119 relations: A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Address space, Analytical Engine, Bacon's cipher, Ban (unit), Barcode, Basile Bouchon, Baud, Binary number, Bit blit, Bit-length, Bitmap, Bitstream, Bitwise operation, Bubble memory, Byte, Capacitor, Cathode ray tube, Central processing unit, Character (computing), Charles Babbage, Classical mechanics, Claude Shannon, Communication, Computer, Computer architecture, Computer hardware, Computer program, Computing, Credit card, Data storage device, Delay line memory, Disk storage, DNA, Drum memory, Dynamic random-access memory, E (mathematical constant), Electric charge, Electric current, Electrical network, Electrical polarity, Electricity, Elevator, Entropy (information theory), Exabyte, Ferromagnetism, Flash memory, Flip-flop (electronics), Hartley (unit), Herman Hollerith, ..., IBM, IEC 60027, IEEE 1541-2002, Information, Information theory, Integer (computer science), International Electrotechnical Commission, International System of Units, Irradiance, ISO/IEC 80000, John Tukey, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Kilo-, Kilobit, Konrad Zuse, Least significant bit, List of Tron characters, Logarithm, Lossless compression, Magnetic storage, Magnetic stripe card, Magnetic tape, Magnetic-core memory, Magnetism, Morse code, Most significant bit, Nat (unit), Natural logarithm, Octet (computing), Optical disc, Parallel communication, Photolithography, Portmanteau, Primitive data type, Programmable logic array, Punched card, Punched tape, Quantum computing, Quantum mechanics, Quantum superposition, Qubit, Ralph Hartley, Rapid transit, Read-only memory, Relay, Science (journal), Semen Korsakov, Semiconductor memory, Serial communication, Sign (mathematics), State (computer science), Switch, Telephone exchange, Teletype Corporation, Ternary numeral system, Ticker tape, Traffic light, Transistor–transistor logic, Truth value, Units of information, UTF-8, Vacuum tube, Value (computer science), Vannevar Bush, Voltage, Werner Buchholz, Word (computer architecture), Yotta-, Yottabit. Expand index (69 more) »

## A Mathematical Theory of Communication

A Mathematical Theory of Communication is an influential 1948 article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon.

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## Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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## Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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## Bacon's cipher

Bacon's cipher or the Baconian cipher is a method of steganography (a method of hiding a secret message as opposed to a true cipher) devised by Francis Bacon in 1605.

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## Ban (unit)

A ban, sometimes called a hartley (symbol Hart) or a dit (short for decimal digit), is a logarithmic unit which measures information or entropy, based on base 10 logarithms and powers of 10, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms which define the bit.

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## Barcode

A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data relating to the object to which it is attached.

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## Basile Bouchon

Basile Bouchon was a textile worker in the silk center in Lyon who invented a way to control a loom with a perforated paper tape in 1725.

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## Baud

In telecommunication and electronics, baud (unit symbol Bd) is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second or pulses per second.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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## Bit blit

Bit blit (also written BITBLT, BIT BLT, BitBLT, Bit BLT, Bit Blt etc., which stands for bit block transfer) is a computer graphics operation in which several bitmaps are combined into one using a boolean function.

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## Bit-length

Is the number of binary digits, called bits, necessary to represent an integer in the binary number system.

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## Bitmap

In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits, that is, values which are zero or one.

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## Bitstream

A bitstream or bit stream is a sequence of bits.

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## Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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## Bubble memory

Bubble memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles or domains, each storing one bit of data.

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## Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store electrical energy temporarily in an electric field.

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## Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, and a phosphorescent screen used to view images.

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## Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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## Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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## Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 –18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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## Classical mechanics

In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.

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## Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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## Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the purposeful activity of information exchange between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules.

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## Computer

A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

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## Computer architecture

In electronic engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization and implementation of computer systems.

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## Computer hardware

Computer hardware (usually simply called hardware when a computing context is implicit) is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system.

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## Computer program

A computer program or app is a sequence of instructions, written to perform a specified task on a computer.

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## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes—e.g. through computers.

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## Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) as a method of payment.

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## Data storage device

A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data).

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## Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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## Disk storage

Disk storage is a general category of storage mechanisms where data are recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.

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## DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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## Drum memory

Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.

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## Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random-access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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## E (mathematical constant)

The number is an important mathematical constant that is the base of the natural logarithm.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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## Electrical polarity

Electrical polarity (positive and negative) is present in every electrical circuit.

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## Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

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## Elevator

An elevator (lift in British English) is a type of vertical transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.

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## Entropy (information theory)

In information theory, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the expected value (average) of the information contained in each message received.

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## Exabyte

The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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## Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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## Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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## Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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## Hartley (unit)

The hartley (symbol Hart) is a unit of information defined by International Standard IEC 80000-13 of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

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## Herman Hollerith

Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American statistician and inventor who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data.

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## IBM

International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York.

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## IEC 60027

IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is the International Electrotechnical Commission's standard on Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology.

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## IEEE 1541-2002

IEEE 1541-2002 is a standard issued by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) concerning the use of prefixes for binary multiples of units of measurement related to digital electronics and computing.

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## Information

Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. an answer to a question, as well as that from which knowledge and data can be derived (as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts).

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## Information theory

Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and computer science involving the quantification of information.

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## Integer (computer science)

In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type which represents some finite subset of the mathematical integers.

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## International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## Irradiance

In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.

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## ISO/IEC 80000

ISO 80000 or IEC 80000 is an international standard promulgated jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

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## John Tukey

John Wilder Tukey ForMemRS (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.

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## Joseph Marie Jacquard

Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834) was a French weaver and merchant.

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## Kilo-

Kilo (from the Greek χίλιοι, literally a thousand) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand.

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## Kilobit

The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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## Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.

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## Least significant bit

In computing, the least significant bit (LSB) is the bit position in a binary integer giving the units value, that is, determining whether the number is even or odd.

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## List of Tron characters

This article covers notable characters of ''Tron'' franchise, including all of its various cinematic, literary, video game adaptations and sequels.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation.

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## Lossless compression

Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.

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## Magnetic storage

Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetised medium.

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## Magnetic stripe card

A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card.

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## Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.

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## Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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## Morse code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

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## Most significant bit

In computing, the most significant bit (MSB, also called the high-order bit) is the bit position in a binary number having the greatest value.

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## Nat (unit)

The natural unit of information (symbol nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of ''e'', rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms, which define the bit.

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## Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base e, where ''e'' is an irrational and transcendental constant approximately equal to.

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## Octet (computing)

An octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.

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## Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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## Parallel communication

In computer science, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously.

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## Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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## Portmanteau

A portmanteau (plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words, or their phones (sounds), and their meanings are combined into a new word.

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## Primitive data type

In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.

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## Programmable logic array

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.

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## Punched card

A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contained either commands for controlling automated machinery or data for data processing applications.

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## Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

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## Quantum computing

Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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## Qubit

In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical bit.

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## Ralph Hartley

Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher.

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## Rapid transit

Rapid transit, also known as metro, subway, underground, or colloquially as "the train", is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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## Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices.

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## Relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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## Semen Korsakov

Semen Nikolaevich Korsakov (Семён Николаевич Корсаков; Semyon Nikolayevich Korsakov) (January 14, 1787–December 1, 1853 OS) was a Russian government official, noted both as a homeopath and an inventor who was involved with an early version of information technology.

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## Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is an electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented on a semiconductor-based integrated circuit.

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## Serial communication

In telecommunication and computer science, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.

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## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number to be positive or negative.

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## State (computer science)

In computer science and automata theory, the state of a digital logic circuit or computer program is a technical term for all the stored information, at a given instant in time, to which the circuit or program has access.

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## Switch

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

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## Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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## Teletype Corporation

The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.

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## Ternary numeral system

Ternary is the base- numeral system.

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## Ticker tape

Ticker tape was the earliest digital electronic communications medium, transmitting stock price information over telegraph lines, in use between around 1870 through 1970.

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## Traffic light

Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights and robots, and also known technically as traffic control signals, are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control conflicting flows of traffic.

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## Transistor–transistor logic

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and resistors.

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## Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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## Units of information

In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels.

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## UTF-8

UTF-8 is a character encoding capable of encoding all possible characters, or code points, in Unicode.

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## Vacuum tube

In electronics, vacuum tube, electron tube, tube (in North America), or valve (in Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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## Value (computer science)

In computer science, a value is an expression which cannot be evaluated any further (a normal form).

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## Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (denoted or) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge.

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## Werner Buchholz

Werner Buchholz (born October 24, 1922 in Detmold, Germany) is a noted American computer scientist.

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## Word (computer architecture)

In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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## Yotta-

Yotta is the largest decimal unit prefix in the metric system, denoting a factor of 1024 or.

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## Yottabit

The yottabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit