, Priapulida, Proarticulata, Protein, Protist, Protostome, Protozoa, Radiata, Redox, Reptile, Rotifer, Salinella, Science (journal), Scorpion, Sea anemone, Sea cucumber, Sea urchin, Seabed, Sexual reproduction, Shrimp, Sipuncula, Snail, South Australia, Spermatozoon, Spider, Spiralia, Sponge, Sponge spicule, Squid, Starfish, Starlet sea anemone, Stromatolite, Sunlight, Sustenance, Symbion, Symmetry in biology, Systema Naturae, Tardigrade, Taxonomy (biology), Tight junction, Tissue (biology), Tonian, Trace fossil, Trematoda, Trezona Formation, Trichoplax, Trilobozoa, Triploblasty, Trochophore, Tullimonstrum, University of Michigan, Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Vertebrate, Vetulicolia, Xenoturbella, Zebrafish, Zoology, Zygote, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.
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The Acoelomorpha are a disputed phylum of marine, soft-bodied animals with planula-like features.
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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.
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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as: Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
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Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
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Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).
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Animal attacks are an uncommon cause of human fatalities and injuries.
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Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces.
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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 17,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
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Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.
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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.
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Archaeocyatha or archaeocyathids ("ancient cups") is a taxon of extinct, sessile, reef-building marine organisms of warm tropical and subtropical waters that lived during the early (lower) Cambrian period.
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The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing embryo is known as the archenteron or the digestive tube.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.
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Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus listed the 564 species of bird from around the world which were known to him at the time.
Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
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The bilateria are the animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a front and a back end, as well as an upside and downside, and therefore a left and a right.
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Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another.
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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.
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The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.
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A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels).
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A body plan (also written bodyplan), Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is "an assemblage of morphological features shared among many members of a phylum-level group".
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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.
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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
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Breathing is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs, or oxygen through other respiratory organs such as gills.
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The Bryozoa, also known as Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals, are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
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Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
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The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from to million years ago (mya) and is succeeded by the Ordovician.
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The Cambrian explosion, or less commonly Cambrian radiation, was the relatively short evolutionary event, beginning around in the Cambrian Period, during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
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Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
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A carnivore meaning 'meat eater' (Latin, caro meaning 'meat' or 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour') is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
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The cell wall is a tough, flexible and sometimes rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.
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Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda.
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Cestoda (Cestoidea) is a class of parasitic flatworms, of the phylum Platyhelminthes.
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Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, are a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide.
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In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
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The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.
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Chordates are animals possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail for at least some period of their life cycles.
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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics which shows relations among organisms.
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"Clam" is an informal term used to refer to any molluscans within Class Bivalvia.
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In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
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The coelom (plural coeloms or coelomata) (Greek koilōma, hollow, cavity) refers to the main body cavity in most multicellular animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
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A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.
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Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (βραχύς / brachys.
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The Cryogenian (pronounced, from Greek cryos "cold" and genesis "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from.
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Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
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Dendrogramma is a genus consisting of two species, D. enigmatica and D. discoides, identified in 2014 from a collection of specimens gathered in 1986.
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A desmosome ("binding body"), also known as a macula adhaerens (plural: maculae adhaerentes) (Latin for adhering spot), is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion.
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Detritivores, also known as detritophages, detritus feeders, detritus eaters, or saprophages, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
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Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; from the Greek: "mouth second") are any members of a superphylum of animals.
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Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop, and is synonymous with ontogeny.
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Dicyemida, or Rhombozoa, is a phylum of tiny parasites that live in the renal appendages of cephalopods.
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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
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Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.
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Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
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Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates.
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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), nematoda, and several smaller phyla.
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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the Phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
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Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems is a 2006 higher education textbook on general ecology written by Michael Begon, Colin R. Townsend and John L. Harper.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
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The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Ma).
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The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.
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Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo.
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Entoprocta, whose name means "anus inside", is a phylum of mostly sessile aquatic animals, ranging from long.
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Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.
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Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and several other obscure or extinct life forms, such as Dickinsonia.
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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.
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In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is an evolutionary struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race, which could be, and often are, described as examples of positive feedback.
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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
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In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
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In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
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A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
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A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella.
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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
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The flatworms, or Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
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A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detrivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
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Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.
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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
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A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
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The gastrotrichs (phylum Gastrotricha), commonly referred to as hairybacks, are a group of microscopic (0.06-3.0 mm), worm-like, pseudocoelomate animals, and are widely distributed and abundant in freshwater and marine environments.
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Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula.
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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
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Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
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In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.
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Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
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A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
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Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.
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Gnathifera is an assemblage of phyla of metazoans.
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Gnathostomulids, or jaw worms, are a small phylum of nearly microscopic marine animals.
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Graptolithina is a class in the animal phylum Hemichordata, the members of which are known as graptolites.
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Gromia sphaerica is a large spherical testate amoeba, a single-celled organism classed among the protists and is the largest in the genus Gromia.
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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular organisms, which when mature can generally be seen with the naked eye.
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Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms.
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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
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A heterotroph (ἕτερος heteros.
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The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years BP and continues to the present.
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Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.
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The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
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Hyolitha are enigmatic animals with small conical shells known from the Palaeozoic Era.
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An inorganic compound is a compound that is considered not "organic".
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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.
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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta".
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
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Invagination is the infolding of one part within another part of a structure, a folding that creates a pocket.
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Jellyfish or jelliesVan Patten, Peg.
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In biology, kingdom (latin: regnum, pl. regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank below domain.
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Kinorhyncha (Gr. κινέω, kīneō 'move' + ῥυνχος, rhynchos 'snout') is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Leeches are segmented worms that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.
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Limnognathia maerski is a microscopic animal, discovered living in homothermic springs on Disko Island, Greenland in 1994, that has variously been assigned as a class or subphylum in the phylum Gnathifera or as a phylum in a Gnathifera superphylum, named Micrognathozoa.
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Many animals, particularly domesticated, have been given specific names for males, females, young, and groups.
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This is a list of representative animals by the number of neurons in their whole nervous system and the number of neurons in their brain (for those with a brain).
Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food.
Lists of animals are lists concerning members of the Kingdom animalia, primarily taxonomical but also relating to their endangered species status, their geographical location and their portrayal and/or naming in human culture.
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This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population.
Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
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The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Entoprocta, and Phoronida, which collectively constituted the Lophophorata.
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The Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") are a major grouping of protostome animals.
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Loricifera (from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine sediment-dwelling animals with twenty-two described species, in eight genera.
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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).
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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Mammalia as one of the six classes of animals, characterized by being: Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats.
Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half.
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Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries.
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In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
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The Mesozoa are enigmatic, minuscule, worm-like parasites of marine invertebrates.
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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
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Millipedes are arthropods in the class Diplopoda characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments.
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A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
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A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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The molluscs or mollusksSpelled mollusks in the USA, see reasons given in Rosenberg's; for the spelling mollusc see the reasons given by compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals known as the Mollusca.
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In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.
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In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.
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In biology, moulting or molting (see spelling differences), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
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Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
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The Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") are a group of parasitic animals of aquatic environments.
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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda.
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Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, Nematomorpha commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.
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Nemertea is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as "ribbon worms" or "proboscis worms".
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Nephrozoa is a clade of bilaterians which includes deuterostomes and protostomes.
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The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.
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An octopus (or; plural: octopuses, octopi, or octopodes; see below) is a cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda.
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An omnivore is an animal whose species normally derives its energy and nutrients from a diet consisting of a variety of food sources that may include plants, animals, algae, fungi and bacteria.
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The velvet worms (Onychophora — literally "claw bearers") are a minor ecdysozoan phylum with ~180 species.
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The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios).
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The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, also known as the Ordovician extinction, were, combined, the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that went extinct and second largest overall in the overall loss of life.
In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
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Organic matter or organic material, natural organic matter, NOM is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.
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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.
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Orthonectida is a small phylum of poorly known parasites of marine invertebrates that are among the simplest of multi-cellular organisms.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of different families of saltwater clams, bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
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The Parahoxozoa are a proposed grouping of animals based on presence of at least a single Hox/ParaHox gene, uniting Placozoa, Cnidaria (jellyfish) and Bilateria.
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In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.
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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
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The Parazoa are an ancestral subkingdom of animals, literally translated as "beside the animals".
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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
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The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism that may be inherited, be environmentally determined or be a combination of the two.
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Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida, sometimes called horseshoe worms) are a phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies.
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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla)The term was coined by Haeckel from Greek φῦλον phylon, "race, stock," related to φυλή phyle, "tribe, clan." is a taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.
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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as: Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites.
The Placozoa are a basal form of invertebrate.
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The Platyzoa are a group of protostome animals proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998.
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Positions of landmasses near the end of the Precambrian The Precambrian or Pre-Cambrian; sometimes abbreviated pЄ is the largest span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale.
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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).
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Priapulida (priapulid worms or penis worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive) is a phylum of marine worms.
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Proarticulata is an extinct phylum of very early, superficially bilaterally symmetrical animals known from fossils found in the Ediacaran (Vendian) marine deposits, and dates to approximately.
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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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In all biological taxonomy schemes, protists were a large group of diverse eukaryotic microorganisms, mainly unicellular animals and plants, that do not form tissues.
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Protostomia (from Greek meaning "mouth first") are a clade of animals.
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In some systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.
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Radiata is a taxonomic rank that has been used to classify radially symmetric animals.
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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
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The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
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Salinella salve is a dubious species of very simple animal that may not exist, but which some have named as the sole member of the phylum Monoblastozoa.
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
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Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida.
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Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
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Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
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Sea urchins or urchins, archaically called sea hedgehogs, are small, spiny, globular animals that, with their close kin, such as sand dollars, constitute the class Echinoidea of the echinoderm phylum.
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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
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Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
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The Sipuncula or Sipunculida (common names sipunculid worms or peanut worms) is a group containing 144–320 species (estimates vary) of bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented marine worms.
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Snail is a common name that is applied most often to land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs.
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South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
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The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of animals, including within their number of molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other phyla.
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Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer").
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Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.
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Squid are cephalopods of the order Teuthida, which comprises around 304 species.
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Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
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The starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) is a species of small sea anemone in the family Edwardsiidae native to the east coast of the United States, with introduced populations along the coast of southeast England and the west coast of the United States.
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Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρώμα, strōma, mattress, bed, stratum, and λίθος, lithos, rock) are layered bio-chemical accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms (microbial mats) of microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria.
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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
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Sustenance can refer to any means of subsistence or livelihood.
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Symbion is the name of a genus of aquatic animals, less than ½ mm wide, found living attached to the bodies of cold-water lobsters.
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Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes.
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(sometimes written with the ligature æ) was one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
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Tardigrades (also known as water bears or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, segmented micro-animals, with eight legs.
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Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
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Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens), are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid.
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In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.
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The Tonian (from Greek tonas, "stretch") is the first geologic period in the Neoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
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Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (sg.; ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), are geological records of biological activity.
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Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.
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The Trezona Formation is a Neoproterozoic epoch fossiliferous geological formation in South Australia.
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Trichoplax adhaerens is the only extant representative of phylum Placozoa, which is a basal group of multicellular animals (metazoa).
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Trilobozoa ("three-lobed animals") is an extinct taxon of organisms which displayed tri-radial symmetry.
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Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
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A trochophore (also spelled trocophore) is a type of free-swimming planktonic marine larva with several bands of cilia.
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Tullimonstrum gregarium, colloquially known as the Tully Monster, was a soft-bodied invertebrate that lived in shallow tropical coastal waters of muddy estuaries during the Pennsylvanian geological period, about 300 million years ago.
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The University of Michigan (U-M, UM, UMich, or U of M), frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.
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In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as: Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places.
Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
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VetulicoliaThe taxon name, Vetulocolia, is derived from the type genus, Vetulicola, which is a compound Latin word composed of vetuli "old" and cola "inhabitant".
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Xenoturbella is a genus of bilaterian animals; it contains two marine worm-like species.
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The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
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Zoology (zoh-OL-luh-jee) or animal biology is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
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The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
ANIMAL, Anamalia, Animal (Metazoan) Evolution, Animal Characteristics, Animal Phylogeny, Animal body, Animal life, Animal phylum, Animal reproduction, Animal types, Animalia, Animalia Kingdom, Animals, Anumal, Basal metazoa, Basal metazoan, Classification of animals, Kingdom Animal, Kingdom Animalia, Kingdom animal, Kingdom animalia, KingdomAnimalia, Metazoa, Metazoan, Metazoans, Metazoic, Metazoon, New Animal Phylogeny, New animal phylogeny, Non-human animal, Nonhuman animal, Water animal.