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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. [1]

424 relations: Abiogenesis, Abrasive, Absorption (chemistry), Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acetylene, Acetylide, Acid, Activated carbon, Adenosine triphosphate, Adsorption, Africa, Aggregated diamond nanorod, Alcohol, Alkali metal, Alkaloid, Allotropes of carbon, Allotropy, Alloy, Allylpalladium chloride dimer, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Amino acid, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous solid, Angewandte Chemie, Anisotropy, Annealing (metallurgy), Anthracite, Antibiotics, Antoine Lavoisier, Arctic, Arkansas, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Art, Asteroid belt, Asteroid mining, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Atom, Atomic carbon, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Aurophilicity, Australia, Ötzi, Battery (electricity), Bearing (mechanical), Beta decay, ..., Big Bang, Biosphere, Bog, Boron carbide, Borrowdale, Bort, Botswana, Brazil, British Geological Survey, Brush (electric), Buckminster Fuller, Buckminsterfullerene, Built environment, Calcite, Canada, Cape of Good Hope, Carbide, Carbon black, Carbon chauvinism, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Carbon disulfide, Carbon fixation, Carbon footprint, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbon nanobud, Carbon nanofiber, Carbon nanofoam, Carbon nanotube, Carbon paper, Carbon respiration, Carbon steel, Carbon suboxide, Carbon trioxide, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14, Carbon-based life, Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carotenoid, Case-hardening, Cashmere wool, Catalysis, Catenation, Cellulose, Cementite, Charcoal, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical Physics Letters, Chemical polarity, China, Chitin, Chlorine, Civilization, Claude Louis Berthollet, Clay, Cleavage (crystal), CNO cycle, Coal, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Coke (fuel), Colorado, Comet, Commodity, Composite material, Copper, Cosmic ray, Cotton, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crystal, Cubic crystal 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Molecular cloud, Montana, Namibia, Nanomaterials, Nanostructure, Nanotechnology, NASA, Natural gas, Natural rubber, Near space, Neutron, Neutron moderator, Neutron temperature, New Scientist, New York, Nickel tetracarbonyl, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize, Nonmetal, North Korea, Northwest Territories, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear reactor, Oil reserves, Opacity (optics), Orbital hybridisation, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic matter, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, PAH world hypothesis, Paleoatmosphere, Parts-per notation, Peat, Pencil, Periodic table, Petrochemical, Petroleum, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Physical property, Pigment, Planet, Plastic, Platinum, Polyacrylonitrile, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyester, Polymer, Porosity, Precious metal, Pressure experiment, Printing, Properties of water, Protein, Proton, Proton emission, Protoplanetary disk, Pseudohalogen, Pyramid, Pyrolysis, Pyrolytic carbon, Quartz, 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Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis (Brit.: U.S.), or biopoiesis, is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.

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Abrasive

An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away.

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Absorption (chemistry)

In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – gas, liquid or solid material.

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Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The table shows the abundance of elements in Earth's crust.

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Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of a chemical element measures how common is the element relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Acetylene

Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.

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Acetylide

Acetylide is a carbanion with the chemical formula HC≡C−.

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Acid

An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Aggregated diamond nanorod

Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaloid

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms.

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Allotropes of carbon

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.

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Allotropy

Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.

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Allylpalladium chloride dimer

Allylpalladium(II) chloride dimer is a chemical compound with the formula (η3- C3H5)2Pd2Cl2.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Amorphous carbon

Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.

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Angewandte Chemie

Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).

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Anisotropy

Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which implies identical properties in all directions.

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Annealing (metallurgy)

Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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Anthracite

Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a high luster.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Arctic

The Arctic (f) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth.

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Arkansas

Arkansas is a state located in the Southern region of the United States.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Asteroid mining

Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, 17th century, from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic carbon

Atomic carbon (systematically named methanediylidene and carbon), also called monocarbon, is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula C (also written). It is a gas that only exists above, below which it aggregates into graphite or other fullerenes.

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Atomic nucleus

The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

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Atomic number

In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Aurophilicity

In chemistry, aurophilicity refers to the tendency of gold complexes to aggregate via formation of weak gold-gold bonds.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Ötzi

Ötzi (also called Ötzi the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, Homo tyrolensis, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66% chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE.

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Battery (electricity)

An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.

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Bearing (mechanical)

A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Biosphere

The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems.

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Bog

A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Boron carbide

Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.

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Borrowdale

Borrowdale is a valley and civil parish in the English Lake District in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England.

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Bort

Bort or boart is a term used in the diamond industry to refer to shards of non-gem-grade/quality diamonds.

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Botswana

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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British Geological Survey

The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.

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Brush (electric)

A brush is a device which conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft.

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Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.

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Buckminsterfullerene

Buckminsterfullerene (or bucky-ball) is a spherical fullerene molecule with the formula C60.

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Built environment

In social science, the term built environment refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings and parks or green space to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks.

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Calcite

Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Canada

Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Carbide

In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, and a small amount from vegetable oil.

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Carbon chauvinism

Carbon chauvinism is a neologism meant to disparage the assumption that the chemical processes of hypothetical extraterrestrial life must be constructed primarily from carbon (organic compounds) because carbon's chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is an organization within the United States Department of Energy that has the primary responsibility for providing the US government and research community with global warming data and analysis as it pertains to energy issues.

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

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Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is historically defined as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or individual." The total carbon footprint cannot be calculated because of the large amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural occurrences.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after enough inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO).

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Carbon nanobud

In nanotechnology, carbon nanobuds form a material (discovered and synthesized in 2006) which combines two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and spheroidal fullerenes (or, in short, fullerenes).

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Carbon nanofiber

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), or vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) are cylindric nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones, cups or plates.

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Carbon nanofoam

Carbon nanofoam is an allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V. Rode and co-workers at the Australian National University in Canberra.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Carbon paper

Carbon paper (originally carbonic paper) was originally paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, bound with wax, used for making one or more copies simultaneously with the creation of an original document when using a typewriter or a ballpoint pen.

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Carbon respiration

Carbon respiration is a phrase used in combination with carbon storage to calculate the amount of carbon (as CO2) flux occurring in the atmosphere through the various processes that add and subtract atmospheric carbon.

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Carbon steel

Carbon steel is steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon in the range of 0.12–2.0%.

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Carbon suboxide

Carbon suboxide, or tricarbon dioxide, is an oxide of carbon with chemical formula C3O2 or O.

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Carbon trioxide

Carbon trioxide (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon).

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Carbon-12

Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.

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Carbon-13

Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 7 neutrons.

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Carbon-14

Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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Carbon-based life

Carbon forms the key component for all known life on Earth.

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Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer

Carbon fiber–reinforced polymer, carbon fiber–reinforced plastic or carbon fiber–reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

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Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion,.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist.

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Carotenoid

Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.

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Case-hardening

Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.

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Cashmere wool

Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Catenation

Catenation is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains.

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Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cementite

Cementite, also known as iron carbide, is a chemical compound of iron and carbon, with the formula Fe3C (or Fe2C:Fe).

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Charcoal

Charcoal is a light, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chemical Physics Letters

Chemical Physics Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of chemical physics.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Civilization

A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Claude Louis Berthollet

Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.

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Clay

Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter.

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Cleavage (crystal)

Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.

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CNO cycle

The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Coal

Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coalworker's pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long exposure to coal dust.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.

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Colorado

Colorado is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.

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Commodity

In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Cumberland

Cumberland (locally) is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.

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Cyanide

A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN.

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Cyanogen

Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.

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Cyclohexanehexone

Cyclohexanehexone, also known as hexaketocyclohexane and triquinoyl, is an organic compound with formula C6O6, the sixfold ketone of cyclohexane.

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Cyclopentanepentone

Cyclopentanepentone, also known as leuconic acid, is a hypothetical organic compound with formula C5O5, the fivefold ketone of cyclopentane.

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Cylinder (geometry)

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler") is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given straight line, the axis of the cylinder.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Delocalized electron

In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, RDC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply Congo is a country located in Central Africa.

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Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Diamond

In mineralogy, diamond (or; from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice.

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Diamond anvil cell

A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a device used in scientific experiments.

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Diamonds Are Forever (novel)

Diamonds Are Forever is the fourth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond.

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Dicarbon monoxide

Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Distillation

Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dolomite

Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2.

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Drawing

Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.

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Drosophila

Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Earth

Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

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Electrode

An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Electroforming

Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition or electroplating on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Electronics

Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role.

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Electroplating

Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a coherent metal coating on an electrode.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ester

In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Exhaust hood

An exhaust hood, extractor hood, or range hood is a device containing a mechanical fan that hangs above the stove or cooktop in the kitchen.

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Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.

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Ferrocene

Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.

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Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Fiber

Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.

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Filler (materials)

Fillers are particles added to material (plastics, composite material, concrete) to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material.

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Filtration

Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Flame retardant

Flame retardants are compounds added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings that inhibit, suppress, or delay the production of flames to prevent the spread of fire.

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Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.

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Fred Pearce

Fred Pearce (born 30 December 1951) is an English author and journalist based in London.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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Fuel

Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy.

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Fullerene

A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Gas mask

The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.

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Gasoline

Gasoline, also known as petrol outside of North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines.

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Gaspard Monge

Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.

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Gemstone

A gemstone or gem (also called a fine gem, jewel, or a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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Geodesic dome

A geodesic dome is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of great circles (geodesics) on the surface of a sphere.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Giant star

A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.

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Glass

Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid which is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glassy carbon

Glass-like carbon, often called glassy carbon or vitreous carbon, is a non-graphitizing, or nongraphitizable, carbon which combines glassy and ceramic properties with those of graphite.

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Glucose

Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Gneiss

Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

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Gram

The gram (alternative British English spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Greek/Latin root grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Graphene

Graphene (/ˈɡræf.iːn/) is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Grilling

Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below (as in North America).

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Half-life

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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Halide

A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically ununseptide compound.

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Halo nucleus

In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a halo of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.

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Harry Kroto

Sir Harold (Harry) Walter Kroto, FRS (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939), is an English chemist.

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Heat sink

A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device into a coolant fluid in motion.

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Helium

Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hemp

Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high-growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed.

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Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.

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Hexagon

In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a polygon with six edges and six vertices.

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Hexagonal crystal system

In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families.

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Human

Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human body

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

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Human lung

The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hypothetical types of biochemistry

Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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India ink

India ink (or Indian ink in British English) is a simple black ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing, especially when inking comic books and comic strips.

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Ink

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is a compound that is considered not "organic".

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Institute of Physics

The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and therefore make it impossible to conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, or) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Isotopes of beryllium

Beryllium (Be) has 12 known isotopes, but only one of these isotopes is stable and a primordial nuclide.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (chemical symbol Li) (standard atomic mass: 6.941(2) atomic mass units, a.m.u.) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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Isotropy

Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

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Journal of Chemical Physics

The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.

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Journal of Physics D

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as lamp oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid widely used as a fuel in industry and households.

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Kimberlite

Kimberlite is an igneous rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds.

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Kitchen

A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment.

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Laser printing

Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leather

Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.

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Lectin

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties.

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Lens (geology)

In geology a lens is a body of ore or rock or a deposit that is thick in the middle and thin at the edges, resembling a convex lens in cross-section.

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Life

Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.

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Light-independent reactions

The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

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Lignan

The lignans are a group of chemical compounds found in plants.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Linear acetylenic carbon

Linear acetylenic carbon, also called carbyne, is an allotrope of carbon that has the chemical structure (−C≡C−)n as a repeating chain, with alternating single and triple bonds.

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Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum.

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List of thermal conductivities

In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

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Lonsdaleite

Lonsdaleite (named in honour of Kathleen Lonsdale), also called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice.

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Low-carbon economy

A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the environment biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

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Lubricant

A lubricant is a substance introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.

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Marble

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Mellitic anhydride

Mellitic anhydride, the anhydride of mellitic acid, is an organic compound with the formula C12O9.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal carbonyl

Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.

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Metallicity

In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).

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Metallocene

A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (Cp, which is C5H5−) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Meteorite

A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from a source such as an asteroid or a comet, which originates in outer space and survives its impact with the Earth's surface.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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Mexico

Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Mica

The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.

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Mineral resource classification

Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral deposits based on their geologic certainty and economic value.

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Mir mine

The Mir mine (Кимберлитовая алмазная трубка «Мир» Kimberlitovaya Almaznaya Trubka "Mir"; English: kimberlite diamond pipe "Peace"), also called the Mirny mine, is a former open pit diamond mine, now inactive, located in Mirny, Eastern Siberia, Russia.

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Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale that characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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Montana

Montana is a state in the Western United States.

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Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), and formerly German South-West Africa and then South West Africa, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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Nanomaterials

See the Nanomaterials category for an exhaustive list of articles related to this subject.

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Nanostructure

A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

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Near space

Near space is the region of Earth's atmosphere that lies between 20 to 100 km (65,000 and 328,000 feet) above sea level, encompassing the stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lower thermosphere.

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Neutron

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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Neutron moderator

In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.

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Neutron temperature

The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.

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New Scientist

New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.

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New York

New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Nickel tetracarbonyl

Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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Nonmetal

In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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North Korea

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO) is a territory of Canada.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Orbital hybridisation

In chemistry, hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.

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Orders of magnitude (numbers)

This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Organic matter

Organic matter or organic material, natural organic matter, NOM is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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PAH world hypothesis

The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and, as well, assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a major role in the origin of life by mediating the synthesis of RNA molecules, leading into the RNA world.

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Paleoatmosphere

A paleoatmosphere (or palaeoatmosphere) is an atmosphere, particularly that of Earth, at some unspecified time in the geological past.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Peat

Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.

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Pencil

A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken or leaving marks on the user’s hand during use.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.

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Petrochemical

Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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Pigment

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.

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Plastic

Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Polyacrylonitrile

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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Polyester

Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Porosity

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%.

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Precious metal

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

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Pressure experiment

Pressure experiments are experiments performed at pressures lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, called low-pressure experiments and high-pressure experiments, respectively.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Properties of water

Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering 70 percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some properties may vary from those of the pure substance. However, there are also many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and it is essential for all life on Earth. Water makes up 55% to 78% of the human body.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Proton emission

Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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Pseudohalogen

The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.

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Pyramid

A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.

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Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen).

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Pyrolytic carbon

Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets as a result of imperfections in its production.

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Quartz

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radius

In classical geometry, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of a line segment from its center to its perimeter.

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Redox

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Refinery

A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.

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Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a single given sample or source) to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit).

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René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (28 February 1683, La Rochelle – 17 October 1757, Saint-Julien-du-Terroux) was a French scientist who contributed to many different fields, especially the study of insects.

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Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as Congo Republic, West Congo, or Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.

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Richard Smalley

Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas.

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Ricin

Ricin is a highly toxic, naturally occurring lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis.

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Ricinus

Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Robert Curl

Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. (born August 23, 1933) is an emeritus professor of chemistry at Rice University.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, Sakha Öröspǖbülükete) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Sandstone

Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.

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Second

The second (symbol: s) (abbreviated s or sec) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI).

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass.

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Shale gas

Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC.

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Silk

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Soot

Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South India

South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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Specific strength

The specific strength is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density.

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Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball, (viz., analogous to a circular object in two dimensions).

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Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, ignition.

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Star

A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.

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Steel

Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Submillimetre astronomy

Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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Sun

The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Supergiant

Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.

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Superlubricity

Superlubricity is a regime of motion in which friction vanishes or very nearly vanishes.

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Supernova

A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.

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Synthetic diamond

Synthetic diamond (also known as cultured diamond or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.

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Tattoo

A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.

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Terpene

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeteria.

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Tetraethyllead

Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.

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Tetrahedron

In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each corner or vertex.

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Tetravalence

In chemistry, a tetravalence is the state of an atom with four electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its valence (outermost electron shell).

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Tetrodotoxin

Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second most populous and second largest state of the United States of America.

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Textile

A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.

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The Periodic Table of Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.

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Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of classical thermodynamics.

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Timeline of carbon nanotubes

No description.

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Timeline of chemical element discoveries

The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.

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Titanium carbide

Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9-9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide.

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Toner

Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the printed text and images on the paper, in general with a toner cartridge.

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Tonne

The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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Transition metal carbene complex

A transition metal carbene complex is an organometallic compound featuring a divalent organic ligand.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.

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Tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.

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Udachnaya pipe

The Udachnaya pipe (тру́бка Уда́чная, literally lucky pipe) is a diamond deposit in the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field in Sakha Republic, Russia.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Universe

The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.

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Van der Waals force

In physical chemistry, the van der Waals forces (or van der Waals' interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another, with neutral molecules, or with charged molecules.

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Vein (geology)

In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Water purification

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water.

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Wigner effect

The Wigner effect (named for its discoverer, E. P. Wigner), also known as the discomposition effect or Wigner's Disease, is the displacement of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation.

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Window

A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound.

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Windscale fire

The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 on the 7-point International Nuclear Event Scale.

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Wool

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols.

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X-ray

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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Young's modulus

Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus, is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials.

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Zeise's salt

Zeise's salt, potassium trichloro(ethene)platinate(II), is the chemical compound with the formula K·H2O.

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Redirects here:

Atomic number 6, C (element), Carbon (element), Carbon Atom, Carbon atom, Carbon atoms, Carbon unit, Carbonaceous, Carbonic, Carbonous, Carbons, History of carbon, Kohlenstoff.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon

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