604 relations: A Mari Usque Ad Mare, A. J. Casson, A. Y. Jackson, Aboriginal music of Canada, Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Acadians, Act of Union 1840, Adolphe-Basile Routhier, Advice (constitutional), Aeronautics, Afghanistan, Air India Flight 182, Alaska, Alberta, Allied invasion of Italy, Alouette 1, Aluminium, American Revolution, Andrew Cohen (journalist), Anglican Church of Canada, Anthems and nationalistic songs of Canada, Archaeology of the Americas, Arctic Ocean, Arktika 2007, Arms of Canada, Arthur Lismer, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Canadian, Association football, Athabasca oil sands, Atlantic Canada, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, École Polytechnique massacre, Balance of trade, Bank of Canada, Baptists, Baseball, Basketball, Basques, Battle of the Scheldt, Battle of Vimy Ridge, BBC News, Beaver, Beaver Wars, Beringia, Beverley McLachlin, Black Brant (rocket), Black Canadians, Bloc Québécois, Bluefish Caves, ..., Brian Mulroney, British colonization of the Americas, British Empire, British North America Acts, Buddhism in Canada, Cabinet of Canada, Calendar year, Calgary–Edmonton Corridor, Calixa Lavallée, Canada (New France), Canada 2006 Census, Canada 2011 Census, Canada Act 1982, Canada at the 1900 Summer Olympics, Canada goose, Canada Health Act, Canada in the Cold War, Canada Pension Plan, Canada–Netherlands relations, Canada–United States Automotive Products Agreement, Canada–United States border, Canada–United States relations, Canadarm, Canadian Aboriginal law, Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Army, Canadian art, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canadian Confederation, Canadian Corps, Canadian dollar, Canadian federal budget, Canadian federalism, Canadian football, Canadian Football League, Canadian identity, Canadian Indian residential school system, Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian public debt, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, Canadian Red Ensign, Canadian Rockies, Canadian Space Agency, Canadians of Dutch descent, Canadians of German ethnicity, Canola, Cape Breton Island, Capital punishment in Canada, Catholic Church, Catholicism in Canada, CBC News, Celsius, Central bank, Central Intelligence Agency, CFS Alert, Charter of the French Language, Chief Justice of Canada, Chinese Canadian, Chinese language, Chipewyan language, Civil law (legal system), Clarity Act, Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Coast Mountains, Coins of the Canadian dollar, Colony of British Columbia (1858–66), Colony of British Columbia (1866–71), Colony of Vancouver Island, Common Era, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth realm, Conference Board of Canada, Conscription, Conscription Crisis of 1917, Conscription Crisis of 1944, Conservative Party of Canada, Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942), Constitution Act, 1867, Constitution Act, 1982, Constitution of Canada, Constitutional Act 1791, Constitutional monarchy, 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Pearson, Liberal Party of Canada, Library of Parliament, Libyan Civil War (2011), Lieutenant governor (Canada), Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, Life expectancy, List of bands from Canada, List of Canada-related topics by provinces and territories, List of Canadian composers, List of Canadian musicians, List of Canadian provinces by unemployment rate, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and territories by land borders, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by Human Development Index, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by number of Internet users, List of First Nations peoples, List of government space agencies, List of Nobel laureates by country, List of regions of Canada, Longitude, Loonie, Louisiana (New France), Lower Canada, Lower Mainland, Major League Soccer, Manitoba, Maple leaf, Marc Garneau, Market capitalization, Materiel, Métis people (Canada), McGill-Queen's University Press, Measles, Medicare (Canada), Meech Lake Accord, Mexico, Middle power, Military history of Canada, Military history of Canada during World War I, Military history of Canada during World War II, Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, Minister of Finance (Canada), Minister of Industry (Canada), Minister of Natural Resources (Canada), Minister of the Crown, Minority language, Mississippi River, Mixed economy, Mixed-blood, Mobile Servicing System, Monarchy of Canada, Monarchy of the Netherlands, Montreal Impact, MOST (satellite), Motion of no confidence, Mount Cayley, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Meager, Multiculturalism in Canada, Multiracial, Music of Canada, Nass River, National Energy Program, National Film Board of Canada, National Hockey League, National Policy, National symbols of Canada, NATO, Nazi Germany, NBC, New Brunswick, New Democratic Party, New France, Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland referendums, 1948, Nickel, Nickel (Canadian coin), Nisga'a, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Normandy landings, Norsemen, North American Aerospace Defense Command, North American Free Trade Agreement, North American fur trade, North Pole, North-West Mounted Police, North-Western Territory, Northwest Territories, Norway, Nova Scotia, Numbered Treaties, Nunavut, O Canada, October Crisis, OECD Better Life Index, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, Office of the Prime Minister (Canada), Official bilingualism, Official bilingualism in Canada, Official Languages Act (Canada), Official Opposition (Canada), Offshore drilling, Ohio River, Oil reserves, Oil reserves in Saudi Arabia, Oil reserves in Venezuela, Ojibwe language, Oka Crisis, Old Crow Flats, Ontario, Operation Overlord, Orbis (journal), Oregon boundary dispute, Oregon Treaty, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization of American States, Ottawa, Outline of Canada, Pacific Rim, Paleo-Indians, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary system, Parti Québécois, Patriation, Penny (Canadian coin), Permafrost, Petroleum industry, Pierre Trudeau, Plurality (voting), Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Population of Canada, Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, Poverty in Canada, Primary sector of the economy, Prime Minister of Canada, Prince Edward Island, Programme for International Student Assessment, Protestantism, Province of Canada, Province of Quebec (1763–91), Provinces and territories of Canada, Punjabi language, Quebec Act, Quebec City, Quebec nationalism, Quebec Nordiques, Quebec referendum, 1995, Quebec sovereignty movement, Queen Victoria, Queen-in-Council, Quiet Revolution, Radarsat-1, Radarsat-2, Ralph M. 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Expand index (554 more) » « Shrink index
A Mari Usque Ad Mare (From Sea to Sea; D'un océan à l'autre) is the Canadian national motto.
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Alfred Joseph Casson, (May 17, 1898 – February 20, 1992) was a member of the Canadian group of artists known as the Group of Seven.
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Alexander Young Jackson, (October 3, 1882 – April 5, 1974) was a Canadian painter and a founding member of the Group of Seven.
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Aboriginal music of Canada encompasses a wide variety of musical genres created by Canada's Aboriginal people.
Aboriginal peoples in Canada, or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia, some of whom are also Metis.
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The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841.
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Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier (May 8, 1839 – June 27, 1920) was a Canadian judge, author, and lyricist.
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Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.
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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation of the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Air India Flight 182 was an Air India flight operating on the Montreal, Canada–London, UK–Delhi, India route.
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Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.
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Alberta is a western province of Canada.
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The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied landing on mainland Italy on 3 September 1943 during the Second World War, by British General Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group (comprising Lieutenant General Mark Clark's United States Fifth Army and General Bernard Montgomery's British Eighth Army).
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Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere.
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Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
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The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.
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Andrew Cohen (born 1955) is an award-winning Canadian journalist, bestselling author, and professor of journalism at Carleton University's School of Journalism and Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.
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The Anglican Church of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
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Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British or French patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years.
The archaeology of the Americas is the study of the archaeology of North America (Mesoamerica included), Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
The Arctic Ocean (also known as the Northern Ocean), located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceanic divisions.
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Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage.
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The Arms of Canada, also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada or formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada, is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch and thus also of Canada.
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Arthur Lismer, CC (27 June 1885 – 23 March 1969) was an English-Canadian painter and member of the Group of Seven.
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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
Asian Canadians ancestry refers to Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian peoples.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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The Athabasca oil sands (also called the Athabasca tar sands or Alberta tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
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Atlantic Canada is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
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The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority.
The École Polytechnique Massacre, also known as the Montreal Massacre, occurred on December 6, 1989, at the École Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy.
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The Bank of Canada, BoC (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.
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Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
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Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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The Basques (euskaldunak; vascos; basques) are an indigenous ethnic group who primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.
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The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations by the Canadian First Army - consisting of Canadian, British and Polish formations - to open up the port of Antwerp so that it could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe.
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The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement fought primarily as part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The beaver (genus Castor) is a primarily nocturnal, large, semiaquatic rodent.
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The Beaver Wars—also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars—encompass a series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America.
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Beringia is a loosely defined region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea.
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Beverley McLachlin, (born 7 September 1943) is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, the first woman to hold this position, and the longest serving Chief Justice in Canadian history.
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The Black Brant is a family of Canadian-designed sounding rockets built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
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Black Canadian is a designation used for people of Black African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada.
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The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to the protection of Quebec's interests in the House of Commons of Canada, and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty.
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Bluefish Caves is an archaeological site in Yukon, Canada, located southwest of the Vuntut Gwichin community of Old Crow, from which a specimen of allegedly human-worked mammoth bone has been radiocarbon dated to 28,000 years before present (y.b.p.). Bluefish Cave was initially known to the local First Nations, but was popularized by a fishing expedition in 1976, and later by researchers.
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Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), PC, CC, GOQ, was the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984 to June 25, 1993, and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993.
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British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland before the Acts of Union, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are the original names of a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.
Buddhism is among the smallest minority-religions in Canada, with a very slowly growing population in the country, partly the result of conversion, with only 4.6% of new immigrants identifying themselves as Buddhist.
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The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
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Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days.
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The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is a geographical region of the Canadian province of Alberta.
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Calixa Lavallée, (December 28, 1842 – January 21, 1891), born Calixte Paquet dit Lavallée, was a French-Canadian-American musician and Union Army band musician during the American Civil War who composed the music for O Canada, which officially became the national anthem of Canada in 1980.
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Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St. Lawrence River; the other colonies of New France were Acadia, Louisiana and the south shore of Newfoundland.
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The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.
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The Canada 2011 Census is a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011.
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The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was passed at the request of the Canadian federal government to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the country to request certain types of amendment to the Constitution of Canada to be made by the British parliament.
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The 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris were the first Olympics at which a Canadian athlete participated.
The Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brown body.
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The Canada Health Act (CHA) a piece of Canadian federal legislation, adopted in 1984, which specifies the conditions and criteria with which the provincial and territorial health insurance programs must conform in order to receive federal transfer payments under the Canada Health Transfer.
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Canada emerged from the Second World War as a world power, radically transforming a principally agricultural and rural dominion of a dying empire into a truly sovereign nation, with a market economy focused on a combination of resource extraction and refinement, heavy manufacturing, and high-technology research and development.
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The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program.
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Canada and the Netherlands have a special relationship resulting from actions during World War II when Canadian forces led the liberation of the Netherlands and hosted the Dutch Royal Family in exile.
The Canada—United States Automotive Products Agreement, commonly known as the Auto Pact or APTA, was an important trade agreement between Canada and the United States.
The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world, shared between Canada and the United States of America, the second and fourth largest countries by area respectively.
Relations between Canada and the United States of America have spanned more than two centuries.
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm (Canadarm 1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads.
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Canadian Aboriginal law is the body of Canadian law that concerns a variety of issues related to aboriginal peoples in Canada.
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The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (CARAS) is the organization responsible for conducting the Juno Awards, Canada's primary national musical honours.
The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (les Forces canadiennes, FC), is the unified armed force of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces." This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
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The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne), formerly Land Force Command (LFC), is the army of Canada.
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Canadian art refers to the visual (including painting, photography, and printmaking) as well as plastic arts (such as sculpture) originating from the geographical area of contemporary Canada.
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The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (French: Société Radio-Canada), officially branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster.
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867.
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The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
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The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD) is the currency of Canada.
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In Canada, federal budgets are presented annually by the Government of Canada to identify planned government spending, expected government revenue, and forecast economic conditions for the upcoming year.
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Canadian federalism is concerned with the current nature and historical development of federal systems within Canada.
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Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wideTable of exact conversions attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone).
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The Canadian Football League (CFL; Ligue canadienne de football, LCF) is a professional sports league in Canada.
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Canadian identity refers to the unique culture, characteristics and condition of being Canadian, as well as the many symbols and expressions that set Canada and Canadians apart from other peoples and cultures of the world.
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The Indian Residential Schools were a network of "residential" (boarding) schools for Native Canadians (First Nations or "Indians"; Métis and Inuit).
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I rail carrier founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001.
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The Canadian government debt, commonly called the "public debt" or the "national debt", is the amount of money owed by the Government of Canada to holders of Canadian Treasury security.
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The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) is a public organisation in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications.
The Canadian Red Ensign is a former flag of Canada, used by the federal government though it was never officially adopted by the Parliament of Canada.
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The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.
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The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) (Agence spatiale canadienne; ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
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Dutch Canadians are any Canadian citizens of Dutch ancestry.
German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
Canola refers to both an edible oil (also known as canola oil) produced from the seed of any of several varieties of the rape plant, and to those plants, namely a cultivar of either rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) or field mustard/turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, syn. B. campestris L.). Consumption of the oil is common and, unlike rapeseed, does not cause harm in humans and livestock.
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Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Bhreatainn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America.
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Capital punishment in Canada dates back to 1759, in its days as a British colony.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Catholic Church in Canada is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops.
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CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on CBC Television, Radio and online services.
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Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.
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A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Armed Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island.
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The Charter of the French Language (La charte de la langue française), also known as Bill 101 (Law 101 or Loi 101), is a law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of Quebec and framing fundamental language rights.
The Chief Justice of Canada, like the eight puisne Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, is appointed by the Governor-in-Council (Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Cabinet).
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The Chinese Canadian ethnic group are Canadians of full or partial Chinese – particularly Han Chinese – ancestry.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation passed by the Parliament of Canada that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces.
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The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (French: Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party.
The Coast Mountains are a major mountain range, in the Pacific Coast Ranges, of western North America, extending from southwestern Yukon through the Alaska Panhandle and virtually all of the Coast of British Columbia south to the Fraser River.
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Canadian coinage is the coinage of Canada, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and denominated in Canadian dollars ($) and the subunit of dollars, cents (¢).
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866.
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony that resulted from the amalgamation of the two former colonies, the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland Colony of British Columbia.
The Colony of Vancouver Island (officially known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies), was a crown colony of British North America from 1849 to 1866, after which it was united with the mainland to form the Colony of British Columbia.
Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
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A Commonwealth realm is one of 16 sovereign states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, have Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning constitutional monarch, and have in common the same royal line of succession.
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The Conference Board of Canada is a Canadian not-for-profit think tank dedicated to researching and analyzing economic trends, as well as organizational performance and public policy issues.
Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (French: Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was mainly caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in WWI.
The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service in Canada during World War II.
The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.
The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation.
The Constitution Act, 1867 (originally enacted as The British North America Act, 1867, and referred to as the BNA Act), is a major part of Canada's Constitution.
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The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (UK)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada.
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The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
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The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
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The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. (federal district), on the continent of North America.
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A coureur des bois or coureur de bois (runner of the woods; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsman who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.
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The court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction.
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Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada.
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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.
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The criminal law of Canada is under the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the federal government, unlike in Australia or the US (see also federal crime).
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A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire.
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Canadian Crown corporations are enterprises owned by the Crown, or Queen, in right of Canada (the federal state) or in right of a province (a provincial state).
CTV News is the news division of the CTV Television Network in Canada.
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"Cultural mosaic" ("la mosaïque culturelle") is the mix of ethnic groups, languages and cultures that coexist within society.
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The culture of France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
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The Culture of Quebec emerged over the last few hundred years, resulting predominantly from the shared history of the French-speaking North Americans majority in Quebec.
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The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people.
Cupids is a town of 790 on Conception Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
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Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
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David Lloyd Johnston (born June 28, 1941) is a Canadian academic, author, and statesman who is the current Governor General of Canada, the 28th since Canadian Confederation.
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Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
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Citizenship and Immigration Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for issues dealing with immigration and citizenship.
A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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Dextre, also known as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), is a two armed robot, or telemanipulator, which is part of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station (ISS), and does repairs otherwise requiring spacewalks.
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The Dieppe Raid, also known as the Battle of Dieppe, Operation Rutter and, later, Operation Jubilee, was an Allied attack on the German-occupied port of Dieppe during the Second World War.
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Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.
The Dogrib language, or Tlinchon, is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Tłı̨chǫ (Digrib poeople) of the Canadian Northwest Territories.
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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.
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In 1871, the Imperial Crown entered into Treaties 1 and 2 to obtain the consent of the indigenous nations from the territories set out respectively in each Treaty.
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Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
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Chief Donnacona (died c. 1539 in France) was the chief of the village of Stadacona, located at the present site of Quebec City, Canada.
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The economic impact of immigration is an important topic in Canada.
Economic inequality, also known as income inequality, wealth inequality, gap between rich and poor, gulf between rich and poor and contrast between rich and poor, refers to how economic metrics are distributed among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
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Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.
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Canada holds elections for legislatures or governments in several jurisdictions: nationally (federally), provincially and territorially, and municipally.
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An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.
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Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of Muskox") is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut.
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Emily Carr (December 13, 1871 – March 2, 1945) was a Canadian artist and writer heavily inspired by the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
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The Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines is a project to build a twin pipeline from Bruderheim, Alberta to Kitimat, British Columbia.
An English Canadian or Anglo-Canadian refers to either a Canadian of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to an English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadian of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadian.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The English overseas possessions comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonized, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union between England and the Kingdom of Scotland.
Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to subnational governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services.
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Given here are the ethnic origins of Canadian residents (citizens, landed immigrants, and non-citizen temporary residents) as recorded by them on their 2006 census form.
European Canadians are Canadian people of European origin, descent, birth, or ancestry.
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European colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norse sailors explored and settled limited areas on the shores of present-day Greenland and Canada.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
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External debt (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors.
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Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), after whom the scale is named.
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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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Ferryland is a town in Newfoundland and Labrador on the Avalon Peninsula.
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The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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The First Nations (Premières Nations) are the various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis.
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A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly") financial statements in businesses and other organizations all over the world.
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The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf.
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The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) is an American think tank based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angouleme branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
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The Franco-Albertans are an extended community of French Canadians or French-speaking people living in Alberta.
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Franco-Manitobans are a community of French Canadians and other French-speaking people living in Manitoba.
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Franco-Ontarians (Franco-Ontariens or Franco-Ontariennes if female) are French Canadian or francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario. They are sometimes known as "Ontarois". According to the 2006 Canadian census, there were 488,815 self-declared francophones in Ontario (declaring one mother tongue), comprising 4.1 per cent of the province's total population. A further 1,000,000 Ontarians self-declared French to be one of multiple mother tongues. According to the subsequent 2011 Canadian census, there were 493,300 self-declared francophones in Ontario (declaring one mother tongue) comprising 3.9% of the province's total population. There were 284,115 Ontarians who declared French as their home language, which represents only 2.2% of the population. Franco-Ontarians constitute the largest French-speaking community in Canada outside of Quebec, as well as the largest minority language group within Ontario. The francophone population is concentrated in Eastern Ontario, in Ottawa, Cornwall and many rural farming communities, and in Northeastern Ontario, in the cities of Sudbury, North Bay and Timmins and a number of smaller towns. Other communities with notable francophone populations are Lakeshore, Windsor, Penetanguishene and Welland. Most communities in Ontario have at least a few Franco-Ontarian residents. Ottawa, with 128,620 francophones, has the province's largest Franco-Ontarian community by size. Among the province's major cities, Greater Sudbury, 29 per cent francophone, has the largest proportion of Franco-Ontarians to the general population, and Timmins, 41 per cent francophone, has the largest proportion among the smaller sized cities. Prescott and Russell United Counties has the highest proportion of Franco-Ontarians to the general population among the province's census divisions, with about two-thirds of the population being francophone. Some smaller communities in Ontario have a francophone majority. These include Hearst, Kapuskasing, Smooth Rock Falls, Embrun, St. Charles, West Nipissing, Rockland, Casselman, Dubreuilville, Vankleek Hill and Hawkesbury.
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Frank Johnston (June 19, 1888July 19, 1949) was a Canadian artist associated with the Group of Seven.
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Franklin Carmichael (May 4, 1890 – October 24, 1945) was a Canadian artist.
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Frederick Horsman Varley, also known as Fred Varley (January 2, 1881 – September 8, 1969), was a member of the Canadian Group of Seven artists.
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Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.
The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of intermittent conflicts between the years 1689 and 1763 in North America that represented colonial events related to the European dynastic wars.
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French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are a major North American ethnic group of Canadian citizens who trace their French ancestry from the descendants of colonists from France who arrived in New France (Canada) in the 17th and 18th centuries.
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The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.
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The Front de libération du Québec (FLQ; Quebec Liberation Front) was a separatist paramilitary group in Quebec.
The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
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The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.
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Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focus on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
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Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
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"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King") is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
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Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
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The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneur général du Canada, or: Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
Canada was hit hard by the Great Depression.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.
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The great northern loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family of birds.
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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.
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The Green Party of Canada (Parti vert du Canada) is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983 with 10,000–12,000 registered members as of October 2008.
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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
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The Group of Seven, also known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael (1890–1945), Lawren Harris (1885–1970), A. Y. Jackson (1882–1974), Frank Johnston (1888–1949), Arthur Lismer (1885–1969), J. E. H. MacDonald (1873–1932), and Frederick Varley (1881–1969).
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The Group of Ten or G-10 refers to the group of countries that have agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB).
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The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Gun politics in Canada is largely about registration.
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The Gwich’in language is the Athabaskan language of the Gwich’in indigenous people.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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Health care in Canada is delivered through a publicly funded health care system, which is mostly free at the point of use and has most services provided by private entities.
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The High Arctic relocation (French: La délocalisation du Haut-Arctique, Inuktitut: ᖁᑦᑎᒃᑐᒥᐅᑦᑕ ᓅᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ Quttiktumut nuutauningitᕉᒪᓂ ᒪᒃᑭᒃ Romani Makkik (2009),, ᓇᓃᓕᖅᐱᑕ Naniiliqpita, fall 2009) took place during the Cold War in the 1950s, when 87 Inuit were moved by the Government of Canada to the High Arctic.
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The Highland Clearances (Fuadach nan Gàidheal, the "expulsion of the Gael") was the forced displacement during the 18th and 19th centuries of a significant number of people from traditional land tenancies in the Scottish Highlands, where they had practised small-scale agriculture.
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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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Hindus in Canada generally come from one of three groups.
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The History of Canadian sports falls into five stages of development: early recreational activities before 1840; the start of organized competition, 1840-1880; the emergence of national organizations, 1882-1914; the rapid growth of both amateur and professional sports, 1914 to 1960; and developments of the last half-century.
Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith or Jewish ethnicity.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson), sometimes (usually historically) called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada, with a surface area of.
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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. 1539 – 9 September 1583) of Devon in England was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh (they had the same mother, Catherine Champernowne), and cousin of Sir Richard Grenville.
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Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
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Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside in the country.
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Income taxes in Canada constitute the majority of the annual revenues of the Government of Canada, and of the governments of the Provinces of Canada.
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The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Canada.
The Indian Act ("An Act respecting Indians"), is a Canadian statute that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
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The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they shared certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus.
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The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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The International Journal of the Sociology of Language is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of sociology of language.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
These are various international rankings of Canada.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Inuinnaqtun (natively meaning like the real human beings/peoples), is an indigenous Inuit language of Canada and a dialect of Inuvialuktun.
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Inuit (pronounced or; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska.
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Inuit art refers to artwork produced by Inuit people, that is, the people of the Arctic previously known as Eskimos, a term that is now often considered offensive outside Alaska.
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The Inuit languages are a closely related group of Native American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
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An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) (from the Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ; alternatively inukhuk in Inuinnaqtun, inussuk in Greenlandic or inukshuk in English) is a man-made stone landmark or cairn used by the Inuit, Inupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America.
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Inuktitut (Inuktitut, syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk person + -titut like, in the manner of), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuit, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
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Inuvialuktun, also known as Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut, and Western Canadian Inuktun, comprises several Inuit language varieties spoken in the northern Northwest Territories and Nunavut by those Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit.
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Invest In Canada is the Government of Canada organization that promotes and attracts foreign direct investment into Canada.
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Irish Canadians (Gael-Cheanadaigh) are Canadian citizens of Irish descent, which include descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland and Northern Ireland.
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The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group who originate from the island of Ireland and its associated islands.
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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Irreligion is common throughout all provinces and territories of Canada.
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ISIS 1 and 2 ("International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies") were the third and fourth satellites that were launched in a series of Canadian satellites sent up to study the ionosphere.
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According to Canada's 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,053,945 Muslims in Canada or about 3.2% of the population, making them the second largest religion after Christianity.
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The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham, Islamic State (IS), or Daesh (داعش), is a Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Iraq and Syria.
An Italian Canadian (Italo-canadese, Italo-canadien) is a Canadian citizen of Italian descent or an Italy-born person who resides in Canada.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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James Edward Hervey MacDonald (May 12, 1873 – November 26, 1932), known as J. E. H. MacDonald, was a Canadian artist and one of the founders of the Group of Seven who initiated the first major Canadian national art movement.
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Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France.
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Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934) known commonly as Jean Chrétien is a Canadian politician and statesman who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada.
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John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto, Zuan Chabotto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European exploration of the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings' visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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The JUNO Awards are presented annually to Canadian musical artists and bands to acknowledge their artistic and technical achievements in all aspects of music.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
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The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭, Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosungul: 조국해방전쟁, Joguk Haebang Jeonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union.
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L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove") is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
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Lacrosse is a contact team sport played between two teams using a small rubber ball (62.8-64.77 mm, 140-147 g) and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick.
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In linguistics, language death (also language extinction, linguistic extinction or linguicide,Zuckermann, Ghil'ad,, The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012. and rarely also glottophagy) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
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A multitude of languages are used in Canada.
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A Latin American Canadian is a Canadian citizen of Latin American descent or birth.
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Lava is the molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption and the resulting rock after solidification and cooling.
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Lawren Stewart Harris, CC (October 23, 1885 – January 29, 1970) was a Canadian painter.
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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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The Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (chef de la loyale opposition de Sa Majesté), or simply the Leader of the Opposition (chef de l'opposition) is the leader of Canada's Official Opposition, the party with the most seats in the House of Commons that is not a member of the government.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canada's provinces and territories. Each province's legislative assembly, along with the province's Lieutenant Governor, form the province's legislature (which is called a parliament or general assembly in some provinces).
A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier and diplomat, who won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.
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The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.
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The Library of Parliament (Bibliothèque du Parlement) is the main information repository and research resource for the Parliament of Canada.
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The 1st Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011, in the North African country of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
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In Canada, a lieutenant governor (French: lieutenant-gouverneur, or: lieutenant-gouverneure) is the viceregal representative in a provincial jurisdiction of the, who resides predominantly in oldest realm, the United Kingdom.
The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (French (masculine): Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec, or (feminine): Lieutenant-gouverneure du Québec) is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in oldest realm, the United Kingdom.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.
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This is a list of bands from Canada.
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This is a list of topics related to the provinces and territories of Canada, listed by topic type.
This is a list of composers who are either native to the country of Canada, are a citizen of that nation, or have spent a major portion of their career living and working in Canada.
This is a list of Canadian musicians.
The list of Canadian provinces by unemployment rate are statistics that directly refer to the nation's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate.
This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.
This is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2013.
The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area.
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.
Although these regions have no official status or defined boundaries the Provinces and territories are sometimes informally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Other regions are.
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Longitude (or, British also), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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The Canadian one dollar coin, commonly called the loonie, is a gold-coloured one-dollar coin introduced in 1987.
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Louisiana (La Louisiane; by 1879, La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
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The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
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The Lower Mainland is a name commonly applied to the region surrounding and including Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
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Major League Soccer (MLS) is a professional soccer league, sanctioned by U.S. Soccer, that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
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Manitoba is a province located at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
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The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is the most widely recognized national symbol of Canada.
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Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, C.C., CD, Ph.D., F.C.A.S.I., MP (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician, retired military officer, former astronaut, and engineer.
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Market capitalization or market cap is the total money market value of the shares outstanding of a publicly traded company; it is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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The Métis people are Indigenous North Americans of mixed race.
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The McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP) is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.
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Medicare (assurance-maladie) is the unofficial name for Canada's publicly funded universal health insurance system.
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The Meech Lake Accord (Accord du lac Meech) was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers.
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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The military history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, and interventions by the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide.
The military history of Canada during World War I began on August 4, 1914, when Britain entered the First World War (1914–1918) by declaring war on Germany.
The Second World War officially began on 1 September 1939, with the German invasion of Poland.
The Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development (Ministre des Affaires autochtones et du développement du Nord canadien) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet responsible for overseeing the corresponding federal government department (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada) and administering the Indian Act and other legislation dealing with "Indians and lands reserved for the Indians" under subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867.
The Minister of Finance (Ministre des Finances) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible each year for presenting the federal government's budget.
The Minister of Industry is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's economic development and corporate affairs department, Industry Canada.
The Minister of Natural Resources is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for Natural Resources Canada.
Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign.
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A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
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The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
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The term mixed-blood in the United States is most often employed for individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
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The Mobile Servicing System (MSS), better known by its primary component Canadarm2, is a robotic system and associated equipment on the International Space Station (ISS).
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The monarchy of Canada is the core of both Canada's federalism and its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy, being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the federal and each provincial government.
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The Monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the constitution of the Netherlands.
The Montreal Impact (Impact de Montréal) is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Montreal, Quebec that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), as MLS' 19th franchise and third Canadian club replacing the second division team of the same name.
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The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first space telescope.
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A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person in a superior position—be it government, managerial, etc.—is no longer deemed fit to hold that position.
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Mount Cayley is a potentially active stratovolcano in the Sea to Sky Country of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
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The Mount Edziza volcanic complex is a large and potentially active north-south trending complex volcano in Stikine Country, northwestern British Columbia, Canada, located southeast of the small community of Telegraph Creek.
Mount Garibaldi is a potentially active stratovolcano in the Sea to Sky Country of British Columbia, north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
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Mount Meager, originally known as Meager Mountain, is a volcanic massif in the of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
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Multiculturalism in Canada is the sense of an equal celebration of racial, religious and cultural backgrounds.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
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The music of Canada has reflected the diverse influences that have shaped the country.
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The Nass River is a river in northern British Columbia, Canada.
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The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada from 1980 to 1985.
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The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's twelve-time Academy Award-winning public film and digital media producer and distributor.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league composed of 30 member clubs: 23 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
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The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party in 1876 and put into action in 1879.
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National symbols of Canada are the symbols that are used in Canada and abroad to represent the country and its people.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network that is the flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
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New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick;, Quebec French pronunciation) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province constitutionally bilingual (English–French).
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The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a major social-democratic federal political party in Canada.
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New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763.
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Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve, Taqamkuk) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
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The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two referendums to decide the political future of the Dominion of Newfoundland.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
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The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar.
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The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisg̱a’a (pronounced), are an Indigenous people of Canada in British Columbia.
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The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
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The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
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Norsemen refers to the group of people who spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between the 8th and 11th centuries.
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Not to be confused with the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, also abbreviated NORAD. North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for Northern America.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in the North American continent.
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The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole, Celestial North Pole, or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
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The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force.
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The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870.
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The Northwest Territories (NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO) is a territory of Canada.
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.
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Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland", pronounced in English as) (French: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and constitutes one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces.
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The Numbered Treaties (or Post-Confederation Treaties) are a series of eleven treaties signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada (or First Nations) and the reigning monarch of Canada (Victoria, Edward VII or George V) from 1871 to 1921.
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Nunavut (from Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the largest, northernmost, newest, and least populous territory of Canada.
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"O Canada" is the national anthem of Canada.
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The October Crisis (La crise d'Octobre) was a series of events triggered by two kidnappings of a provincial cabinet minister and a British diplomat by members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) during October 1970 in the province of Quebec, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.
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The OECD’s Better Life Initiative, launched in May 2011 following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress also known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission.
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The Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, an office of the Canadian government, is responsible for achieving the objectives of, and promoting, Canada's Official Languages Act.
In Canada, the Office of the Prime Minister (more commonly referred to as the Prime Minister's Office and abbreviated as PMO), located in the Langevin Block, facing Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, is one of the most powerful parts of the government.
Official bilingualism is the policy adopted by some states of recognizing two languages as official and producing all official documents, and handling all correspondence and official dealings, including Court procedure, in the two said languages.
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The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
The Official Languages Act (French: Loi sur les langues officielles) is a Canadian law that came into force on September 9, 1969, which gives English and French equal status in the government of Canada.
In Canada, Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (L'Opposition Loyale de Sa Majesté), commonly known as the Official Opposition, is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on its own or as part of a governing coalition.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
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The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.
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The proven oil reserves in Saudi Arabia are the second largest in the world, estimated to be (Gbbl hereafter), including 2.5 Gbbl in the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone.
The proven oil reserves in Venezuela are recognized as the largest in the world, totaling as of 1 January 2014.
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Ojibwe (Ojibwa, Ojibway), also known as Chippewa or Otchipwe,R.
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The Oka Crisis was a land dispute between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka, Quebec, Canada which began on July 11, 1990 and lasted until September 26, 1990.
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Old Crow Flats is a wetland complex in northern Yukon, Canada.
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Ontario is one of the ten provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada.
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Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II.
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Orbis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on international relations and the foreign policy of the United States.
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The Oregon boundary dispute or the Oregon Question, was a controversy over the political division of the Pacific Northwest of North America between several Imperialist nations that had competing territorial and commercial aspirations over the region.
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The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers); and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada: Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories.
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The Pacific Rim are the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
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Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
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The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislative branch of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in the national capital, Ottawa, Ontario.
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The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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The Parti Québécois (French: Parti québécois, PQ) is a sovereignist provincial political party in Quebec in Canada.
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Patriation was the political process that led to Canadian sovereignty, culminating in 1982.
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In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or of a dollar.
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In geology, permafrost or cryotic soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
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The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products.
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Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), usually known as Pierre Trudeau or Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was the 15th Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968, to June 4, 1979, and again from March 3, 1980, to June 30, 1984.
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In North American English, plurality, also called relative majority in the context of voting, is the largest number of votes received by one candidate (or any proposal in a referendum) out of the entire group of candidates.
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The population figure for Indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus has proven difficult to establish.
The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced by several factors, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration.
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Port Royal is a Canadian rural community in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.
Poverty in Canada remains prevalent within some segments of society and according to a 2008 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the rate of poverty in Canada, is among the highest of the OECD member nations, the world's wealthiest industrialized nations.
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The primary sector of the economy is the sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or federal viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
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Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, as well as several much smaller islands.
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The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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The United Province of Canada, or Province of Canada, or the United Canadas was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
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The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
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The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.
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Quebec (Québec), also Québec, City of Québec, Quebec City, or Québec City (Ville de Québec),The city's name is not on a federally legislated list of, as is the case with the province of Quebec/Québec.
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Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois are a nation and promotes the unity of Québécois in the province of Quebec.
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The Quebec Nordiques (Nordiques de Québec, pronounced in Quebec French, in Canadian English, meaning "Northmen" or "Northerners") were a Canadian professional ice hockey team based in Quebec City, Quebec.
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The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second referendum to ask voters in the Canadian province of Quebec whether Quebec should proclaim national sovereignty and become an independent state, with the condition precedent of offering a political and economic agreement to Canada.
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The Quebec sovereignty movement (Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
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The Queen-in-Council (during the reign of a male monarch, King-in-Council) is the technical term of constitutional law for the exercise of executive authority in a Commonwealth realm, denoting the monarch acting by and with the advice and consent of his or her privy council (in the United Kingdom and Canada's federal jurisdiction) or executive council (in most other Commonwealth realms and in Canadian provinces).
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The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions.
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Radarsat-1 is Canada's first commercial Earth observation satellite.
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RADARSAT-2 is an Earth observation satellite that was successfully launched December 14, 2007 for the Canadian Space Agency by Starsem, using a Soyuz FG launch vehicle, from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome.
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Ralph Marvin Steinman (January 14, 1943 – September 30, 2011) was a Canadian immunologist and cell biologist at Rockefeller University, who in 1973 coined the term dendritic cells while working as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Zanvil A. Cohn, also at Rockefeller University.
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The Rebellions of 1837 were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838.
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The Red River Rebellion (or the Red River Resistance, Red River Uprising, or First Riel Rebellion) was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
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Reference Re Secession of Quebec, 2 S.C.R. 217 was an opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada.
A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite — or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal.
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The Reform Party of Canada (Parti réformiste du Canada) was a right-wing populist federal political party in Canada that existed from 1987 to 2000.
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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.
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Religion in Canada encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs.
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The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as the Durham Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Ontario, Canada and the British Empire.
Research and Development (R&D), also known in Europe as research and technical (or technological) development (RTD), is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation.
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Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
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Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
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The Rockefeller University is an American private university located in New York City in the United States, offering postgraduate and postdoctoral education.
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The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) (French: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC), formerly, formally the Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM), is the air force of Canada.
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The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), literally 'Royal Gendarmerie of Canada'; colloquially known as the Mounties, and internally as 'the Force') is both a federal and a national police force of Canada.
The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) (French: Marine royale canadienne), formerly Maritime Command (MARCOM), is the naval force of Canada.
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The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) was a Canadian Royal Commission established in 1991 to address many issues of aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign alone.
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The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, which forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.
Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America, consisting the Hudson Bay drainage basin, which was nominally owned by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870, although numerous aboriginal groups lived in the same territory and disputed the sovereignty of the area.
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Rwanda (or; U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in central and east Africa.
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The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
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Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (Fête de la Saint-Jean-Baptiste), officially known in Quebec as La fête nationale, (National Holiday)Québec 'national Holiday Act' defining the holiday, http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type.
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On July 20, 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, and the first country outside Europe, to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act which provided a gender-neutral marriage definition.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth.For a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see Ritch – December 25, 1635), "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
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Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of and a land area of, the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers).
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A school shooting is an occurrence in which an individual or group of individuals launches a gun attack on an educational institution, such as an elementary school, secondary school, post-secondary institution, or at an education-related setting.
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Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
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The Second Boer War (Tweede Boerenoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, literally "Second Freedom War") otherwise known as the Second Anglo-Boer War, was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.
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Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the first of several sections of the Constitution dealing with Canada's two official languages, English and French.
Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 provides constitutional protection to the aboriginal and treaty rights of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.
Section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution of Canada.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
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The Seven Years' War was fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.
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Canadian Sikhs number roughly 468,674 people and account for 1.40% of Canada's population.
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Skiing is a mode of transport, recreational activity and competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
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Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey First Nations of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Social democracy is a political ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy, and a policy regime involving welfare state provisions, collective bargaining arrangements, regulation of the economy in the general interest, redistribution of income and wealth, and a commitment to representative democracy.
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Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside of what the market provides.
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The Somalia Affair was a 1993 military scandal later dubbed "Canada's national shame".
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A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
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South Asian Canadians refers to Canadians who were either born in or can trace their ancestry to South Asia, which includes nations such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal.
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Southern Ontario is a region of the province of Ontario, Canada.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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Sport in Canada consists of a wide variety of games.
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Stadacona was a 16th-century St. Lawrence Iroquoian village near present-day Quebec City.
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Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), which was formed in 1971, is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
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The Statute of Westminster, 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and separate versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly by subsequent laws in former Commonwealth realms.
Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.
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Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian politician who is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and the Leader of the Conservative Party.
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A stock exchange is an exchange or stock market where stock brokers and traders can buy and/or sell stocks (also called shares), bonds, and other securities.
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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Student loans in Canada help post-secondary students pay for their education in Canada.
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The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
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Taiga (p; from Turkic) also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
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A tariff is a tax on imports or exports (an international trade tariff).
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Telephone numbers in Canada follow the fixed-length Bell System format, consisting of the country code +1, followed by a three-digit area code, a three-digit central office code (or exchange code) and a four-digit station code.
The average maximum/minimum temperatures of Canada of various cities across Canada, based on the climate period from 1981-2010 for the months of January and July (generally the lowest/highest average temperature months, but not in all cases).
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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The Arctic consists of land, territorial waters, and international waters.
The territorial evolution of Canada began when, on 1 July 1867, three colonies of British North America were united into the independent federal Dominion of Canada through Confederation.
A territory is a term for types of administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
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Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
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The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).
Théodore Robitaille, PC (29 January 1834 – 17 August 1897) was a Canadian physician, politician, and the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.
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The Bold Canadian was a patriotic song for Canadians that originated during the War of 1812.
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The Canadas is the collective name for Upper Canada and Lower Canada, two British historical colonies in present-day Canada.
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The association between the Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples of Canada stretches back to the first decisions between North American indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and aboriginal tribes.
The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.
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The Globe and Mail is a nationally distributed Canadian newspaper owned by The Woodbridge Company, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country.
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The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies drew significantly from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
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The Huffington Post (sometimes abbreviated Huff Post or HuffPo) is a liberal-oriented American online news aggregator and blog, that has both localised and international editions founded by Arianna Huffington, Kenneth Lerer, Andrew Breitbart, and Jonah Peretti, featuring columnists.
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The Maritime provinces, also called the Maritimes or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.
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The Weather Network is a Canadian English language Category A weather news and information specialty channel that is owned by Pelmorex, which itself is principally owned by Pierre L. Morrissette in partnership with the similar American service, The Weather Channel (itself controlled by NBCUniversal).
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The Thirteen Colonies, as of 1775, were British colonies on the east coast of North America which had been founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1732 (Georgia), stretching from New England to the northern border of the Floridas (British East and West Florida).
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Thomas Joseph "Tom" Mulcair (born October 24, 1954) is the leader of the New Democratic Party of Canada, as well as the Leader of the Official Opposition in Canada.
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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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This is a chronology and timeline of the colonization of North America, with founding dates of selected European settlements.
Thomas John "Tom" Thomson (August 5, 1877July 8, 1917) was an influential Canadian artist of the early 20th century.
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Thomas Clement "Tommy" Douglas, (20 October 1904 – 24 February 1986) was a Canadian social democratic politician and Baptist minister.
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Toronto is the most populous city in Canada, and the capital of the province of Ontario.
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The Toronto Blue Jays are a Canadian professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario.
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Toronto FC (TFC) is a Canadian professional soccer club based in Toronto, Ontario that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), in the Eastern Conference of the league.
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The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto, Ontario, that competes in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
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Toronto Stock Exchange (often abbreviated as TSX) is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world.
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Totem poles are monumental sculptures carved on poles, posts, or pillars with symbols or figures made from large trees, mostly western red cedar, by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast of North America (northwestern United States and Canada's western province, British Columbia).
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A trading nation (also known as a trade-dependent economy, or an export-oriented economy) is a country where international trade makes up a large percentage of its economy.
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The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
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The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
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The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
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The Tseax Cone, also called the Tseax River Cone or alternately the Aiyansh Volcano, is a young cinder cone and adjacent lava flows associated with the Nass Ranges and the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province.
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A Ukrainian Canadian (Український канадець, Україноканадець; translit. Ukrayins'kyi kanadets, Ukrayinokanadets) refers to a Canadian of Ukrainian descent who is an immigrant to or a descendant born in Canada.
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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
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The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the "Union government" formed by Sir Robert Borden during the First World War.
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The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the second largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Roman Catholic Church.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking.
The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of British Columbia Press (UBC Press) is a university press that is part of the University of British Columbia.
The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the United Kingdom to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States of America after the American Revolution.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Vancouver Whitecaps FC is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Vancouver, British Columbia that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) in the Western Conference of the league.
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A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".
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Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the visual artistic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas from ancient times to the present.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
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Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
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The War in Afghanistan is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.
A welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
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Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
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Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France.
Whistler (Squamish language: Sḵwiḵw) is a Canadian resort town in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada, approximately north of Vancouver and south of the town of Pemberton.
Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier, GCMG, PC, KC, (20 November 1841 – 17 February 1919), known as Wilfrid Laurier (lor-yay), was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911.
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William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, OM, CMG (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s.
Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the perceived decrease in air temperature felt by the body on exposed skin due to the flow of air.
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Windsor, Ontario is the southernmost city in Canada.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Yue or Yueh is a primary branch of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi.
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The Yugoslav Wars were ethnic conflicts fought from 1991 to 2001 inside the territory of the former Yugoslavia.
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'Yugoslavia' (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Jugoslavija, Југославија), once spelled and called "Jugoslavia", was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century.
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Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three federal territories.
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Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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.ca is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Canada.
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The meridian 141° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1976; the first Olympic Games hosted by Canada.
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The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada between February 13 and 28, 1988.
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The 1994 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Canada from August 4 to August 14, 1994.
The 2003 Invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 and signaled the start of the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States (prior to 19 March, the mission in Iraq was called Operation Enduring Freedom, a carryover from the War in Afghanistan).
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The 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the sixteenth edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup (formerly called FIFA World Youth Championship), hosted by Canada from 30 June to 22 July 2007.
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The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, were a major international multi-sport event held from February 12 to 28, 2010, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the resort town of Whistler.
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On 19 March 2011, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The fifty-cent piece is the common name of the Canadian coin worth 50 cents.
The meridian 52° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The meridian 60° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
New!!: Canada and 60th meridian west ·
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