A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs "Hello, World!" (or some variant thereof) on a display device.
In computer programming, ?: is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for a basic conditional expression in several programming languages.
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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the others being subtraction, multiplication and division.
ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
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ALGOL 68 (short for ALGOrithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
AMPL, an acronym for "A Mathematical Programming Language", is an algebraic modeling language for describing and solving high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computation (i.e. large-scale optimization and scheduling-type problems).
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ANSI C, ISO C and Standard C refer to the successive standards for the C programming language published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO).
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An application program (or application for short) is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics.
In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands the function or operation accepts.
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In computer science, an array type is a data type that is meant to describe a collection of elements (values or variables), each selected by one or more indices (identifying keys) that can be computed at run time by the program.
An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions.
In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Augmented assignment (or compound assignment) is the name given to certain assignment operators in certain programming languages (especially those derived from C).
In computer programming, an automatic variable is a local variable which is allocated and deallocated automatically when program flow enters and leaves the variable's scope.
AWK is an interpreted programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
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B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
Backspace is the keyboard key that originally pushed the typewriter carriage one position backwards, and in modern computer systems moves the display cursor one position backwards,"Backwards" means to the left for left-to-right languages.
In computer science, BNF (Backus Normal Form or Backus–Naur Form) is one of the two main notation techniques for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols; the other main technique for writing context-free grammars is the van Wijngaarden form.
BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language designed by Martin Richards of the University of Cambridge in 1966.
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A bell code (sometimes bell character) is a device control code originally sent to ring a small electromechanical bell on tickers and other teleprinters and teletypewriters to alert operators at the other end of the line, often of an incoming message.
Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is a research and scientific development company that belongs to Alcatel-Lucent.
In computer science, a binary search or half-interval search algorithm finds the position of a target value within a sorted array.
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.
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BitC is a systems programming language developed by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University and as part of the Coyotos project.
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In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
Bjarne Stroustrup (born 30 December 1950) is a Danish computer scientist, most notable for the creation and development of the widely used C++ programming language.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type, having two values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
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Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.
In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites memory in adjacent locations.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits.
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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
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In the C programming language, data types refers to an extensive system for declaring variables of different types.
C dynamic memory allocation refers to performing manual memory management for dynamic memory allocation in the C programming language via a group of functions in the C standard library, namely malloc, realloc, calloc and free.
The C programming language provides many standard library functions for file input and output.
The C preprocessor or cpp is the macro preprocessor for the C and C++ computer programming languages.
C#By convention, a number sign is used for the second character in normal text; in artistic representations, sometimes a true sharp sign is used: C♯.
The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh, on most machines) is a Unix shell that was created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s.
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The C standard library is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
The syntax of the C programming language, the rules governing writing of software in the language, is designed to allow for programs that are extremely terse, have a close relationship with the resulting object code, and yet provide relatively high-level data abstraction.
C* is an object-oriented, data-parallel superset of ANSI C with synchronous semantics.
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C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus) is a general-purpose programming language.
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C++11 is a version of the standard of the C++ programming language.
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C-- (pronounced "see minus minus") is a C-like programming language.
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C11 (formerly C1X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:2011, the current standard for the C programming language.
C99 (previously known as C9X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:1999, a past version of the C programming language standard.
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In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
In computer programming, a callback is a piece of executable code that is passed as an argument to other code, which is expected to call back (execute) the argument at some convenient time.
A carriage return, sometimes known as a cartridge return and often shortened to CR, or return, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text.
Ch is a proprietary cross-platform C and C++ interpreter originally designed by Harry H. Cheng as a scripting language for beginners to learn mathematics, computing, numeric methods, and programming in C/C++.
In computing, a character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of an encoding system.
Cilk, Cilk++ and Cilk Plus are general-purpose programming languages designed for multithreaded parallel computing.
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CINT is a command line C/C++ interpreter that is included in the object oriented data analysis package ROOT.
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Clang is a compiler front end for the C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ programming languages.
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In the C and C++ programming languages, the comma operator (represented by the token) is a binary operator that evaluates its first operand and discards the result, and then evaluates the second operand and returns this value (and type).
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface, and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard environment for web servers to interface with executable programs installed on a server that generate web pages dynamically.
The computer programming languages C and Pascal have similar times of origin, influences, and purposes.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
The C and C++ programming languages are closely related.
A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers and is the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation.
In electronic engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization and implementation of computer systems.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware devices used to store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
A computing platform is, in the most general sense, whatever pre-existing environment a piece of computer software or code object is designed to run within, obeying its constraints, and making use of its facilities.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In computer programming, conditional compilation is compilation implementing methods which allow the compiler to produce differences in the executable produced controlled by parameters that are provided during compilation.
In computer science, control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
CPL (from Combined Programming Language and Cambridge Programming Language before that) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s.
CPython is the default, most widely used implementation of the Python programming language.
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In computing, cross-platform, multi-platform, or platform independent, is an attribute conferred to computer software or computing methods and concepts that are implemented and inter-operate on multiple computer platforms.
The Cyclone programming language is intended to be a safe dialect of the C language.
The D programming language is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
Dangling pointer and wild pointers in computer programming are pointers that do not point to a valid object of the appropriate type.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type; the operations that can be done on values of that type; the meaning of the data; and the way values of that type can be stored.
In computer programming, a declaration specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) means."A declaration specifies the interpretation and attributes of a set of identifiers.
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division (denoted ÷ or / or —) is an arithmetic operation.
In most computer programming languages, a do while loop is a control flow statement that executes a block of code at least once, and then repeatedly executes the block, or not, depending on a given boolean condition at the end of the block.
Double-precision floating-point format is a computer number format which occupies 8 bytes (64 bits) in computer memory and represents a wide, dynamic range of values by using a floating point.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Endianness is the ordering or sequencing of bytes of a word of digital data in computer memory storage or during transmission.
Englewood Cliffs is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
In computer programming, an entry point is where control is transferred from the operating system to an application, whereupon the processor enters a program or piece of code and execution begins.
In computer programming, an enumerated type (also called enumeration or enum, or factor in the R programming language, and a categorical variable in statistics) is a data type consisting of a set of named values called elements, members or enumerators of the type.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
Escape sequences are used in the programming languages C and C++, and also in many more languages (with some variations) like Java and C#.
A programming language uses an evaluation strategy to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.
An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more explicit values, constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
In the C programming language, an external variable is a variable defined outside any function block.
In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).
Flexible array member is a feature introduced in the C99 standard of the C programming language (in particular, in section §184.108.40.206, item 16, page 103).
In computing, floating point is the formulaic representation which approximates a real number so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In computer science a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a programming language control statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
Fortran (previously FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
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In computer programming, a free-form language is a programming language in which the positioning of characters on the page in program text is insignificant.
A function pointer (or subroutine pointer or procedure pointer) is a type of pointer supported by third-generation programming languages (such as PL/I, COBOL, Fortran, dBASE dBL, and C) and object-oriented programming languages (such as C++ and D).
In computer programming, a function prototype or function interface is a declaration of a function that specifies the function's name and type signature (arity, parameter types, and return type), but omits the function body.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.
A general-purpose language is a computer language that is broadly applicable across application domains, and lacks specialized features for a particular domain.
In the simplest definition, generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (GMP) is a free library for arbitrary-precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers.
The GNU Scientific Library (or GSL) is a software library for numerical computations in applied mathematics and science.
Go, also commonly referred to as golang, is a programming language developed at Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
Goto (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.
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In computer science, a graphical user interface or GUI, pronounced ("gooey") is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
In mathematics and computer science, a higher-order function (also functional, functional form or functor; not to be confused with the functor concept in category theory) is a function that does at least one of the following.
The Honeywell 6000 series computers were rebadged versions of General Electric's 600-series mainframes manufactured by Honeywell International, Inc. from 1970 to 1989.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
Many programming languages and other computer files have a directive, often called include (as well as copy and import), that causes the contents of a second file to be inserted into the original file.
Increment and decrement operators are unary operators that add or subtract one from their operand, respectively.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
In the C and C++ programming languages, an inline function is one qualified with the keyword inline; this serves two purposes.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
In computer science, instruction selection is the stage of a compiler backend that transforms its tree-based middle-level intermediate representation (IR) into a low-level IR very close to its final target language.
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type which represents some finite subset of the mathematical integers.
Intel C++ Compiler, also known as icc or icl, is a group of C and C++ compilers from Intel available for Windows, OS X, Linux and Intel-based Android devices.
In computer science, an intermediate language is the language of an abstract machine designed to aid in the analysis of computer programs.
The International Obfuscated C Code Contest (abbreviated IOCCC) is a computer programming contest for the most creatively obfuscated C code.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
An interpreted language is a programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 22 Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates standards within the fields of programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces.
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
In computing, the kernel is a computer program that manages I/O requests from software, and translates them into data processing instructions for the central processing unit and other electronic components of a computer.
A label in a programming language is a sequence of characters that identifies a location within source code.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often to develop software.
Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning vector spaces and linear mappings between such spaces.
In computer science, a linked list is a data structure consisting of a group of nodes which together represent a sequence.
In computer science, a linker or link editor is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another object file.
In computer programming, lint was the name originally given to a particular program that flagged some suspicious and non-portable constructs (likely to be bugs) in C language source code.
Dennis Ritchie invented the C programming language.
This page is intended to list all current compilers, compiler generators, interpreters, translators, tool foundations, etc.
In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries.
In computing, a locale is a set of parameters that defines the user's language, country and any special variant preferences that the user wants to see in their user interface.
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LPC (short for Lars Pensjö C) is an object-oriented programming language derived from C and developed originally by Lars Pensjö to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds.
Machine code or machine language is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρο- 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning and transaction processing.
In computer science, manifest typing is explicit identification by the software programmer of the type of each variable being declared.
Mathematica is a computational software program used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields, based on symbolic mathematics.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language.
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It is difficult to determine which programming languages are most widely used, and what usage means varies by context.
In computer science, a memory leak is a type of resource leak that occurs when a computer program incorrectly manages memory allocations in such a way that memory which is no longer needed is not released.
Memory management is the act of managing computer memory at the system level.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
MISRA C is a set of software development guidelines for the C programming language developed by MISRA (Motor Industry Software Reliability Association).
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Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
In computing, the modulo operation finds the remainder after division of one number by another (sometimes called modulus).
Multics ("Multiplexed Information and Computing Service") was an influential early time-sharing operating system.
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Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "·" or by the absence of symbol) is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name.
In computing, a newline, also known as a line ending, end of line (EOL), or line break, is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text and the start of a new line.
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In computer science, a nominal or nominative type system (or name-based type system) is a major class of type system, in which compatibility and equivalence of data types is determined by explicit declarations and/or the name of the types.
In computing, a null pointer has a value reserved for indicating that the pointer does not refer to a valid object.
In computer programming, a null-terminated string is a character string stored as an array containing the characters and terminated with a null character ('\0', called NUL in ASCII).
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
Object code, or sometimes an object module, is what a computer compiler produces.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which are data structures that contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A distinguishing feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
The Oracle Solaris Studio, formerly named Sun Studio, Sun WorkShop, Forte Developer, and SunPro Compilers, is a compiler suite which is Oracle Corporation's flagship software development product for the operating systems Solaris and Linux.
In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that define which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.
Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates our intuitive notion of order using binary relations.
A page break is a marker in an electronic document that tells the document interpreter that the content which follows is part of a new page.
In computer programming, a parameter is a special kind of variable, used in a subroutine to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the subroutine.
Pascal is a historically influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
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The DEC PDP-7 was a minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation as part of the PDP series.
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Pelles C is a lightweight freeware integrated development environment for Microsoft Windows and Pocket PC programming in the C language built and maintained by Pelle Orinius, featuring.
Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages.
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PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
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is an interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C. Unlike many other dynamic languages, Pike is both statically and dynamically typed, and requires explicit type definitions.
PL/I ("Programming Language One", pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and systems programming applications.
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In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object, whose value refers to (or "points to") another value stored elsewhere in the computer memory using its address.
In programming languages and type theory, polymorphism (from Greek πολύς, polys, "many, much" and μορφή, morphē, "form, shape") is the provision of a single interface to entities of different types.
The Portable C Compiler (also known as pcc or sometimes pccm - portable C compiler machine) is an early compiler for the C programming language written by Stephen C. Johnson of Bell Labs in the mid-1970s, based in part on ideas proposed by Alan Snyder in 1973, and "distributed as the C compiler by Bell Labs...
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
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POSIX, an acronym for Portable Operating System Interface, is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
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Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson PLC.
In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program.
Printf format string (of which "printf" stands for "print formatted") refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the string-processing libraries of various programming languages.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
Processing is an open source programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context, and to serve as the foundation for electronic sketchbooks.
A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language.
qsort is a C standard library function that implements a polymorphic sorting algorithm for arrays of arbitrary objects according to a user-provided comparison function.
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Purify is a memory debugger program used by software developers to detect memory access errors in programs, especially those written in C or C++.
In computer science, a record (also called struct or compound data) is a basic data structure (a tuple may or may not be considered a record, and vice versa, depending on conventions and the programming language at hand).
Recursion in computer science is a method where the solution to a problem depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
In computer science, a reference is a value that enables a program to indirectly access a particular datum, such as a variable or a record, in the computer's memory or in some other storage device.
Research Unix is a term used to refer to versions of the Unix operating system for DEC PDP-7, PDP-11, VAX and Interdata 7/32 and 8/32 computers, developed in the Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (frequently referred to as Department 1127).
In the C programming language, as of the C99 standard, restrict is a keyword that can be used in pointer declarations.
In computing, row-major order and column-major order describe methods for arranging multidimensional arrays in linear storage such as memory.
In computer science, run time, runtime or execution time is the time during which a program is running (executing), in contrast to other program lifecycle phases such as compile time, link time and load time.
A runtime system, also called run-time system, primarily implements portions of an execution model.
Rust is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Mozilla Research.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the part of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes.
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In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) about a memory access violation; on x86 computers this is a form of general protection fault.
The semicolon or semi-colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
A sequence point defines any point in a computer program's execution at which it is guaranteed that all side effects of previous evaluations will have been performed, and no side effects from subsequent evaluations have yet been performed.
In computer science, in the context of data storage, serialization is the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored (for example, in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link) and reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.
In computer programming, a sigil (or; plural sigilia or sigils) is a symbol attached to a variable name, showing the variable's datatype or scope, usually a prefix, as in $foo, where $ is the sigil.
SIGPLAN is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on programming languages.
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The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for the name "Unix".
In the programming languages C and C++, the unary operator sizeof generates the size of any variable or datatype, measured in the number of char size units required to represent the type.
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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
In computing, source code is any collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text.
A source-to-source compiler, transcompiler or transpiler is a type of compiler that takes the source code of a program written in one programming language as its input and produces the equivalent source code in another programming language.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area devoid of content, serving to separate words, letters, numbers, and punctuation.
There are different types of specifications, which generally are mostly types of documents, forms or orders or relates to information in databases.
Split-C is a parallel extension of the C programming language.
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A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language.
In computer programming, standard streams are preconnected input and output communication channels between a computer program and its environment when it begins execution.
In computer programming a statement is the smallest standalone element of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In the C programming language (and its close descendants such as C++ and Objective-C), static is a reserved word controlling both lifetime (as a static variable) and visibility (depending on linkage).
Static memory allocation is the allocation of memory at compile-time before the associated program is executed, unlike dynamic memory allocation or automatic memory allocation where memory is allocated as required at run-time.
Stephen Curtis Johnson is a computer scientist.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
A string literal or anonymous string is the representation of a string value within the source code of a computer program.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as strongly typed or weakly typed.
A struct in the C programming language (and many derivatives) is a complex data type declaration that defines a physically grouped list of variables to be placed under one name in a block of memory, allowing the different variables to be accessed via a single pointer, or the struct declared name which returns the same address.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of subroutines, block structures and for and while loops—in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the goto statement which could lead to "spaghetti code" which is difficult both to follow and to maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit.
In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
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Subtraction is a mathematical operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.
In computer programming languages, a switch statement is a type of selection control mechanism used to allow the value of a variable or expression to change the control flow of program execution via a multiway branch.
In computer science, syntactic sugar is syntax within a programming language that is designed to make things easier to read or to express.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of programming computer system software.
Tab key (abbreviation of tabulator key or tabular key) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.
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The C Programming Language (sometimes referred to as K&R, after its authors' initials) is a well-known computer programming book written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.
In computer science, a tree is a widely used abstract data type (ADT) or data structure implementing this ADT that simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of children with a parent node, represented as a set of linked nodes.
In computer science, type conversion, typecasting, and coercion are different ways of, implicitly or explicitly, changing an entity of one data type into another.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis (a "false positive"), while a type II error is the failure to reject a false null hypothesis (a "false negative").
In computer science, type punning is a common term for any programming technique that subverts or circumvents the type system of a programming language in order to achieve an effect that would be difficult or impossible to achieve within the bounds of the formal language.
In programming languages, a type system is a collection of rules that assign a property called type to various constructs a computer program consists of, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
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Unified Parallel C (UPC) is an extension of the C programming language designed for high-performance computing on large-scale parallel machines, including those with a common global address space (SMP and NUMA) and those with distributed memory (e.g. clusters).
In computer science, a union is a value that may have any of several representations or formats; or it is a data structure that consists of a variable that may hold such a value.
Unix (all-caps UNIX for the trademark) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
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A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A user is a person who uses a computer or network service.
Valgrind is a programming tool for memory debugging, memory leak detection, and profiling.
In computer science, a value is an expression which cannot be evaluated any further (a normal form).
In computer programming, a variable-length array (or VLA) is an array data structure of automatic storage duration whose length is determined at run time (instead of at compile time).
A variadic macro is a feature of some computer programming languages, especially the C preprocessor, whereby a macro may be declared to accept a varying number of arguments.
Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
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Microsoft Visual C++ (often abbreviated as MSVC or VC++) is a commercial (free version available), integrated development environment (IDE) product from Microsoft for the C, C++, and C++/CLI programming languages.
The void type, in several programming languages derived from C and Algol68, is the type for the result of a function that returns normally, but does not provide a result value to its caller.
In computer programming, particularly in the C, C++, C#, and Java programming languages, the volatile keyword indicates that a value may change between different accesses, even if it does not appear to be modified.
The Watcom C/C++ compiler is an open-source compiler for the computer programming languages C, C++, Fortran that produces executable programs for several platforms and operating systems.
In most computer programming languages, a while loop is a control flow statement that allows code to be executed repeatedly based on a given boolean condition.
In computer science, whitespace is any character or series of whitespace characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
A working group is an ad hoc group of subject-matter experts working together to achieve specified goals.
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