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Carmelites

The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel, hence its name. [1]

161 relations: Acta Sanctorum, Albert Avogadro, Angelo Paoli, Angelus of Jerusalem, Apostle (Christian), Apostolates, Ash Wednesday, Auschwitz concentration camp, Aylesford, Beatification, Beja, Portugal, Berthold of Calabria, Bollandist, Book of the First Monks, Books of Kings, Brother Lawrence, Byzantine Discalced Carmelites, Carmelite Rite, Carmelite Rule of St. Albert, Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm, Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles, Carmelites, Catholic Church, Catholic religious order, Chapter (religion), Charism, Child Jesus, Christian contemplation, Cloak, College of Sorbonne, Confraternity, Constitutions of the Carmelite Order, Council of Trent, Crusades, Cyprus, Dachau concentration camp, Daniel Papebroch, Dialogues of the Carmelites, Discalced Carmelites, Divine grace, Doctor of the Church, Dominican Order, Easter, Edith Stein, Elijah, Elizabeth of the Trinity, Enclosed religious orders, England, Eternal Word Television Network, Europe, ..., Excommunication, Fátima, Portugal, Feast of the Cross, France, Franciscan, Francisco Palau, French Revolution, George Preca, Germany, Hagiography, Hell, Hermit, Hermits of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, Holy Face of Jesus, Hulne Priory, Humiliati, Incorruptibility, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Inquisition, Ipswich Whitefriars, Italian unification, Italy, Jan Tyranowski, Jean de Launoy, Joaquina Vedruna de Mas, John of St. Samson, John of the Cross, Juan Tomás de Rocaberti, Kent, Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Lay Carmelites, Lúcia Santos, Leicester Friars of the Sack, Magdalena de Pazzi, Mantua, Marian devotions, Mariana of the Purification, Marie-Antoinette de Geuser, Martyrs of Compiègne, Mass (liturgy), Mendicant, Mendicant orders, Monks of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, Mount Carmel, Nazism, Netherlands, Novice, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Old Testament, Oral tradition, Oratory (worship), Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Palestine (region), Papal bull, Papal legate, Philip II of Spain, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Eugene IV, Pope Honorius III, Pope Honorius IV, Pope Innocent III, Pope Innocent IV, Pope Innocent XII, Pope John XXII, Pope Pius II, Pope Pius XII, Pope Sixtus IV, Portugal, Presbyter, Prior, Priory, Protestantism, Raphael Kalinowski, Religious vows, Rennes, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Valencia, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vercelli, Roman Catholic devotions, Rome, Rosary, Rosary and scapular, Saint, Scapular, Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Second Council of Lyon, Second Vatican Council, Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites, Secularization, Shrove Tuesday, Sicily, Simon Stock, Society of Jesus, Sodality, Synecdoche, Terce, Teresa Margaret of the Sacred Heart, Teresa of Ávila, Teresa of the Andes, Thérèse of Lisieux, The Practice of the Presence of God, Theology, Thomas Conecte, Titus Brandsma, Tuscany, Valais, Vegetarianism, Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism, Vespers, Visions of Jesus and Mary. Expand index (111 more) »

Acta Sanctorum

Acta Sanctorum (Acts of the Saints) is an encyclopedic text in 68 folio volumes of documents examining the lives of Christian saints, in essence a critical hagiography, which is organised according to each saint's feast day.

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Albert Avogadro

Saint Albert Avogadro, commonly known as St.

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Angelo Paoli

Blessed Angelo Paoli (1 September 1642 - 17 January 1720) was an Italian Carmelite, known as "the father of the poor".

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Angelus of Jerusalem

Saint Angelus (Sant'Angelo) (1185–1220) was a saint and martyr from the Holy Land.

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Apostle (Christian)

According to the Bible's New Testament, the Apostles were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Apostolates

An Apostolate is a Christian organization "directed to serving and evangelizing the world", most often associated with the Anglican Communion or the Catholic Church.

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Ash Wednesday

Ash Wednesday, a day of fasting, is the first day of Lent in Western Christianity.

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Auschwitz concentration camp

Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz, also KZ Auschwitz) was a network of German Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Aylesford

Aylesford is a village and civil parish on the River Medway in Kent, 4 miles NW of Maidstone in England.

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Beatification

Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.

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Beja, Portugal

Beja is a city and a municipality in the Alentejo region, Portugal.

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Berthold of Calabria

Berthold of Calabria (French Berthold de Malifaye; died 1195) was a French crusader who instituted a hermit colony on Mount Carmel in 1185.

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Bollandist

The Bollandists are an association of scholars, philologists, and historians (originally all Jesuits, but now including non-Jesuits) who since the early seventeenth century have studied hagiography and the cult of the saints in Christianity.

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Book of the First Monks

The Book of the First Monks (Decem Libri – Liber de Institutione Primorum Monacharum) is a medieval Catholic book in the contemplative and eremetic tradition of the Carmelite Order, thought to reflect the spirituality of the Prophet Elijah, honored as the Father of the Order.

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Books of Kings

The two Books of Kings (ספר מלכים Sepher M'lakhim – the two books were originally one) present the biblical view of history of ancient Israel and Judah from the death of David to the release of his successor Jehoiachin from imprisonment in Babylon, a period of some 400 years.

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Brother Lawrence

Brother Lawrence of the Resurrection (c. 1614 – 12 February 1691) served as a lay brother in a Carmelite monastery in Paris.

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Byzantine Discalced Carmelites

The Byzantine Discalced Carmelites are communities of cloistered nuns and friars (in Bulgaria only), belonging to several Eastern Catholic Churches – the Bulgarian Byzantine Catholic Church, the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, the Ruthenian Catholic Church, the Ordinariate for Eastern Catholics in France and the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, living committed to a life of prayer, according to the eremitic tradition and lifestyle of the Discalced Carmelites.

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Carmelite Rite

The Rite of the Holy Sepulchre, commonly called the Carmelite Rite, is the liturgical rite that was used by the Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre, Hospitallers, Templars, Carmelites and the other orders founded within the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

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Carmelite Rule of St. Albert

The eremitic Rule of St.

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Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm

The Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm are a religious institute begun in 1929 by Mother Angeline Teresa (Bridget Teresa McCrory).

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Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles

The Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles is a Roman Catholic religious institute of the Carmelite Order founded by Venerable Mother Maria Luisa Josefa of the Most Blessed Sacrament, also known as Mother Luisita.

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Carmelites

The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel, hence its name.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic religious order

Catholic religious orders are, historically, a category of Catholic religious institutes.

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Chapter (religion)

Chapter (Latin capitulum) designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nordic Lutheran churches.

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Charism

In Christian theology, a charism (plural: charisms or charismata; in Greek singular: charisma, plural: charismata) in general denotes any good gift that flows from God's love to humans.

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Child Jesus

The Child Jesus (Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Christ Child) refers to Jesus from his Nativity to age 12.

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Christian contemplation

In Christian mysticism, contemplative prayer or contemplation, for which the Greek term θεωρία theoria is also used, is a form of prayer distinct from vocal prayer (the recitation of words) and, strictly speaking, from meditation (a form of mental prayer, also called methodical prayer, based on discursive reflection on various considerations).

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Cloak

A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform.

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College of Sorbonne

The College of Sorbonne (Collège de Sorbonne) was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon (1201-1274), after whom it was named.

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Confraternity

A confraternity is generally a Christian voluntary association of lay people created for the purpose of promoting special works of Christian charity or piety, and approved by the Church hierarchy.

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Constitutions of the Carmelite Order

The Constitutions of the Carmelite Order stand as an expression of the ideals and spirit of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.

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Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils.

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Crusades

The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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Dachau concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.

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Daniel Papebroch

Daniel Papebroch, S.J., (17 March 1628 – 28 June 1714) was a Flemish Jesuit hagiographer, one of the Bollandists.

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Dialogues of the Carmelites

Dialogues des carmélites (Dialogues of the Carmelites) is a 1956 French-language opera in twelve scenes and several orchestral interludes, grouped into three acts, by Francis Poulenc.

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Discalced Carmelites

The Discalced Carmelites or Barefoot Carmelites is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers.

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Divine grace

Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.

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Doctor of the Church

Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, hence the abbreviation OP used by members), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216.

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Easter

EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.

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Edith Stein

Edith Stein, also known as St.

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Elijah

Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu") or Elias (Ηλίας Elías; Syriac: ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was a prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), according to the biblical Books of Kings.

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Elizabeth of the Trinity

Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity, OCD (Élisabeth de la Trinité), (July 18, 1880 – November 9, 1906) was a French Discalced Carmelite nun, mystic, and spiritual writer.

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Enclosed religious orders

Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Eternal Word Television Network

This article is about the television network.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Excommunication

Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular reception of the sacraments.

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Fátima, Portugal

Fátima is a civil parish in the municipality of Ourém, in the Portuguese Santarém District.

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Feast of the Cross

In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Franciscan

Franciscans are people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St Francis of Assisi and of his main associates and followers, such as St Clare of Assisi, St Anthony of Padua, and St Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.

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Francisco Palau

Francisco Palau y Quer, O.C.D., (Francesc Palau i Quer; 29 December 1811 - 20 March 1872) was a Catalan Discalced Carmelite friar and priest.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.

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George Preca

George Preca (in Ġorġ Preca) (12 February 1880 – 26 July 1962) was a Maltese Roman Catholic priest who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine, a society of lay catechists.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Hagiography

A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Hell

In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of torment and punishment in an afterlife.

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Hermit

A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society.

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Hermits of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel

The Hermits of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel is a branch of the religious Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance, who originated as hermit monks and have been mendicant friars since the 13th century.

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Holy Face of Jesus

The Holy Face of Jesus is a title for specific images which some Catholics believe to have been miraculously formed representations of the face of Jesus Christ.

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Hulne Priory

Hulne Priory is a monastery founded in the 13th century by the Carmelites, or "White Friars" which was one of the Orders of Mendicants, bound by their rule to live in extreme poverty.

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Humiliati

The Humiliati were an Italian religious order of men formed probably in the 12th century.

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Incorruptibility

Incorruptibility is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief that Divine intervention allows some human bodies (specifically saints and beati) to avoid the normal process of decomposition after death as a sign of their holiness.

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Index Librorum Prohibitorum

The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious, and therefore banned by the Catholic Church.

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Inquisition

The Inquisition is a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy.

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Ipswich Whitefriars

Ipswich Whitefriars is the name usually given to the Carmelite Priory, a Catholic religious house, which formerly stood near the centre of the medieval town of Ipswich, the county town of Suffolk, UK.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unificazione italiana), mainly know as Risorgimento (meaning the Resurgence), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Jan Tyranowski

Jan Tyranowski (9 February 1900 – 15 March 1947) was a Catholic layman, student of Discalced Carmelite spirituality, and central figure in the spiritual formation of the young Karol Wojtyla, who became Pope John Paul II.

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Jean de Launoy

Jean de Launoy (Joannes Launoius) (1603–1678) was a French historian.

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Joaquina Vedruna de Mas

Saint Joaquina de Vedruna (or Joaquima, in Catalan) (16 April 1783 – 28 August 1854) was a Catalonian nun, founder of the Carmelite Sisters of the Charity.

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John of St. Samson

The Venerable John of St Samson (1571–1636), also known as Jean du Moulin or Jean de Saint-Samson, was a French Carmelite and mystic of the Catholic Church.

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John of the Cross

Saint John of the Cross, O.C.D. (San Juan de la Cruz; 1542 – 14 December 1591), was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile.

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Juan Tomás de Rocaberti

Juan Tomás de Rocaberti (c.1624 – 13 June 1699) was a Spanish theologian.

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Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.

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Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem

Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (Patriarcha Hierosolymitanus Latinorum) is the title raising the rank of the see of the Latin Church Catholic Metropolitan Archbishop of Jerusalem.

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Lay Carmelites

The Third Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (also named Lay Carmelites) is a branch of the religious Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance and was established in 1476 by a bull of Pope Sixtus IV.

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Lúcia Santos

Lúcia de Jesus Rosa dos Santos – Sister Mary Lucy of Jesus and of the Immaculate Heart, better known as Sister Lúcia of Fátima – (March 28, 1907 – February 13, 2005) was a Roman Catholic Discalced Carmelite nun from Portugal.

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Leicester Friars of the Sack

Leicester Friars of the Sack is a former Friary of "The Friars of the Order of the Penitence of Jesus Christ" (more commonly known as the "Brothers of Penitence" or the "Friars of the Sack"), in Leicester, England.

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Magdalena de Pazzi

Saint Mary Magdalene of Pazzi (Maria Maddalena de Pazzi; April 2, 1566 – May 25, 1607) is an Italian Carmelite mystic and saint of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Mantua

Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Marian devotions

The term "devotions" is commonly understood to refer to those external practices of piety by which the faith of an individual finds expression.

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Mariana of the Purification

Mother Mariana of the Purification (November 5, 1623 in Lisbon – December 8, 1695 in Beja) was a nun of the Carmelite Order of the Ancient Observance who, having been born in Lisbon, Portugal, and lived and professed her religious vows at the Carmelite Convent of Our Lady of Hope in Beja, Portugal, died with the odor of sanctity.

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Marie-Antoinette de Geuser

Marie-Antoinette de Geuser (known as "Consummata"; 20 April 1889 in Le Havre – 22 June 1918 in Le Havre).

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Martyrs of Compiègne

The Martyrs of Compiègne were the 16 members of the Carmel of Compiègne, France: 11 Discalced Carmelite nuns, three lay sisters, and two externs (tertiaries of the Order, who would handle the community's needs outside the monastery).

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is one of the names by which the sacrament of the Eucharist is commonly called in the Catholic Church, Western Rite Orthodox churches and many Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches.

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Mendicant

A mendicant (from mendicans, "begging") is one who practises mendicancy (begging) and relies chiefly or exclusively on charitable donations to survive.

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Mendicant orders

Mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on charity for their livelihood.

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Monks of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel

The Monks of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel (also known as Carmelite Monks) is an enclosed religious community of diocesan right, founded in 2003 by the authority of Bishop David Ricken, D.D., J.C.L. in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cheyenne in Wyoming, with Fr.

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Mount Carmel

Mount Carmel (הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel ISO 259-3 Har ha Karmell (lit. God's vineyard); Κάρμηλος, Kármēlos; الكرمل, Kurmul or جبل مار إلياس Jabal Mar Elyas 'Mount Saint Elias') is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Novice

A novice is a person or creature who is new to a field or activity.

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Nuno Álvares Pereira

Dom Nuno Álvares Pereira, O. Carm. (June 24, 1360 – April 1, 1431), also spelled Nun'Álvares Pereira, was a Portuguese general of great success who had a decisive role in the 1383-1385 Crisis that assured Portugal's independence from Castile.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition and oral lore is cultural material and tradition transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Oratory (worship)

An oratory is a Christian room for prayer, from the Latin orare, to pray.

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Our Lady of Fátima

Our Lady of Fátima (Nossa Senhora de Fátima) is a title referring to the Virgin Mary, based on apparitions reported to be experienced by three shepherd children at Fátima.

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Our Lady of Mount Carmel

Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين.,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church.

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Papal legate

A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I).

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Pope Boniface VIII

Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303.

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Pope Eugene IV

Pope Eugene IV (Eugenius IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447.

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Pope Honorius III

Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.

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Pope Honorius IV

Pope Honorius IV (c. 1210 – 3 April 1287), born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287.

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Pope Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death.

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Pope Innocent IV

Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.

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Pope Innocent XII

Pope Innocent XII (Innocentius XII; 13 March 1615 – 27 September 1700), born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 12 July 1691 to his death in 1700.

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Pope John XXII

Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.

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Pope Pius II

Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.

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Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 1876 – 9 October 1958), reigned from 2 March 1939 to his death in 1958.

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Pope Sixtus IV

Pope Sixtus IV (Xystus IV; 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Presbyter

Presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος,: "elder" or "priest" in Christian usage) in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, presbyter referring to ordinary elders and episkopos referring exclusively to the office of bishop.

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Prior

Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.

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Priory

A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Raphael Kalinowski

Raphael of St.

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Religious vows

Religious vows are the public vows made by the members of religious communities pertaining to their conduct, practices, and views.

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Rennes

Rennes (Rennes, Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Valencia

The Archdiocese of Valencia (Latin, Valentina) is a Catholic ecclesiastical territory located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, part of the autonomous community of Valencia.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vercelli

The Archdiocese of Vercelli (in Latin, Archidioecesis Vercellensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in northern Italy, one of the two archdioceses which form the ecclesiastical region of Piedmont.

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Roman Catholic devotions

Roman Catholic devotions are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics.

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Rome

Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.

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Rosary

The Rosary (rosarium, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), usually in the form of the Dominican rosary, is a form of prayer used especially in the Catholic Church named for the string of prayer beads used to count the component prayers.

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Rosary and scapular

The exact origins of both the Rosary and Scapular are subject to debate among scholars.

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Saint

A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness, or likeness to God.

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Scapular

The scapular (from Latin scapulae, "shoulders") is a Christian garment suspended from the shoulders.

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Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel

"Our Lady of Mount Carmel" is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order and the Discalced Carmelite Order, and the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (also known as the Brown Scapular), is the habit of the two Orders.

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Second Council of Lyon

The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1272–1274.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council (Latin: Concilium Oecumenicum Vaticanum Secundum, informally known as Vatican II) addressed relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites

The Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites, officially Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Saecularis (OCDS), and formerly the Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel and of the Holy Mother Saint Teresa of Jesus, is a religious association of the Roman Catholic Church composed primarily of lay persons and also accepted secular clergy.

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Secularization

Secularization or secularisation is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions.

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Shrove Tuesday

Shrove Tuesday (known in some countries as Pancake Day) is a day in February or March, preceding Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent), which is celebrated in some countries by consuming pancakes.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.

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Simon Stock

Saint Simon Stock, an Englishman who lived in the 13th century, was an early prior general of the Carmelite religious order.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church.

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Sodality

In Christian theology, a sodality, also known as a syndiakonia, is a form of the "Universal Church" expressed in specialized, task-oriented form as opposed to the Christian church in its local, diocesan form (which is termed modality).

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Synecdoche

A synecdoche (from Greek συνεκδοχή synekdoche, meaning "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something, or vice versa.

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Terce

Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian liturgies.

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Teresa Margaret of the Sacred Heart

Teresa Margaret of the Sacred Heart, O.C.D. (15 July 1747 – 7 March 1770), was an Italian Discalced Carmelite nun.

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Teresa of Ávila

Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 15154 October 1582), was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, author during the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer.

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Teresa of the Andes

Teresa of Los Andes, O.C.D. (July 13, 1900 – April 12, 1920), also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus of Los Andes (Teresa de Jesús de Los Andes), was a Chilean nun of the Discalced Carmelite Order who was canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

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Thérèse of Lisieux

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (Born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin, January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, O.C.D., was a French Discalced Carmelite nun.

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The Practice of the Presence of God

The Practice of the Presence of God is a book of collected teachings of Brother Lawrence (born Nicholas Herman), a 17th-century Carmelite monk, compiled by Father Joseph de Beaufort.

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Theology

Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university, seminary, or school of divinity.

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Thomas Conecte

Thomas Conecte (died 1434) was a French Carmelite monk and preacher.

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Titus Brandsma

Titus Brandsma, O.Carm., was a Dutch Carmelite friar, Catholic priest and professor of philosophy.

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Tuscany

Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 sq mi) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Valais

The Canton of Valais (Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.

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Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism

Roman Catholic veneration of Mary, Mother of Jesus, which has grown over time in importance, is manifested not only in prayer but also in the visual arts, poetry and music.

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Vespers

Vespers is the sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Western Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.

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Visions of Jesus and Mary

Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Jesus Christ and personal conversations with him.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmelites

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