98 relations: Ancient Egypt, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglosphere, Antiqua (typeface class), ASCII, Aspirated consonant, ß, Ɓ, B (musical note), B♭ (musical note), Be (Cyrillic), Berkanan, Bet (letter), Beta, Biblical Archaeology Review, Bilabial consonant, Birch, Blackletter, C, Cambridge, Capitalization, Carolingian minuscule, Central Europe, Chinese language, Chromatic scale, Cnut the Great, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Cyrillic script, Digraph (orthography), Dot (diacritic), East Slavic languages, EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elder Futhark, English language, Estonian language, Etymology, Ƀ, Fijian language, Finnish language, Flat (music), Foot (hieroglyph), Fraktur, Gemination, Glyph, Greek alphabet, Gregorian mission, Grimm's law, Hebrew alphabet, ..., Hiberno-Scottish mission, Holy Roman Empire, Humanist minuscule, Icelandic language, Illustrated Hieroglyphics Handbook, Implosive consonant, Indo-European languages, Insular script, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian Renaissance, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Letterpress printing, Loanword, Long s, Macron below, Medieval Greek, Modern Greek, Musical notation, Musical note, Natural (music), Norman conquest of England, Old English, Old English Latin alphabet, Old Italic script, P, Phoenician alphabet, Pinyin, Pr (hieroglyph), Prenasalized consonant, Proto-Sinaitic script, Reed shelter (hieroglyph), Scandinavia, Slavic languages, Soft sign, Thai baht, Uncial script, Ve (Cyrillic), Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced labiodental fricative, Washington, D.C., Xhosa language, Yer, Zulu language. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
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Anglosphere refers to a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland), and which today maintain close political and military cooperation.
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Antiqua is a style of text used to mimic the hand.
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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character-encoding scheme (the IANA prefers the name US-ASCII).
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In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
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In the German alphabet, the letter ß, called "Eszett" or "scharfes S", in English "sharp S", is a consonant that evolved as a ligature of "long s and z" (ſz) and "long s over round s" (ſs).
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This letter, (minuscule), called "B-hook" or "B with a hook" is a letter of the Latin alphabet and the Africa alphabet.
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B, also known as Si, Ti, or, in some European countries, H, is the seventh note of the fixed-Do solfège.
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B (B-flat; also called si bémol) is the eleventh semitone of the Western chromatic scale (starting from C).
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Be (Б б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune, meaning "birch".
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Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt ב, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a Voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a Voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v⟩.
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Beta (or; uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bḗta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
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Biblical Archaeology Review is a bi-monthly magazine that seeks to connect the academic study of archaeology to a broad general audience seeking to understand the world of the Bible and the Near and Middle East (Syro-Palestine and/or the Levant).
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In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
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Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae.
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Blackletter, also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
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The city of Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England.
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Capitalization (or capitalisationsee spelling differences) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
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Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another.
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Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki; c. 985 or 995 – 12 November 1035), more commonly known as Canute, was a king of Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden, together often referred to as the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire.
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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
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In linguistics, a consonant cluster or consonant sequence is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
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The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
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A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
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When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' and 'combining dot below' which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
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The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe.
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Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an 8-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.
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The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various migrant communities.
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Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
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B with stroke (majuscule:, minuscule) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from B with the addition of a bar, which can be through either the ascender or the bowl.
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Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken in Fiji.
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Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
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In music, flat, or bemolle (Italian: "soft B") means "lower in pitch".
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The Ancient Egyptian Foot hieroglyph, Gardiner sign listed no.
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Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
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In phonetics, gemination or consonant elongation happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.
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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing and thereby expressing thoughts, ideas and concepts.
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
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The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in AD 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
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Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
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The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a mission initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of modern-day Scotland, which spread Christianity and established monasteries in Great Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Humanist minuscule is a handwriting or style of script that was invented in secular circles in Italy, at the beginning of the fifteenth century.
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Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
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The Illustrated Hieroglyphics Handbook is part of a new genre of books focused on Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Implosive consonants are stops (rarely affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
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Insular script was a medieval script system originally used in Ireland that spread, by way of Anglo-Saxon England, to continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
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The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
The ISO Basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
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The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing, such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants.
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In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule (see ''Terminology'') and smaller lower case (also small letters, or more formally minuscule, see ''Terminology'') in the written representation of certain languages. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case versions of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the font used): Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height, whilst the height of the minuscules varies, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the average, i.e. ascenders and descenders. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. Further to this, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts—although most do have a set of alternative Lining Figures— 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Letter case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the uppercase is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lowercase the more common variant in text. In mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects with uppercase letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x). Engineering design drawings are typically labelled entirely in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than lowercase, especially when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
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Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.
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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.
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The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is a form of the minuscule letter s, which was formerly used where s occurred in the middle or at the beginning of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" "sinfulness").
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Macron below,, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.
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Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still strongly influenced by Ancient Greek, it was also influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, which is the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the church.
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Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
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Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music through the use of written symbols, including ancient or modern musical symbols.
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In music, the term note has two primary meanings.
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In music theory, a natural is an accidental which cancels previous accidentals and represents the unaltered pitch of a note.
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The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
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Old Italic is any of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
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P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
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Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
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Pr is the hieroglyph for 'house', the floor-plan of a walled building with an open doorway.
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Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or a non-nasal sonorant) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
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Proto-Sinaitic is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Phoenician and South Arabian scripts, and by extension of most historical and modern alphabets.
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The Ancient Egyptian Reed shelter hieroglyph is Gardiner sign listed no.
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Scandinavia is a historical and cultural-linguistic region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethno-cultural North Germanic heritage and related languages.
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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.
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The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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The baht (บาท, sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
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Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
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Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
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The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
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The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
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Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States.
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The Xhosa language (or; Xhosa: isiXhosa) is one of the official languages of South Africa.
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A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets, namely ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).
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Zulu or isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
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