203 relations: Acceleration, Accretion (astrophysics), Adaptive optics, Albedo, Aluminium-26, Ammonia, Antifreeze, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Argentina, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Asteroid family, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Axial tilt, Barnaba Oriani, Berlin, Binoculars, Bright spots on Ceres, C-type asteroid, Carbonaceous chondrite, Carbonate minerals, Caribbean, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Ceres (dwarf planet) in fiction, Ceres (mythology), Cerium, China National Space Administration, Clay minerals, Clearing the neighbourhood, Colonization of Ceres, Comet, Conjunction (astronomy), Constellation, Cosmic ray, Cosmogenic nuclide, Cronstedtite, Cryovolcano, Dawn (spacecraft), Declination, Definition of planet, Demeter, Discovery Communications, Discovery Program, Dolomite, Draco (constellation), Dwarf planet, ..., Earth, Earth mass, Ecliptic, Ejecta, Enceladus, Epoch (astronomy), Eris (dwarf planet), Europa (moon), European Space Agency, Extraterrestrial life, Extraterrestrial liquid water, Ezinu (crater), Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Flattening, Franz Xaver von Zach, Fresh water, G-force, G-type asteroid, Gamma ray, Gauss' Method, Gefion family, Genitive case, Geometric albedo, Giuseppe Piazzi, Gravity assist, Haumea, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Hera, Herschel Space Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrate, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Hydroxide, Iapetus (moon), Ice, Image map, Impact crater, India, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, Invariable plane, Ion thruster, IUE, Jérôme Lalande, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johann Daniel Titius, Johann Elert Bode, Johann Hieronymus Schröter, Johannes Kepler, Julian day, Julian year (astronomy), Jupiter, Kelvin, Kingdom of Sicily, Kuiper belt, Lake Lugano, Latin, Life on Europa, Life on Mars, Life on Titan, List of exceptional asteroids, List of geological features on Ceres, List of Solar System objects by size, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Makemake, Mantle (geology), Mars, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Mercury (planet), Mexico, Microorganism, Milan, Minor planet, Minor Planet Center, Minor planet designation, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Naked eye, NASA, Neptune, Neutron, New Horizons, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, Occator (crater), Occultation, Ocean, Orbit determination, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Order of magnitude, Osculating orbit, Palermo, Palladium, Peterborough Examiner, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary habitability, Planetesimal, Pluto, Proper orbital elements, Protoplanet, Pyramid-shaped mountain on Ceres, Quadrangle (geography), Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare earth element, Right ascension, Rock (geology), Roman mythology, Salt (chemistry), Saturn, Semi-major axis, Sickle, Siderite, Slate (magazine), Small Solar System body, Solar System, Solution, Spacecraft, Spectrometer, Spectrum, Star, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfuric acid, Sun, Tectonics, Terrestrial planet, Tethys (moon), The Planetary Society, Titius–Bode law, Transit (astronomy), Trojan (astronomy), Ultraviolet, United States Geological Survey, Universe Today, Uranus, Venus, Vesta (spacecraft), Volatiles, Volcanism, Volume, W. M. Keck Observatory, William Herschel, 10 Hygiea, 1108 Demeter, 1272 Gefion, 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 433 Eros, 7 Iris. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object.
In astrophysics, accretion is the growth of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter in an accretion disc.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of wavefront distortions: it aims at correcting the deformations of an incoming wavefront by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
Albedo, or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo "whiteness" (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus "white", is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.
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Aluminium-26, 26Al, is a radioactive isotope of the chemical element aluminium, decaying by either of the modes beta-plus or electron capture, both resulting in the stable nuclide magnesium-26.
Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
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An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid.
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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
The apsis (Greek ἁψίς), plural apsides (Greek: ἁψίδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
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The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol au, AU or ua) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy and Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, 17th century, from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body.
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In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
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Barnaba Oriani (July 17, 1752 – November 12, 1832) was an Italian priest, geodesist, astronomer and scientist.
Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
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Binoculars, field glasses or binocular telescopes are a pair of identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
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Several bright surface features (also known as faculae) were discovered on the dwarf planet Ceres by the ''Dawn'' spacecraft in 2015.
C-type asteroids are carbonaceous asteroids.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion: CO32−.
The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß,; Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.
As the largest body in the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Ceres (formally "1 Ceres") frequently appears in science fiction.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
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The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of the People's Republic of China.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
The dwarf planet Ceres has been proposed as one possible target for human colonization in the inner Solar System.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
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A conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptical longitude, normally when observed from the Earth.
In modern astronomy, a constellation is a specific area of the celestial sphere as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.
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Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare isotopes created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing cosmic ray spallation.
Cronstedtite is a complex iron silicate mineral belonging to the serpentine group of minerals.
A cryovolcano (colloquially known as an ice volcano) is a volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
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Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
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The definition of planet, since the word was coined by the ancient Greeks, has included within its scope a wide range of celestial bodies.
In ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the harvest, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
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Discovery Communications, Inc. is an American global mass media and entertainment company based in Silver Spring, Maryland.
NASA's Discovery Program (as compared to New Frontiers, Explorer, or Flagship Programs) is a series of lower-cost, highly focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2.
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Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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Earth mass (where ⊕ is the symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
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The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.
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Ejecta (from the Latin: "things thrown", singular ejectum) refers to particles ejected from an area.
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Enceladus (pronounced) is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
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In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most-massive and second-largest dwarf planet known in the Solar System.
Europa, or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II), is the sixth-closest moon of Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
Extraterrestrial lifeWhere "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
Extraterrestrial liquid water (from the Latin words: extra and terrestris) is water in its liquid state that is found beyond Earth.
Ezinu is a large crater on Ceres.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825) was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.
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Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (June 4, 1754 – September 2, 1832) was a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary (now Budapest in Hungary).
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.
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g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes weight.
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G-type asteroids are a relatively uncommon type of carbonaceous asteroid that makes up approximately 5% of asteroids.
Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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In orbital mechanics (subfield of celestial mechanics), Gauss' method is used for preliminary orbit determination from at least three observations (more observations increases the accuracy of the determined orbit) of the orbiting body of interest at three different times.
The Gefion or Gefionian '''family''' of asteroids is a grouping of S-type asteroids in the intermediate asteroid belt.
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.
Giuseppe Piazzi (16 July 1746 – 22 July 1826) was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically in order to save propellant, time, and expense.
Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.
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Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.
Hera, Greek Ἥρᾱ, Hērā, equivalently Ἥρη, Hērē, in Ionic and Homer) is the wife and one of three sisters of Zeus in the Olympian pantheon of Greek mythology and religion. Her chief function was as the goddess of women and marriage. Her counterpart in the religion of ancient Rome was Juno.Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. The cow, lion and the peacock were considered sacred to her. Hera's mother is Rhea and her father Cronus. Portrayed as majestic and solemn, often enthroned, and crowned with the polos (a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great Goddesses), Hera may bear a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos." Hera was known for her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus's lovers and offspring, but also against mortals who crossed her, such as Pelias. Paris also earned Hera's hatred by choosing Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess.
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The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
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In continuum mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
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Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.
Ice is water, frozen into a solid state.
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In HTML and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination).
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An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body with the surface.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).
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The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
An ion thruster is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating ions.
IUE may refer to.
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Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in Pasadena, California, United States.
Johann Daniel Titius (January 2, 1729 – December 11, 1796) was a German astronomer and a professor at Wittenberg.
Johann Elert Bode (19 January 1747 – 23 November 1826) was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius–Bode law.
Johann Hieronymus Schröter (August 30, 1745, Erfurt – August 29, 1816, Lilienthal) was a German astronomer.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period used primarily by astronomers.
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In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnu di Sicilia, Regnum Siciliae, Regne de Sicília, Spanish: Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of Italy from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kuiper belt or (as in Dutch), sometimes called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a region of the Solar System beyond the planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
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Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano or Ceresio, from Ceresius lacus) is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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There is speculation on the possibility that Jupiter's moon Europa could harbor life in its subsurface ocean.
For centuries people have speculated about the possibility of life on Mars due to the planet's proximity and similarity to Earth.
Whether there is life on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is at present an open question and a topic of scientific assessment and research.
The following is a collection of lists of exceptional asteroids in the Solar System.
The IAU adopted two themes for naming surface features on Ceres: agriculture deities for craters, and agricultural festivals for everything else.
This is a partial list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius, and subdivided into several size classes.
The Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), jointly sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), brings together international specialists in petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, geology and astronomy to present the latest results of research in planetary science.
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object (KBO) in the classical population, with a diameter that is about 2/3 the size of Pluto.
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The mantle is an interior part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
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The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (abbreviation: MPS; Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung) is a research institute in astronomy and astrophysics located in Göttingen, Germany, where it relocated in February 2014 from the nearby village of Lindau.
Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.
Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.
Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun that is neither a planet nor originally classified as a comet.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (asteroids) and comets, calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
Formal minor planet designations are number–name combinations overseen by the Minor Planet Center, a branch of the IAU.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.
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Naked eye (also called bare eye) is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Abbé Nicolas Louis de La Caille, sometimes spelled Lacaille, (28 December 1713 – 21 March 1762) was a French astronomer and priest.
Occator is an impact crater located on Ceres that contains "Spot 5", the brightest of the bright spots observed by the Dawn spacecraft.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
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Orbit determination is a set of techniques for estimating the orbits of objects such as Moons, planets, and spacecraft.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination is the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of an object in orbit around another object.
The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete orbit around another object.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually due to their orbital periods being related by a ratio of two small integers.
Orders of magnitude are written in powers of 10.
In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos, بَلَرْم, Balarm; Phoenician: זִיז, Ziz) is a city in Insular Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Province of Palermo.
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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
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The Peterborough Examiner is a newspaper that services Peterborough, Ontario and area.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to develop and sustain life.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
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The proper orbital elements of an orbit are constants of motion of an object in space that remain practically unchanged over an astronomically long timescale.
A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.
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The "pyramid-shaped mountain" (or "tall, conical mountain") is a large unnamed mountain that protrudes above otherwise smooth terrain on the dwarf planet and asteroid Ceres.
In geology or geography, the word "quadrangle" usually refers to a United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5-minute quadrangle map, which are usually named after a local physiographic feature.
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A rare earth element (REE) or rare earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.
In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
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In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
A sickle is a hand-held agricultural tool with a variously curved blade typically used for harvesting grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock (either freshly cut or dried as hay).
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Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).
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Slate is an English-language online current affairs and culture magazine in the United States created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley, initially under the ownership of Microsoft as part of MSN.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a satellite.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase.
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A spacecraft is a vehicle, or machine designed to fly in outer space.
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In physics, a spectrometer is an apparatus to measure a spectrum.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.
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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.
The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
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Tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus from the Greek τεκτονικός, "pertaining to building") is concerned with the processes which control the structure and properties of the Earth's crust, and its evolution through time.
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A terrestrial planet, telluric planet or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Tethys or Saturn III is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.
The Planetary Society is an American-based non-government, nonprofit organization that anyone may join.
The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence.
The term transit or astronomical transit has three meanings in astronomy.
In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares an orbit with a planet or larger moon, but does not collide with it because it orbits near one of the two trojan points—the Lagrangian points of stability, and —which lie approximately 60° ahead of and behind the larger body, respectively.
Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Universe Today (UT) is a moderately popular North American based non-commercial space and astronomy news site.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
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Vesta was a multiple-asteroid-flyby mission that the Soviet Union was planning in the 1980s.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust and/or atmosphere.
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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
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The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel.
10 Hygiea is the fourth largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.
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1108 Demeter is an asteroid from the asteroid belt.
1272 Gefion is an asteroid from the asteroid belt discovered on 10 October 1931 by Reinmuth, K. at Heidelberg.
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Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and it is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.
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Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, was the third asteroid to be discovered and is the 11th-largest asteroid in the asteroid belt, and one of the two largest stony (S-type) asteroids, along with 15 Eunomia.
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Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.
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433 Eros is an S-type near-Earth asteroid approximately in size, the second-largest near-Earth asteroid after 1036 Ganymed.
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7 Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.
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