120 relations: About.com, Acceptable daily intake, Acesulfame potassium, Acetal, Acid, Ajinomoto, Alan R. Katritzky, Aldehyde, Amine, Amino acid, Angewandte Chemie, Appetite, Aroma compound, Asda, Aspartame controversy, Aspartame-acesulfame salt, Aspartic acid, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baking, Base (chemistry), Brain tumor, British Pharmacopoeia, Caffeine, Canderel, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical decomposition, Chemical synthesis, Citrus, Condiment, Conflict of interest, Cyclic compound, Descriptive statistics, Dipeptide, Drink mix, DSM (company), E number, Ecological fallacy, Epidemiology, Epileptic seizure, Equal (sweetener), Essential amino acid, Ester, Ethanol, European Commission, European Food Safety Authority, Excitotoxicity, FDA Consumer, ..., Fermentation in food processing, Food and Drug Administration, Food Standards Agency, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, G.D. Searle, LLC, Gastrin, Genotoxicity, Glutamic acid, Government Accountability Office, Half-life, Hallucination, Headache, Health Canada, Hot dog, Human brain, Hunger, Hydrolysis, Ice cream, Instant coffee, J.W. Childs Associates, John Olney, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Juice, Maillard reaction, Maltodextrin, Merisant, Methanol, Methyl group, Metronidazole, Migraine, Monosodium glutamate, Monsanto, Mood swing, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, National Cancer Institute, Neurotransmitter, NutraSweet, Panic attack, Pediatrics, Peptic ulcer, Peptide, Peptide bond, PH, Phenylalanine, Phenylketonuria, Postmarketing surveillance, Red wine, Saccharin, Scientific Committee on Food, Small intestine, Snopes.com, Soda fountain, Soft drink, Spironolactone, Sucralose, Sucrose, Sugar substitute, Syrup, The Coca-Cola Company, The New York Times, Thermolysin, Tosoh, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United States congressional hearing, United States Pharmacopeia, Walmart, Weight loss, 2,5-Diketopiperazine. Expand index (70 more) » « Shrink index
About.com, also known as The About Group (formerly About Inc.), is an Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites," of which there are nearly 1,000.
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Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk.
Acesulfame potassium (ace-SUHL-faym), also known as Acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium), or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener), and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One.
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An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
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An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.
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is a Japanese food and chemical corporation which produces seasonings, cooking oils, TV dinners, sweeteners, amino acids, and pharmaceuticals.
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Alan Roy Katritzky FRS (18 August 1928 – 10 February 2014) was a British-born American chemist, latterly working at the University of Florida.
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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a formyl group.
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Amines (US: or, UK:, or) are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
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Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.
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Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
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An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
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Asda Stores Limited is an American-owned, British founded supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire.
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The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of several controversies since its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974.
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Aspartame-acesulfame salt is an artificial sweetener marketed under the name Twinsweet.
Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D).
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder in which there are significant problems with executive functions (e.g., attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
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In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
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A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
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The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is an annual published collection of quality standards for UK medicinal substances.
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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class of psychoactive drugs.
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Canderel is a brand of artificial sweetener made mainly from aspartame.
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A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).
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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
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The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, pronounced sif'-san) is the branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds.
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In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
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Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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A condiment is a spice, sauce, or other food preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
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A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial interest, or otherwise, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation of the individual or organization.
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A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
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Descriptive statistics is the discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of a collection of information, or the quantitative description itself.
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A dipeptide is a sometimes ambiguous designation of two classes of organic compounds: Its molecules contain either two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond or one amino acid with two peptide bonds.
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A drink mix, or powdered drink mix is a processed-food product, a powder designed to mix usually with water to produce a beverage resembling fruit juice or soda in flavor.
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DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM) is a Dutch-based multinational life sciences and materials sciences company.
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E numbers are codes for substances that can be used as food additives for use within the European Union and Switzerland.
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An ecological fallacy (or ecological inference fallacy) is a logical fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data where inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong.
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Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
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An epileptic seizure (colloquially a fit) is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
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Equal is a brand of artificial sweetener containing aspartame, dextrose and maltodextrin.
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An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism being considered, and therefore must be supplied in its diet.
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In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.
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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.
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The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
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The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
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FDA Consumer was a magazine published from 1967 through 2007 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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Fermentation in food processing is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
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Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (Māori: Te Mana Kounga Kai - Ahitereiria me Aotearoa), formerly Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA), is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.
Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O.
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Formic acid (also called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid.
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G.D. Searle, LLC is a wholly owned trademark of Pfizer.
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Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
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In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
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Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-23 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG.
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The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
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A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
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Health Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
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A hot dog (also spelled hotdog) is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a sliced bun as a sandwich.
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The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.
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In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.
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Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a frozen food, typically eaten as a snack or dessert, usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours.
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Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee, coffee crystals and coffee powder, is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans.
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J.W. Childs Associates (JWC) is a private equity firm focused on leveraged buyout and recapitalization transactions for middle-market growth companies.
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John Olney (1932April 14, 2015) was a medical doctor and a professor of psychiatry, pathology, and immunology at the Washington University School of Medicine.
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The Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives was an international report of the World Health Organization.
Juice is a liquid (drink) that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables.
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The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned foods their desirable flavor.
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Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
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Merisant Company is a United States manufacturer of artificial sweeteners, including Equal and Canderel.
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A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
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Metronidazole (MNZ), marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
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Migraine is a neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms.
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
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Monsanto Company is a publicly traded American multinational agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation headquartered in Creve Coeur, Greater St. Louis, Missouri.
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A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
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The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
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The NutraSweet Company makes and sells NutraSweet, their trademarked brand name for the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame.
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Panic attacks are periods of intense fear or apprehension of sudden onset accompanied by at least four or more bodily or cognitive symptoms (such as heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or feelings of unreality) and of variable duration from minutes to hours.
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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents, and the age limit usually ranges from birth up to 18 years of age (in some places until completion of secondary education, and until age 21 in the United States).
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Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), also known as a peptic ulcer or stomach ulcer, is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus.
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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
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A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.
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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
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Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH.
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Phenylketonuria (PKU) (phenyl + ketone + -uria) is an inborn error of metabolism involving impaired metabolism of phenylalanine, one of the amino acids.
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Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-coloured (black) grape varieties.
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Saccharin is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy which is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose or table sugar, but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
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The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), established in 1974, was the main committee providing the European Commission with scientific advice on food safety.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.
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Snopes.com, also known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is a website covering urban legends, Internet rumors, e-mail forwards, and other stories of unknown or questionable origin.
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A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks.
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A soft drink is a drink that typically contains carbonated water, a sweetener and a natural or artificial flavoring.
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Spironolactone (INN, BAN, USAN) (pronounced), marketed mainly under the brand name Aldactone in most countries, is a synthetic, steroidal antimineralocorticoid, as well as, to a lesser extent, an antiandrogen, progestin, and antigonadotropin.
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Sucralose is a non-nutritive sweetener.
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Sucrose is a common, naturally occurring carbohydrate found in many plants and plant parts.
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A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
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In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine, via sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
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The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational beverage corporation and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups, which is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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Thermolysin (Bacillus thermoproteolyticus neutral proteinase, thermoase, thermoase Y10, TLN) is a thermostable neutral metalloproteinase enzyme produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus thermoproteolyticus.
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is a global chemical and specialty materials company.
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The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an agency of the United States federal government.
Congressional hearings are the principal formal method by which committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes an official compendium in a combined volume with the National Formulary as the USP-NF.
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., d.b.a. Walmart, is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of discount department stores and warehouse stores.
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Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
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A 2,5-diketopiperazine (2,5-DKP) is a type of cyclic organic compound that results from peptide bonds between two amino acids to form a double lactam.
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