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Birch

Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. [1]

179 relations: Acoustic guitar, Adhesive, Albanian language, Alder, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Ancient Rome, Aos Sí, Arrow, Asia, BBC, BBC News, Beech, Berkanan, Bet v I allergen, Betula albosinensis, Betula alleghaniensis, Betula alnoides, Betula chinensis, Betula cordifolia, Betula dahurica, Betula ermanii, Betula fruticosa, Betula glandulosa, Betula humilis, Betula lenta, Betula michauxii, Betula minor, Betula nana, Betula neoalaskana, Betula nigra, Betula occidentalis, Betula papyrifera, Betula pendula, Betula platyphylla, Betula populifolia, Betula pubescens, Betula pumila, Betula raddeana, Betula szechuanica, Betula utilis, Betulaceae, Betulin, Birch, Birch bark, Birch bark manuscript, Birch beer, Birch sap, Birch tar, Birching, ..., Black Birch, Brady Haran, British Isles, Butterfly, Canoe, Carl Linnaeus, Catkin, Chichibu, Saitama, China, Danish language, Deciduous, Diminutive, Diuretic, Drum, Dutch language, Dye, Eudicots, Europe, Fagaceae, Fagales, Fermentation, Firewood, Flavor, Flowering plant, Footwear, Gaulish language, Genus, German language, Glassine, Hardwood, Hazel, Heat of combustion, Hornbeam, Hughes H-4 Hercules, IF Björklöven, India, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Karelia, Latin, Latitude, Latvian language, Leaf, Lenticel, Lepidoptera, List of Lepidoptera that feed on birches, Lithuanian language, Longboard (skateboard), Loudspeaker enclosure, Low German, LS3/5A, Lucy Larcom, Luzon, Maple, Methyl salicylate, Model aircraft, Montane ecology, Morton Arboretum, Moth, New Hampshire, New York, Nordland (boat), North America, North India, Norwegian language, Novosej, Oak, Oiling (leather processing), Old English, Old Irish, Ornäs Birch, Ossetian language, Paper, Pentecost, Percussion instrument, Percussion mallet, Pharmaceutical drug, Philippine cuisine, Philippines, Physical punishment, Phytochemical, Pioneer species, Plant, Plant reproductive morphology, Plywood, Polish language, Pollen, Primary succession, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Pulp (paper), Resonance, Robert Frost, Rosids, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Runes, Russia, Russia leather, Russian language, Samara (fruit), Sanskrit, Satin, Sauna, Seawater, Secondary succession, Seedling, Shampoo, Shrub, Skateboard, Soap, Soil pH, Subarctic climate, Taxonomy of Betula, Tír na nÓg, Tea, Temperate climate, Thermoplastic, Tonewood, Tree, Ukrainian language, Umeå, Umeå city fire, University of Nottingham, Vindolanda tablets, Welsh language, West Frisian language, Wigwam, WOMP, Wood (magazine), Wood veneer. Expand index (129 more) »

Acoustic guitar

An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically—by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification (see Electric guitar).

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Adhesive

An adhesive is any substance applied to the surfaces of materials that binds them together and resists separation.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.

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Alder

Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, is when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.

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Allergy

Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Aos Sí

The aos sí ("", older form aes sídhe), "") is the Irish term for a supernatural race in Irish mythology and Scottish mythology (usually spelled Sìth, however pronounced the same), comparable to the fairies or elves. They are said to live underground in fairy mounds, across the western sea, or in an invisible world that coexists with the world of humans. This world is described in the Book of Invasions (recorded in the Book of Leinster) as a parallel universe in which the aos sí walk amongst the living. In the Irish language, aos sí means "people of the mounds" (the mounds are known in Irish as "the sídhe). In Irish literature the people of the mounds are also called daoine sídhe; in Scottish mythology they are daoine sìth. They are variously said to be the ancestors, the spirits of nature, or goddesses and gods.Evans Wentz, W. Y. (1966, 1990). Gerrards Cross, Colin Smythe Humanities Press ISBN 0-901072-51-6 Some secondary and tertiary sources, including well-known and influential authors such as W.B. Yeats, refer to aos sí simply as "the sídhe (lit.

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Arrow

An arrow is a shafted projectile that is shot with a bow.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beech

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia and North America.

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Berkanan

Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune, meaning "birch".

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Bet v I allergen

Bet v I allergen is a family of protein allergens.

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Betula albosinensis

Betula albosinensis (Chinese red birch), syn. B. bhojpattra var.

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Betula alleghaniensis

Betula alleghaniensis (Yellow Birch), is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario, and the southeast corner of Manitoba in Canada, west to Minnesota, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.

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Betula alnoides

Betula alnoides is a species of birch that can be found in such countries as Burma, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam on an elevation of.

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Betula chinensis

Betula chinensis is a species of birch that can be found in China and Korea on the elevation of.

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Betula cordifolia

Betula cordifolia (Mountain Paper Birch, also known as Mountain White Birch or Eastern Paper Birch) is a birch species native to Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States.

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Betula dahurica

Betula dahurica is a species of birch which is native to China, Japan, Korea, eastern Mongolia, and Russian Far East.

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Betula ermanii

Betula ermanii, or Erman's birch, is a species of birch tree belonging to the family Betulaceae.

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Betula fruticosa

Betula fruticosa is a species of dwarf birch that grows in central and eastern Europe (except for Finland where it grows rare) and Siberia and Mongolia on elevation of in forests, streambanks, and swamps.

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Betula glandulosa

Betula glandulosa, American Dwarf Birch, also known as Resin Birch or Shrub Birch, is a species of birch native to North America, occurring in arctic and cool temperate areas from Alaska east to Newfoundland and southern Greenland, and south at high altitudes to northern California and Colorado in the west, and locally south to northern New York in the east.

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Betula humilis

Betula humilis is a species of birch that can be found in Europe and Asia.

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Betula lenta

Betula lenta (sweet birch, also known as black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch, or spice birch) is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.

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Betula michauxii

Betula michauxii, Newfoundland dwarf birch, is a species of birch which is native to Newfoundland from which it got introduced to Nova Scotia and Quebec.

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Betula minor

Betula minor, Newfoundland dwarf birch, is a species of birch which can be found in Eastern Canada and in such US states as Maine, New Hampshire, and New York.

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Betula nana

Betula nana (dwarf birch) is a species of birch in the family Betulaceae, found mainly in the tundra of the Arctic region.

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Betula neoalaskana

Betula neoalaskana (syn. B. resinifera) or Alaska Birch, also known as Alaska Paper Birch or Resin Birch, is a species of birch native to Alaska and northern Canada.

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Betula nigra

Betula nigra (black birch, river birch, water birch) is a species of birch native to the Eastern United States from New Hampshire west to southern Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and west to Texas.

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Betula occidentalis

Betula occidentalis (Water Birch, also known as Red Birch) is a species of birch native to western North America, in Canada from Yukon east to western Ontario and southwards, and in the United States from eastern Washington east to western North Dakota, and south to eastern California, northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, and southwestern Alaska.

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Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as white birch and canoe birch) is a species of birch native to northern North America.

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Betula pendula

Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes.

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Betula platyphylla

Betula platyphylla, or the Japanese White Birch, is a tree species belonging to the genus Betula.

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Betula populifolia

Betula populifolia (Gray Birch) is a deciduous tree native to North America.

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Betula pubescens

Betula pubescens (syn. Betula alba; downy birch; also known as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch) is a species of birch, native and abundant throughout northern Europe, Iceland, northern Asia and Greenland.

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Betula pumila

Betula pumila (Swamp or Bog Birch) is a deciduous shrub native to North America.

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Betula raddeana

Betula raddeana is a species of plant in the Betulaceae family.

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Betula szechuanica

Betula szechuanica (Sichuan Birch or Szechuan birch) is a birch species native to Sichuan, China, conical in shape, growing to 20 meters in height, with white bark, yellow-green male catkins or green female catkins, and dark, blue-green leaves.

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Betula utilis

Betula utilis (Himalayan birch, bhojpatra, भूर्ज bhūrja) is a birch tree native to the Himalayas, growing at elevations up to.

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Betulaceae

The birch family, the Betulaceae, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams, hazel-hornbeam, and hop-hornbeams numbering about 130 species.

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Betulin

Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol) is an abundant, naturally occurring triterpene.

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Birch

Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae.

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Birch bark

Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.

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Birch bark manuscript

Birch bark manuscripts are documents written on pieces of the inner layer of birch bark, which was commonly used for writing before the advent of mass production of paper.

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Birch beer

Birch beer in its most common form is a carbonated soft drink made from herbal extracts, usually from birch bark, although in the colonial era birch beer was made with herbal extracts of oak bark.

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Birch sap

Birch sap or birch water is the sap directly tapped from birch trees, Betula alba (white birch), Betula pendula (silver birch), Betula lenta, Betula papyrifera, and Betula fontinalis.

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Birch tar

Birch tar or birch pitch is a substance (liquid when heated) derived from the dry distillation of the bark of the birch tree.

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Birching

Birching is a corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically applied to the recipient's bare buttocks, although occasionally to the back and/or shoulders.

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Black Birch

Black Birch may refer to.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian independent film-maker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and for his YouTube channels, such as Numberphile and Periodic Videos.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Butterfly

Butterflies are part of the class of insects in the order Lepidoptera, along with the moths.

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Canoe

A canoe is a lightweight narrow boat, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Catkin

A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower cluster, with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated (anemophilous) but sometimes insect-pollinated (as in Salix).

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Chichibu, Saitama

is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Deciduous

Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.

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Diminutive

In language structure, a diminutive, or diminutive form (abbreviated), is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment.

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Diuretic

A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine.

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Drum

The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.

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Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Eudicots

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Fagaceae

The family Fagaceae includes beeches and oaks, and comprises about 600 species of both evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, which are characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts.

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Fagales

The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

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Firewood

Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel.

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Flavor

Flavor or flavour (see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Footwear

Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman period.

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Genus

In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Glassine

Glassine is a smooth and glossy paper that is air, water and grease resistant.

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Hardwood

Hardwood is wood from dicot angiosperm trees.

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Hazel

The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Heat of combustion

The heat of combustion (\Delta H_c^\circ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions.

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Hornbeam

Hornbeams are relatively small hardwood trees in the genus Carpinus.

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Hughes H-4 Hercules

The Hughes H-4 Hercules (also known as the "Spruce Goose"; registration NX37602) is a prototype heavy strategic airlift military transport aircraft designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Company.

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IF Björklöven

IF Björklöven (often simply referred to as Björklöven or Löven) is a Swedish professional ice hockey club in Umeå, Västerbotten, in northern Sweden.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, also known as Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, American Volume (J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.), is a peer reviewed medical journal in the field of orthopedic surgery.

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Karelia

Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latitude

In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is the official state language of Latvia.

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Leaf

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Lenticel

A lenticel is a porous tissue consisting of cells with large intercellular spaces in the periderm of the secondarily thickened organs and the bark of woody stems and roots of dicotyledonous flowering plants.

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Lepidoptera

The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (both called lepidopterans).

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List of Lepidoptera that feed on birches

Birches, Betula spp., are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species including.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.

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Longboard (skateboard)

A longboard is a type of sports equipment somewhat similar to a skateboard, but much longer.

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Loudspeaker enclosure

A loudspeaker enclosure or loudspeaker cabinet is an enclosure in which speaker drivers and associated electronic hardware, such as crossover circuits and amplifiers, are mounted.

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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LS3/5A

The LS3/5A (each element pronounced separately, without the stroke) is a small studio monitor loudspeaker originated by the BBC for use by outside broadcast vans to ensure quality of their broadcasts.

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Lucy Larcom

Lucy Larcom (March 5, 1824 – April 17, 1893) was an American poet and author.

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Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

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Maple

Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.

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Methyl salicylate

Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens.

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Model aircraft

A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft.

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Montane ecology

Montane ecology is the branch of ecology that studies life systems on mountains or other high elevation regions on the Earth.

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Morton Arboretum

The Morton Arboretum, in Lisle, Illinois, covers 1,700 acres (6.9 Square kilometres) and is made up of gardens of various plant types and collections of trees from specific taxonomical and geographical areas.

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Moth

Moths are a group of insects related to butterflies belonging to the order Lepidoptera.

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New Hampshire

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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New York

New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Nordland (boat)

The Nordland boat (or Nordlandsbåt), is a type of fishing boat that has been used for centuries in northern counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark of Norway and derives its name from Nordland county where it has a long history.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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North India

North India (उत्तर भारत, ਉੱਤਰ ਭਾਰਤ, شمالي هندستان) is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.

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Novosej

Novosej is one of the villages of the former Shishtavec Municipality which is part of the Kukës County in Albania.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oiling (leather processing)

Oiling is a process whereby leather is hand coated (usually by brush or tampon) with either a raw (un-emulsified) oil or a combination of raw oil, blended with emulsified oils and a penetrating aid.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc) (sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Ornäs Birch

The Ornäs birch, (Swedish Ornäsbjörk, Latin Betula pendula 'Dalecarlica') is a variety of silver birch with deeply indented leaves.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic (endonym: Ирон æвзаг, Iron ævzag), is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Pentecost

Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή, Pentēkostē, "the fiftieth ") is the Greek name for Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai (still celebrated in Judaism as Shavuot).

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Percussion instrument

A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.

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Percussion mallet

A percussion mallet or beater is an object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound.

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Pharmaceutical drug

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Philippine cuisine

Philippine cuisine consists of the food, preparation methods and eating customs found in the Philippines.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Physical punishment

Physical punishment is any form of penalty in a judicial, educational or domestic setting that takes a physical form, by the infliction on the offender of pain, injury, discomfort or humiliation.

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Phytochemical

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek).

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Pioneer species

Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously disrupted or damaged ecosystems, beginning a chain of ecological succession that ultimately leads to a more biodiverse steady-state ecosystem.

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Plant

Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant reproductive morphology

Plant reproductive morphology is concerned with the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.

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Plywood

Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.

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Pollen

Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).

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Primary succession

Primary succession is one of two types of biological and ecological succession of plant life, occurring in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation and other organisms usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from retreated glacier, is deposited.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.

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Pulp (paper)

Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops or waste paper.

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Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a given system is driven by another vibrating system or external force to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.

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Robert Frost

Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.

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Rosids

The rosids are members of a large monophyletic clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

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Runes

Runes (Proto-Norse: (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Russia leather

Russia leather is a particular form of bark-tanned cow leather.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Samara (fruit)

A samara is a winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Satin

Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back.

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Sauna

A sauna is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Seawater

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Secondary succession

Secondary succession is one of the two types of ecological succession of plant life.

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Seedling

A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

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Shampoo

Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.

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Shrub

A shrub is a small to medium-sized woody plant.

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Skateboard

A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used primarily for the activity of skateboarding.

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Soap

In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid.

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Soil pH

The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils.

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Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.

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Taxonomy of Betula

Bark on twigs rich in methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen).

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Tír na nÓg

In Irish mythology and folklore, Tír na nÓg ("Land of the Young") or Tír na hÓige ("Land of Youth") is one of the names for the Otherworld, or perhaps for a part of it.

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Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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Thermoplastic

A Fisch, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

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Tonewood

Tonewood is a term of art that generally refers to woods believed to possess tonal properties and used in the construction of stringed instruments.

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Tree

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Umeå

Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Uumaja, Ubmi) is a town in northern Sweden.

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Umeå city fire

The Great Fire of Umeå took place in 1888 and destroyed most of the city of Umeå in Sweden.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom.

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Vindolanda tablets

The Vindolanda tablets are the oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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Wigwam

A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.

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WOMP

WOMP (1290 AM) is a radio station broadcasting a classic hits format.

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Wood (magazine)

WOOD is a magazine catering to the home and hobby woodworker with more than 500,000 subscribers.

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Wood veneer

In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture.

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Apterocaryon, Betula, Betula species, Betulaster, Birch Tree, Birch tree, Birch trees, Birches, Birchs, Chamaebetula.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birch

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