424 relations: Abiogenesis, Abrasive, Absorption (chemistry), Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acetylene, Acetylide, Acid, Activated carbon, Adenosine triphosphate, Adsorption, Africa, Aggregated diamond nanorod, Alcohol, Alkali metal, Alkaloid, Allotropes of carbon, Allotropy, Alloy, Allylpalladium chloride dimer, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Amino acid, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous solid, Angewandte Chemie, Anisotropy, Annealing (metallurgy), Anthracite, Antibiotics, Antoine Lavoisier, Arctic, Arkansas, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Art, Asteroid belt, Asteroid mining, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Atom, Atomic carbon, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Aurophilicity, Australia, Ötzi, Battery (electricity), Bearing (mechanical), Beta decay, ..., Big Bang, Biosphere, Bog, Boron carbide, Borrowdale, Bort, Botswana, Brazil, British Geological Survey, Brush (electric), Buckminster Fuller, Buckminsterfullerene, Built environment, Calcite, Canada, Cape of Good Hope, Carbide, Carbon black, Carbon chauvinism, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Carbon disulfide, Carbon fixation, Carbon footprint, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbon nanobud, Carbon nanofiber, Carbon nanofoam, Carbon nanotube, Carbon paper, Carbon respiration, Carbon steel, Carbon suboxide, Carbon trioxide, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14, Carbon-based life, Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carotenoid, Case-hardening, Cashmere wool, Catalysis, Catenation, Cellulose, Cementite, Charcoal, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical Physics Letters, Chemical polarity, China, Chitin, Chlorine, Civilization, Claude Louis Berthollet, Clay, Cleavage (crystal), CNO cycle, Coal, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Coke (fuel), Colorado, Comet, Commodity, Composite material, Copper, Cosmic ray, Cotton, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crystal, Cubic crystal system, Cumberland, Cyanide, Cyanogen, Cyclohexanehexone, Cyclopentanepentone, Cylinder (geometry), Danish language, Delocalized electron, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Density, Diamond, Diamond anvil cell, Diamonds Are Forever (novel), Dicarbon monoxide, Digestion, Distillation, DNA, Dolomite, Drawing, Drosophila, Dutch language, Earth, Electric motor, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electrode, Electroforming, Electron, Electronics, Electroplating, England, English language, Ester, Exhaust hood, Exoplanet, Exothermic process, Fat, Feldspar, Ferrocene, Ferromagnetism, Fiber, Filler (materials), Filtration, Flame retardant, Fossil fuel, Fred Pearce, French language, Fuel, Fullerene, Functional group, Gas mask, Gasoline, Gaspard Monge, Gemstone, Geodesic dome, German language, Germanium, Giant star, Glass, Glassy carbon, Glucose, Gneiss, Gold, Gram, Graphene, Graphite, Greenland, Grilling, Half-life, Halide, Halo nucleus, Harry Kroto, Heat sink, Helium, Hemp, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Hexagon, Hexagonal crystal system, Human, Human body, Human lung, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, India, India ink, Ink, Inorganic compound, Institute of Physics, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of beryllium, Isotopes of lithium, Isotropy, Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of Physics D, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kerosene, Kimberlite, Kitchen, Laser printing, Latin, Lead, Leather, Lectin, Lens (geology), Life, Light-independent reactions, Lignan, Limestone, Linear acetylenic carbon, Linen, List of thermal conductivities, Lonsdaleite, Low-carbon economy, Lubricant, Marble, Mellitic anhydride, Metal, Metal carbonyl, Metallicity, Metallocene, Metamorphic rock, Meteorite, Methane, Methane clathrate, Mexico, Mica, Mineral resource classification, Mir mine, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molecular cloud, Montana, Namibia, Nanomaterials, Nanostructure, Nanotechnology, NASA, Natural gas, Natural rubber, Near space, Neutron, Neutron moderator, Neutron temperature, New Scientist, New York, Nickel tetracarbonyl, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize, Nonmetal, North Korea, Northwest Territories, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear reactor, Oil reserves, Opacity (optics), Orbital hybridisation, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic matter, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, PAH world hypothesis, Paleoatmosphere, Parts-per notation, Peat, Pencil, Periodic table, Petrochemical, Petroleum, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Physical property, Pigment, Planet, Plastic, Platinum, Polyacrylonitrile, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyester, Polymer, Porosity, Precious metal, Pressure experiment, Printing, Properties of water, Protein, Proton, Proton emission, Protoplanetary disk, Pseudohalogen, Pyramid, Pyrolysis, Pyrolytic carbon, Quartz, Radioactive decay, Radiocarbon dating, Radionuclide, Radius, Redox, Refinery, Refrigerant, Relative atomic mass, René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, Republic of the Congo, Rhenium, Richard Smalley, Ricin, Ricinus, RNA, Robert Curl, Russia, Sakha Republic, Sandstone, Second, Semiconductor, Shale gas, Siberia, Sierra Leone, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silk, Solar System, Solvent, Soot, South Africa, South India, Specific strength, Sphere, Spheroid, Spontaneous combustion, Star, Star formation, Steel, Stratosphere, Sublimation (phase transition), Submillimetre astronomy, Sugar, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Supergiant, Superlubricity, Supernova, Synthetic diamond, Tattoo, Terpene, Tetraethyllead, Tetrahedron, Tetravalence, Tetrodotoxin, Texas, Textile, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thermal conductivity, Thermal insulation, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Timeline of carbon nanotubes, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium carbide, Toner, Tonne, Toxicity, Transition metal, Transition metal carbene complex, Transparency and translucency, Triple point, Triple-alpha process, Troposphere, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Udachnaya pipe, United States, United States Geological Survey, Universe, Van der Waals force, Vein (geology), Volcano, Water purification, Wigner effect, Window, Windscale fire, Wool, Writing, X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, Young's modulus, Zeise's salt. Expand index (374 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis (Brit.: U.S.), or biopoiesis, is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.
New!!: Carbon and Abiogenesis ·
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away.
New!!: Carbon and Abrasive ·
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – gas, liquid or solid material.
New!!: Carbon and Absorption (chemistry) ·
The table shows the abundance of elements in Earth's crust.
The abundance of a chemical element measures how common is the element relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
New!!: Carbon and Acetylene ·
Acetylide is a carbanion with the chemical formula HC≡C−.
New!!: Carbon and Acetylide ·
An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.
New!!: Carbon and Acid ·
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
New!!: Carbon and Activated carbon ·
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
New!!: Carbon and Adenosine triphosphate ·
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface.
New!!: Carbon and Adsorption ·
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.
New!!: Carbon and Africa ·
Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.
New!!: Carbon and Alcohol ·
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
New!!: Carbon and Alkali metal ·
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms.
New!!: Carbon and Alkaloid ·
Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.
New!!: Carbon and Allotropes of carbon ·
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
New!!: Carbon and Allotropy ·
An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.
New!!: Carbon and Alloy ·
Allylpalladium(II) chloride dimer is a chemical compound with the formula (η3- C3H5)2Pd2Cl2.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
New!!: Carbon and Alpha decay ·
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.
New!!: Carbon and Alpha particle ·
Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.
New!!: Carbon and Amino acid ·
Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).
New!!: Carbon and Amorphous carbon ·
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.
New!!: Carbon and Amorphous solid ·
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
New!!: Carbon and Angewandte Chemie ·
Anisotropy is the property of being directionally dependent, as opposed to isotropy, which implies identical properties in all directions.
New!!: Carbon and Anisotropy ·
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
New!!: Carbon and Annealing (metallurgy) ·
Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a high luster.
New!!: Carbon and Anthracite ·
Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.
New!!: Carbon and Antibiotics ·
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
New!!: Carbon and Antoine Lavoisier ·
The Arctic (f) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth.
New!!: Carbon and Arctic ·
Arkansas is a state located in the Southern region of the United States.
New!!: Carbon and Arkansas ·
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.
New!!: Carbon and Aromatic hydrocarbon ·
Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.
New!!: Carbon and Art ·
The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
New!!: Carbon and Asteroid belt ·
Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
New!!: Carbon and Asteroid mining ·
An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, 17th century, from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body.
New!!: Carbon and Atmosphere ·
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.
New!!: Carbon and Atmosphere of Earth ·
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
New!!: Carbon and Atmospheric pressure ·
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
New!!: Carbon and Atom ·
Atomic carbon (systematically named methanediylidene and carbon), also called monocarbon, is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula C (also written). It is a gas that only exists above, below which it aggregates into graphite or other fullerenes.
New!!: Carbon and Atomic carbon ·
The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
New!!: Carbon and Atomic nucleus ·
In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.
New!!: Carbon and Atomic number ·
In chemistry, aurophilicity refers to the tendency of gold complexes to aggregate via formation of weak gold-gold bonds.
New!!: Carbon and Aurophilicity ·
Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
New!!: Carbon and Australia ·
Ötzi (also called Ötzi the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, Homo tyrolensis, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66% chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE.
New!!: Carbon and Ötzi ·
An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
New!!: Carbon and Battery (electricity) ·
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
New!!: Carbon and Bearing (mechanical) ·
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
New!!: Carbon and Beta decay ·
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
New!!: Carbon and Big Bang ·
The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems.
New!!: Carbon and Biosphere ·
A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
New!!: Carbon and Bog ·
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.
New!!: Carbon and Boron carbide ·
Borrowdale is a valley and civil parish in the English Lake District in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England.
New!!: Carbon and Borrowdale ·
Bort or boart is a term used in the diamond industry to refer to shards of non-gem-grade/quality diamonds.
New!!: Carbon and Bort ·
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
New!!: Carbon and Botswana ·
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
New!!: Carbon and Brazil ·
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
New!!: Carbon and British Geological Survey ·
A brush is a device which conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft.
New!!: Carbon and Brush (electric) ·
Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.
New!!: Carbon and Buckminster Fuller ·
Buckminsterfullerene (or bucky-ball) is a spherical fullerene molecule with the formula C60.
New!!: Carbon and Buckminsterfullerene ·
In social science, the term built environment refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings and parks or green space to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks.
New!!: Carbon and Built environment ·
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
New!!: Carbon and Calcite ·
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
New!!: Carbon and Canada ·
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
New!!: Carbon and Cape of Good Hope ·
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
New!!: Carbon and Carbide ·
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, and a small amount from vegetable oil.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon black ·
Carbon chauvinism is a neologism meant to disparage the assumption that the chemical processes of hypothetical extraterrestrial life must be constructed primarily from carbon (organic compounds) because carbon's chemical and thermodynamic properties render it far superior to all other elements.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon chauvinism ·
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon cycle ·
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon dioxide ·
The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is an organization within the United States Department of Energy that has the primary responsibility for providing the US government and research community with global warming data and analysis as it pertains to energy issues.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon disulfide ·
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon fixation ·
A carbon footprint is historically defined as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or individual." The total carbon footprint cannot be calculated because of the large amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural occurrences.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon footprint ·
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon monoxide ·
Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after enough inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO).
New!!: Carbon and Carbon monoxide poisoning ·
In nanotechnology, carbon nanobuds form a material (discovered and synthesized in 2006) which combines two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and spheroidal fullerenes (or, in short, fullerenes).
New!!: Carbon and Carbon nanobud ·
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), or vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) are cylindric nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones, cups or plates.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon nanofiber ·
Carbon nanofoam is an allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V. Rode and co-workers at the Australian National University in Canberra.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon nanofoam ·
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon nanotube ·
Carbon paper (originally carbonic paper) was originally paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, bound with wax, used for making one or more copies simultaneously with the creation of an original document when using a typewriter or a ballpoint pen.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon paper ·
Carbon respiration is a phrase used in combination with carbon storage to calculate the amount of carbon (as CO2) flux occurring in the atmosphere through the various processes that add and subtract atmospheric carbon.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon respiration ·
Carbon steel is steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon in the range of 0.12–2.0%.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon steel ·
Carbon suboxide, or tricarbon dioxide, is an oxide of carbon with chemical formula C3O2 or O.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon suboxide ·
Carbon trioxide (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon).
New!!: Carbon and Carbon trioxide ·
Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon-12 ·
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 7 neutrons.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon-13 ·
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon-14 ·
Carbon forms the key component for all known life on Earth.
New!!: Carbon and Carbon-based life ·
Carbon fiber–reinforced polymer, carbon fiber–reinforced plastic or carbon fiber–reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion,.
New!!: Carbon and Carbonate ·
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
New!!: Carbon and Carbonic acid ·
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist.
New!!: Carbon and Carl Wilhelm Scheele ·
Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.
New!!: Carbon and Carotenoid ·
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
New!!: Carbon and Case-hardening ·
Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat.
New!!: Carbon and Cashmere wool ·
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
New!!: Carbon and Catalysis ·
Catenation is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains.
New!!: Carbon and Catenation ·
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
New!!: Carbon and Cellulose ·
Cementite, also known as iron carbide, is a chemical compound of iron and carbon, with the formula Fe3C (or Fe2C:Fe).
New!!: Carbon and Cementite ·
Charcoal is a light, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
New!!: Carbon and Charcoal ·
A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.
New!!: Carbon and Chemical bond ·
A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.
New!!: Carbon and Chemical compound ·
A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
New!!: Carbon and Chemical element ·
Chemical Physics Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of chemical physics.
New!!: Carbon and Chemical Physics Letters ·
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
New!!: Carbon and Chemical polarity ·
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
New!!: Carbon and China ·
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.
New!!: Carbon and Chitin ·
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
New!!: Carbon and Chlorine ·
A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
New!!: Carbon and Civilization ·
Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.
New!!: Carbon and Claude Louis Berthollet ·
Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter.
New!!: Carbon and Clay ·
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
New!!: Carbon and Cleavage (crystal) ·
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
New!!: Carbon and CNO cycle ·
Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
New!!: Carbon and Coal ·
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long exposure to coal dust.
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.
New!!: Carbon and Coke (fuel) ·
Colorado is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
New!!: Carbon and Colorado ·
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
New!!: Carbon and Comet ·
In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs.
New!!: Carbon and Commodity ·
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
New!!: Carbon and Composite material ·
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
New!!: Carbon and Copper ·
Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.
New!!: Carbon and Cosmic ray ·
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.
New!!: Carbon and Cotton ·
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
New!!: Carbon and Covalent bond ·
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.
New!!: Carbon and CRC Press ·
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
New!!: Carbon and Crystal ·
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
New!!: Carbon and Cubic crystal system ·
Cumberland (locally) is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
New!!: Carbon and Cumberland ·
A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN.
New!!: Carbon and Cyanide ·
Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.
New!!: Carbon and Cyanogen ·
Cyclohexanehexone, also known as hexaketocyclohexane and triquinoyl, is an organic compound with formula C6O6, the sixfold ketone of cyclohexane.
New!!: Carbon and Cyclohexanehexone ·
Cyclopentanepentone, also known as leuconic acid, is a hypothetical organic compound with formula C5O5, the fivefold ketone of cyclopentane.
New!!: Carbon and Cyclopentanepentone ·
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler") is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given straight line, the axis of the cylinder.
New!!: Carbon and Cylinder (geometry) ·
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
New!!: Carbon and Danish language ·
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
New!!: Carbon and Delocalized electron ·
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, RDC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply Congo is a country located in Central Africa.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
New!!: Carbon and Density ·
In mineralogy, diamond (or; from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice.
New!!: Carbon and Diamond ·
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a device used in scientific experiments.
New!!: Carbon and Diamond anvil cell ·
Diamonds Are Forever is the fourth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond.
Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
New!!: Carbon and Dicarbon monoxide ·
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
New!!: Carbon and Digestion ·
Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.
New!!: Carbon and Distillation ·
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
New!!: Carbon and DNA ·
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2.
New!!: Carbon and Dolomite ·
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
New!!: Carbon and Drawing ·
Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
New!!: Carbon and Drosophila ·
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
New!!: Carbon and Dutch language ·
Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
New!!: Carbon and Earth ·
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
New!!: Carbon and Electric motor ·
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions.
New!!: Carbon and Electrical conductor ·
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
New!!: Carbon and Electricity ·
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
New!!: Carbon and Electrode ·
Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition or electroplating on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.
New!!: Carbon and Electroforming ·
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
New!!: Carbon and Electron ·
Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role.
New!!: Carbon and Electronics ·
Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a coherent metal coating on an electrode.
New!!: Carbon and Electroplating ·
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
New!!: Carbon and England ·
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
New!!: Carbon and English language ·
In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.
New!!: Carbon and Ester ·
An exhaust hood, extractor hood, or range hood is a device containing a mechanical fan that hangs above the stove or cooktop in the kitchen.
New!!: Carbon and Exhaust hood ·
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun.
New!!: Carbon and Exoplanet ·
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
New!!: Carbon and Exothermic process ·
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.
New!!: Carbon and Fat ·
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.
New!!: Carbon and Feldspar ·
Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.
New!!: Carbon and Ferrocene ·
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
New!!: Carbon and Ferromagnetism ·
Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.
New!!: Carbon and Fiber ·
Fillers are particles added to material (plastics, composite material, concrete) to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material.
New!!: Carbon and Filler (materials) ·
Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
New!!: Carbon and Filtration ·
Flame retardants are compounds added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings that inhibit, suppress, or delay the production of flames to prevent the spread of fire.
New!!: Carbon and Flame retardant ·
Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
New!!: Carbon and Fossil fuel ·
Fred Pearce (born 30 December 1951) is an English author and journalist based in London.
New!!: Carbon and Fred Pearce ·
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
New!!: Carbon and French language ·
Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy.
New!!: Carbon and Fuel ·
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
New!!: Carbon and Fullerene ·
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
New!!: Carbon and Functional group ·
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
New!!: Carbon and Gas mask ·
Gasoline, also known as petrol outside of North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines.
New!!: Carbon and Gasoline ·
Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.
New!!: Carbon and Gaspard Monge ·
A gemstone or gem (also called a fine gem, jewel, or a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
New!!: Carbon and Gemstone ·
A geodesic dome is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of great circles (geodesics) on the surface of a sphere.
New!!: Carbon and Geodesic dome ·
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
New!!: Carbon and German language ·
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
New!!: Carbon and Germanium ·
A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.
New!!: Carbon and Giant star ·
Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid which is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
New!!: Carbon and Glass ·
Glass-like carbon, often called glassy carbon or vitreous carbon, is a non-graphitizing, or nongraphitizable, carbon which combines glassy and ceramic properties with those of graphite.
New!!: Carbon and Glassy carbon ·
Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
New!!: Carbon and Glucose ·
Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
New!!: Carbon and Gneiss ·
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
New!!: Carbon and Gold ·
The gram (alternative British English spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Greek/Latin root grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
New!!: Carbon and Gram ·
Graphene (/ˈɡræf.iːn/) is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex.
New!!: Carbon and Graphene ·
Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.
New!!: Carbon and Graphite ·
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
New!!: Carbon and Greenland ·
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below (as in North America).
New!!: Carbon and Grilling ·
Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
New!!: Carbon and Half-life ·
A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically ununseptide compound.
New!!: Carbon and Halide ·
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a halo of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
New!!: Carbon and Halo nucleus ·
Sir Harold (Harry) Walter Kroto, FRS (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939), is an English chemist.
New!!: Carbon and Harry Kroto ·
A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device into a coolant fluid in motion.
New!!: Carbon and Heat sink ·
Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
New!!: Carbon and Helium ·
Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high-growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed.
New!!: Carbon and Hemp ·
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.
In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a polygon with six edges and six vertices.
New!!: Carbon and Hexagon ·
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families.
New!!: Carbon and Hexagonal crystal system ·
Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
New!!: Carbon and Human ·
The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.
New!!: Carbon and Human body ·
The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals.
New!!: Carbon and Human lung ·
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
New!!: Carbon and Hydrocarbon ·
Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.
New!!: Carbon and Hydrochloric acid ·
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
New!!: Carbon and Hydrogen ·
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
New!!: Carbon and India ·
India ink (or Indian ink in British English) is a simple black ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing, especially when inking comic books and comic strips.
New!!: Carbon and India ink ·
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
New!!: Carbon and Ink ·
An inorganic compound is a compound that is considered not "organic".
New!!: Carbon and Inorganic compound ·
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
New!!: Carbon and Institute of Physics ·
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and therefore make it impossible to conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field.
New!!: Carbon and Insulator (electricity) ·
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
New!!: Carbon and Integrated circuit ·
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, or) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
New!!: Carbon and Ion ·
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
New!!: Carbon and Iron ·
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
New!!: Carbon and Isotope ·
Beryllium (Be) has 12 known isotopes, but only one of these isotopes is stable and a primordial nuclide.
New!!: Carbon and Isotopes of beryllium ·
Naturally occurring lithium (chemical symbol Li) (standard atomic mass: 6.941(2) atomic mass units, a.m.u.) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.
New!!: Carbon and Isotopes of lithium ·
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
New!!: Carbon and Isotropy ·
The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom.
New!!: Carbon and Journal of Physics D ·
The Journal of the American Chemical Society is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Kerosene, also known as lamp oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid widely used as a fuel in industry and households.
New!!: Carbon and Kerosene ·
Kimberlite is an igneous rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds.
New!!: Carbon and Kimberlite ·
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment.
New!!: Carbon and Kitchen ·
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
New!!: Carbon and Laser printing ·
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
New!!: Carbon and Latin ·
Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
New!!: Carbon and Lead ·
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.
New!!: Carbon and Leather ·
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties.
New!!: Carbon and Lectin ·
In geology a lens is a body of ore or rock or a deposit that is thick in the middle and thin at the edges, resembling a convex lens in cross-section.
New!!: Carbon and Lens (geology) ·
Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.
New!!: Carbon and Life ·
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
The lignans are a group of chemical compounds found in plants.
New!!: Carbon and Lignan ·
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
New!!: Carbon and Limestone ·
Linear acetylenic carbon, also called carbyne, is an allotrope of carbon that has the chemical structure (−C≡C−)n as a repeating chain, with alternating single and triple bonds.
New!!: Carbon and Linear acetylenic carbon ·
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum.
New!!: Carbon and Linen ·
In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.
Lonsdaleite (named in honour of Kathleen Lonsdale), also called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice.
New!!: Carbon and Lonsdaleite ·
A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the environment biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
New!!: Carbon and Low-carbon economy ·
A lubricant is a substance introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
New!!: Carbon and Lubricant ·
Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
New!!: Carbon and Marble ·
Mellitic anhydride, the anhydride of mellitic acid, is an organic compound with the formula C12O9.
New!!: Carbon and Mellitic anhydride ·
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
New!!: Carbon and Metal ·
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
New!!: Carbon and Metal carbonyl ·
In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).
New!!: Carbon and Metallicity ·
A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (Cp, which is C5H5−) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M.
New!!: Carbon and Metallocene ·
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
New!!: Carbon and Metamorphic rock ·
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from a source such as an asteroid or a comet, which originates in outer space and survives its impact with the Earth's surface.
New!!: Carbon and Meteorite ·
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
New!!: Carbon and Methane ·
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
New!!: Carbon and Methane clathrate ·
Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
New!!: Carbon and Mexico ·
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
New!!: Carbon and Mica ·
Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral deposits based on their geologic certainty and economic value.
The Mir mine (Кимберлитовая алмазная трубка «Мир» Kimberlitovaya Almaznaya Trubka "Mir"; English: kimberlite diamond pipe "Peace"), also called the Mirny mine, is a former open pit diamond mine, now inactive, located in Mirny, Eastern Siberia, Russia.
New!!: Carbon and Mir mine ·
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale that characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
New!!: Carbon and Molecular cloud ·
Montana is a state in the Western United States.
New!!: Carbon and Montana ·
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), and formerly German South-West Africa and then South West Africa, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
New!!: Carbon and Namibia ·
See the Nanomaterials category for an exhaustive list of articles related to this subject.
New!!: Carbon and Nanomaterials ·
A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.
New!!: Carbon and Nanostructure ·
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
New!!: Carbon and Nanotechnology ·
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
New!!: Carbon and NASA ·
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
New!!: Carbon and Natural gas ·
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.
New!!: Carbon and Natural rubber ·
Near space is the region of Earth's atmosphere that lies between 20 to 100 km (65,000 and 328,000 feet) above sea level, encompassing the stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lower thermosphere.
New!!: Carbon and Near space ·
The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
New!!: Carbon and Neutron ·
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
New!!: Carbon and Neutron moderator ·
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New!!: Carbon and Neutron temperature ·
New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.
New!!: Carbon and New Scientist ·
New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
New!!: Carbon and New York ·
Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.
New!!: Carbon and Nickel tetracarbonyl ·
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
New!!: Carbon and Nitrogen ·
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.
New!!: Carbon and Nobel Prize ·
In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
New!!: Carbon and Nonmetal ·
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
New!!: Carbon and North Korea ·
The Northwest Territories (NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO) is a territory of Canada.
New!!: Carbon and Northwest Territories ·
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
New!!: Carbon and Nuclear reactor ·
Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.
New!!: Carbon and Oil reserves ·
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
New!!: Carbon and Opacity (optics) ·
In chemistry, hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
New!!: Carbon and Orbital hybridisation ·
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
New!!: Carbon and Organic chemistry ·
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
New!!: Carbon and Organic compound ·
Organic matter or organic material, natural organic matter, NOM is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.
New!!: Carbon and Organic matter ·
The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
New!!: Carbon and Oxidation state ·
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
New!!: Carbon and Oxide ·
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
New!!: Carbon and Oxygen ·
The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and, as well, assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a major role in the origin of life by mediating the synthesis of RNA molecules, leading into the RNA world.
New!!: Carbon and PAH world hypothesis ·
A paleoatmosphere (or palaeoatmosphere) is an atmosphere, particularly that of Earth, at some unspecified time in the geological past.
New!!: Carbon and Paleoatmosphere ·
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
New!!: Carbon and Parts-per notation ·
Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.
New!!: Carbon and Peat ·
A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken or leaving marks on the user’s hand during use.
New!!: Carbon and Pencil ·
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
New!!: Carbon and Periodic table ·
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.
New!!: Carbon and Petrochemical ·
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
New!!: Carbon and Petroleum ·
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A physical property is any property that is measurable whose value describes a state of a physical system.
New!!: Carbon and Physical property ·
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
New!!: Carbon and Pigment ·
A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.
New!!: Carbon and Planet ·
Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.
New!!: Carbon and Plastic ·
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
New!!: Carbon and Platinum ·
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
New!!: Carbon and Polyacrylonitrile ·
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
New!!: Carbon and Polyester ·
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
New!!: Carbon and Polymer ·
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%.
New!!: Carbon and Porosity ·
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
New!!: Carbon and Precious metal ·
Pressure experiments are experiments performed at pressures lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, called low-pressure experiments and high-pressure experiments, respectively.
New!!: Carbon and Pressure experiment ·
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
New!!: Carbon and Printing ·
Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering 70 percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some properties may vary from those of the pure substance. However, there are also many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and it is essential for all life on Earth. Water makes up 55% to 78% of the human body.
New!!: Carbon and Properties of water ·
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
New!!: Carbon and Protein ·
New!!: Carbon and Proton ·
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
New!!: Carbon and Proton emission ·
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
New!!: Carbon and Protoplanetary disk ·
The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.
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A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
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Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen).
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Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets as a result of imperfections in its production.
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Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar.
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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
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In classical geometry, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of a line segment from its center to its perimeter.
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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.
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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
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Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a single given sample or source) to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit).
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René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (28 February 1683, La Rochelle – 17 October 1757, Saint-Julien-du-Terroux) was a French scientist who contributed to many different fields, especially the study of insects.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as Congo Republic, West Congo, or Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa.
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Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
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Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas.
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Ricin is a highly toxic, naturally occurring lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis.
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Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
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Robert Floyd Curl, Jr. (born August 23, 1933) is an emeritus professor of chemistry at Rice University.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, Sakha Öröspǖbülükete) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
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Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.
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The second (symbol: s) (abbreviated s or sec) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI).
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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass.
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Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
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Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC.
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Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
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The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
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Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.
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The specific strength is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density.
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A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball, (viz., analogous to a circular object in two dimensions).
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A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
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Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, ignition.
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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.
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Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.
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The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
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Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
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Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.
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The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
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Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
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Superlubricity is a regime of motion in which friction vanishes or very nearly vanishes.
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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.
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Synthetic diamond (also known as cultured diamond or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.
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A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
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Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeteria.
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Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
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In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each corner or vertex.
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In chemistry, a tetravalence is the state of an atom with four electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its valence (outermost electron shell).
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Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin.
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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second most populous and second largest state of the United States of America.
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A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.
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The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.
In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
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Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
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Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of classical thermodynamics.
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The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9-9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide.
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Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the printed text and images on the paper, in general with a toner cartridge.
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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.
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Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.
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In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.
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A transition metal carbene complex is an organometallic compound featuring a divalent organic ligand.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
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The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
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The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.
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Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.
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Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
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The Udachnaya pipe (тру́бка Уда́чная, literally lucky pipe) is a diamond deposit in the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field in Sakha Republic, Russia.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.
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In physical chemistry, the van der Waals forces (or van der Waals' interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another, with neutral molecules, or with charged molecules.
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In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
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A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water.
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The Wigner effect (named for its discoverer, E. P. Wigner), also known as the discomposition effect or Wigner's Disease, is the displacement of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation.
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A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound.
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The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 on the 7-point International Nuclear Event Scale.
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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
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Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols.
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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
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Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus, is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials.
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Zeise's salt, potassium trichloro(ethene)platinate(II), is the chemical compound with the formula K·H2O.
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