676 relations: A cappella, A History of the University in Europe, Abbasid Caliphate, Abrahamic religions, Acts of Supremacy, Adoptionism, Adultery, Adventism, Affusion, Age of Discovery, Age of Enlightenment, Al Jazeera, Alberta, Alexandria, Alexios I Komnenos, Alister McGrath, Allegory, Amen, Americas, Amsterdam University Press, Anabaptists, Anagoge, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andreas Karlstadt, Anglican Communion, Anglican sacraments, Anglican–Roman Catholic International Commission, Anglicanism, Aniconism in Christianity, Annihilationism, Annual cycle, Annuario Pontificio, Anointing, Anointing of the Sick, Anthroposophical Society, Anti-Christian policies in the Roman Empire, Anti-clericalism, Antioch, Antoninus Pius, Apocalypse, Apostle (Christian), Apostles' Creed, Apostolic Age, Apostolic succession, Arab Christians, Arabic, Arabs, ..., Architecture, Arianism, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Arminianism, Art, Ascension of Jesus, Aspersion, Assyrian Church of the East, Athanasian Creed, Athanasius of Alexandria, Attila, Augustine of Hippo, Australasia, Austria, Autocephaly, Balts, Baptism, Baptism of Jesus, Baptismal regeneration, Baptists, BBC, Belgium, Believer's baptism, Benedict of Nursia, Bertrand Russell, Bible, Bible prophecy, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Biblical hermeneutics, Biblical inerrancy, Biblical infallibility, Biblical inspiration, Biblical Sabbath, Bishop, Blasphemy, Book of Common Prayer, Books of the Bible, Born again (Christianity), Bowing in Eastern Orthodox Church tradition, Branch theory, British Columbia, British Orthodox Church, Business, Byzantine art, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Calendar of saints, Calvinism, Cambridge University Press, Canon Press, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Renaissance, Carthage, Catechesis, Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catharism, Cathedral school, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Catholicism, Celts, Central Intelligence Agency, Chalcedonian Definition, Charismatic Movement, Charles Spurgeon, Chi Rho, Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, Chrismation, Christ, Christadelphians, Christendom, Christian, Christian art, Christian Church, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian churches and churches of Christ, Christian cross, Christian denomination, Christian emigration, Christian literature, Christian mortalism, Christian music, Christian mythology, Christian philosophy, Christian pop culture, Christian rock, Christian theology, Christian views on marriage, Christian views on sin, Christianity and politics, Christianity in Australia, Christianity in Europe, Christianity in Korea, Christianity in Sudan, Christmas, Christology, Christopher Columbus, Church architecture, Church attendance, Church Fathers, Church History (Eusebius), Church of England, Church of South India, Church service, Churches of Christ, Churchmanship, Cistercians, Clement of Alexandria, Closed communion, Cluny Abbey, Colonialism, Columbia Encyclopedia, Columbidae, Commendation ceremony, Communion (Christian), Communion of saints, Confession (religion), Confessionalism (religion), Confirmation, Congregational church, Consecrated life, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Consubstantiality, Conversion to Christianity, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Council of Chalcedon, Council of Ephesus, Council of Florence, Council of Trent, Counter-Reformation, Creed, Crossing the Red Sea, Crucifix, Crucifixion, Crucifixion of Jesus, Crusades, Cultural Christian, Cyprian, Czech Republic, Debate, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Decius, Deuterocanonical books, Diarmaid MacCulloch, Diocese of Rome, Diocletian, Disciple (Christianity), Dissolution of the Monasteries, Divine grace, Doctrine, Dominican Order, Early Christianity, East Asia, East Timor, East–West Schism, Easter, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastical polity, Economics, Ecumenical council, Ecumenical creeds, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenism, Edict of Milan, Education, Egypt, Encyclopædia Britannica, England, English Civil War, English Reformation, Episcopal polity, Episcopal see, Epistle of James, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eschatology, Esoteric Christianity, Estonia, Eternal life (Christianity), Eternity, Ethics, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eucharist, Europe, Eusebius, Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Evangelicalism, Evangelism, Exegesis, Existence of God, Family, Fasting, Filioque, First Apology of Justin Martyr, First Council of Constantinople, First Council of Nicaea, First Vatican Council, Four Marks of the Church, Fourth Crusade, France, Francia, Francis of Assisi, Franciscan, Free will, French Revolution, French Wars of Religion, Friedrich Nietzsche, Frisia, G. K. Chesterton, Gaul, Genuflection, Georgia (country), Germanic peoples, Germany, Gnostic Gospels, Gnosticism, God in Abrahamic religions, God in Christianity, God the Father, Godhead in Christianity, Good Friday, Gospel, Gospel of John, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Thomas, Gothic architecture, Great Apostasy, Great Divergence, Great Fire of Rome, Great Tribulation, Greece, Greek language, Greek scholars in the Renaissance, Greg Bahnsen, H. Richard Niebuhr, Harper (publisher), Harrowing of Hell, Harvard University, Hebrew Bible, Hebrew language, Hell, Helvetic Republic, Henry S. Bettenson, Henry VIII of England, Heresy, High church, Historical Jesus, Historical-grammatical method, History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance, History of Christianity, History of science, History of Western civilization, Holiness movement, Holy Land, Holy orders, Holy See, Holy Spirit, Holy Spirit (Christianity), Holy Week, Horn of Africa, Hospital, Huldrych Zwingli, Hungarians, Hungary, Hutterite, Hypostatic union, Ichthys, Iconoclasm, Ideology, Idolatry, Iglesia ni Cristo, Ignatius of Antioch, Immersion baptism, Immortality, Incarnation (Christianity), Independent Catholic churches, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indulgence, Infant baptism, Inquisition, Intercession of saints, Interfaith dialogue, Iran, Ireland, Irenaeus, Irresistible grace, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, Italy, Jacobus Arminius, James, son of Zebedee, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jesus and messianic prophecy, Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Seminar, Jewish Christian, Jewish messianism, Jews, John Calvin, John Knox, John Lennox, John McManners, John Polkinghorne, John Wesley, Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, Judaism, Judea, Justin Martyr, Keith Mathison, King James Version, Kingship and kingdom of God, Kneeling, Koine Greek, Kulturkampf, Last Judgment, Late Latin, Latin, Latin America, Latin Church, Latter Day Saint movement, Law, Lectionary, Lent, Levant, Liberal Christianity, Liberalism, List of Christian denominations, List of Christian Nobel laureates, List of Jesuit scientists, List of Roman Catholic cleric-scientists, Lists of Christians, Literature, Liturgical year, Liturgy, Livonia, Lord's Prayer, Low church, Lutheran World Federation, Lutheranism, Macau, Magisterial Reformation, Maimonides, Major religious groups, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Mark the Evangelist, Marriage, Martin Luther, Martinism, Marxism, Mary (mother of Jesus), Mary Magdalene, Massacre of Verden, Matthew Henry, Medicine, Medieval university, Memoria, Mendicant orders, Mennonite, Mesopotamia, Messiah, Messianic Judaism, Methodism, Miaphysitism, Millennialism, Minister (Christianity), Ministry of Jesus, Miracles of Jesus, Mishneh Torah, Mission (Christianity), Monastery, Monastic school, Monasticism, Monk, Monotheism, Moral, Mormonism, Mortal sin, Music, Muslim, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Mythology, Nag Hammadi, Napoleonic era, Nation state, National Council of Churches in Australia, National Geographic Society, Nativity of Jesus, Neo-charismatic movement, Nero, Nestorianism, Netherlands, New Testament, New Testament apocrypha, Nicene Creed, Nobel Prize, Nondenominational Christianity, North Africa, North America, Northern United States, Nun, Oceania, Old Catholic Church, Old Testament, Omnipotence, One true church, Ontario, Open communion, Oral gospel traditions, Orans, Ordinance (Christianity), Ordination, Oriental Orthodoxy, Origen, Original sin, Otto von Bismarck, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Pan-European identity, Parament, Particular Church, Particular judgment, Pastor, Patriarchate, Patristics, Paul the Apostle, Paulist Fathers, Penance, Pentecost, Pentecostalism, Perichoresis, Persecution of Christians, Pew Research Center, Pharisees, Philippines, Philosophy, Plotinus, Poland, Political Catholicism, Politics, Polycarp, Pope, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope Gregory I, Pope Leo I, Pope Urban II, Porphyry (philosopher), Postchristianity, Postmodernism, Prayer, Preacher, Presbyter, Presbyterianism, Primacy of the Bishop of Rome, Profession, Profession (religious), Prophet, Prostration, Protestant Reformation, Protestant work ethic, Protestantism, Purgatory, Quakers, Quebec, Questions of Truth, Rabbi, Radical Reformation, Rapture, Ravi Zacharias, Reason, Reginald H. Fuller, Relationship between religion and science, Religion, Religion in Canada, Religious conversion, Religious images in Christian theology, Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory, Religious violence, Religious war, Restoration Movement, Restorationism, Resurrection appearances of Jesus, Resurrection of Jesus, Resurrection of the dead, Revelation, Rite, Robert M. Price, Roger E. Olson, Role of the Christian Church in civilization, Roman Empire, Roman Rite, Romanesque architecture, Rosicrucian Fellowship, Russian Revolution, Sabbath School, Sabellianism, Sacramental bread, Sacramental wine, Sacraments of the Catholic Church, Sacred mysteries, Saint, Saint Dominic, Saint Peter, Salvation, Salvation (Christianity), School of Antioch, Science, Scientific revolution, Scotland, Scribe, Season, Second Coming, Second Council of Lyon, Second Council of Nicaea, Second Great Awakening, Second Temple Judaism, Second Vatican Council, Septuagint, Sermon, Sermon on the Mount, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Sign of the cross, Sir Banister Fletcher, Skepticism, Slavs, Socialism, Sola scriptura, Solemnity, Son of God, Southern Africa, Southern Cone, Southern United States, Spain, Spanish Civil War, Split of early Christianity and Judaism, State church of the Roman Empire, State religion, Stephen, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subsistit in, Substitutionary atonement, Summa contra Gentiles, Summa Theologica, Sunday school, Switzerland, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, Syria, Syriac language, Syriac Orthodox Church, Taiwan, Taizé Community, Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Tanakh, Ten Commandments, Tertullian, The arts, The gospel, The New Earth, The Ninety-Five Theses, The Renaissance, The Shape of Sola Scriptura, Theodosius I, Theology, Theophilus of Antioch, Theoria, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Müntzer, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Tonga, Total depravity, Tradition, Trinity, Turkish people, Tuvalu, Typology (theology), Ultramontanism, Umayyad Caliphate, Unitarian Universalism, Unitarianism, United and uniting churches, United Church of Canada, Uniting Church in Australia, University, University of Bologna, University of Fribourg, University of Oxford, University of Paris, Value (personal and cultural), Vandals, Vatican City, Vestment, Vine, Vision hypothesis, Welfare, Western Christianity, Western culture, Western esotericism, Western Rite Orthodoxy, Western United States, Western world, Why I Am Not a Christian, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, William F. Albright, William H. Brackney, William Lane Craig, William Miller (preacher), World Council of Churches, World Methodist Council, World population, World view, Worship, Yale University Press, Yeshua (name), Zoroastrianism, 1 Corinthians 15, 1910 World Missionary Conference. Expand index (626 more) » « Shrink index
A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
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A History of the University in Europe is a four-volume book series on the history and development of the European university from the medieval origins of the institution until the present day.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Abrahamic religions (also Semitic religions) are monotheistic religions of West Asian origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him.
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The first Act of Supremacy was legislation in 1534 that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England.
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Adoptionism, sometimes called dynamic monarchianism, is a nontrinitarian theological teaching that Jesus was adopted as God's Son at either his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension.
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Adultery (anglicised from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral or legal grounds.
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Adventism is a branch of Protestantism which began in the 19th century in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States.
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Affusion (la. affusio) is a method of baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized.
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The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
Al Jazeera (الجزيرة, literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar.
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Alberta is a western province of Canada.
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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048Norwich, pg. 4 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
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Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, and Christian apologist.
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As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor.
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The word amen (or;; Greek: ἀμήν; آمين, ʾāmīn; "So be it; truly") is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Amsterdam University Press (AUP) is a university press that was founded in 1992 by the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "over again" and βαπτισμός "baptism") is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
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Anagoge (ἀναγωγή), sometimes spelled anagogy, is a Greek word suggesting a "climb" or "ascent" upwards.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – 24 December 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt or Andreas Carlstadt or Karolostadt, was a German Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation.
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The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.
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In keeping with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the Catholic tradition and a church of the Reformation.
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The Anglican—Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) is an organization created in 1969 which seeks to make ecumenical progress between the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.
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Christianity has not generally practised aniconism, or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images, but has had an active tradition of making and venerating images of God and other religious figures.
Annihilationism (also known as extinctionism or destructionism) is a Christian belief that apart from salvation the final punishment of human beings results in their total destruction rather than their everlasting torment.
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An annual cycle refers to a set of changes or events that uniformly, or consistently, take place at the same time of year.
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The Annuario Pontificio (Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See.
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Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.
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Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person.
The General Anthroposophical Society is an organization dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the form of spiritual philosophy known as anthroposophy.
Anti-Christian policies in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of about three centuries until the 313 Edict of Milan issued by Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius, when Christianity was legalized.
Anti-clericalism refers to historical movements that oppose the clergy for reasons including their actual or alleged power and influence in all aspects of public and political life and their involvement in the everyday life of the citizen, their privileges, or their enforcement of orthodoxy.
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Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek - Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River.
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Antoninus Pius (Titus Fulvus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius;Weigel, Antoninus Pius born 19 September, 86 AD – died 7 March, 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161.
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An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω meaning "uncovering"), translated literally from Greek, is a disclosure of knowledge, i.e., a lifting of the veil or revelation.
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According to the Bible's New Testament, the Apostles were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
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The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes titled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".
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The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Great Commission of the Apostles by the resurrected Jesus in Jerusalem c. 33 until the death of the last Apostle, believed to be John the Apostle in Anatolia c. 100.
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Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
Arab Christians (Arabic: العرب المسيحيين Al-'Arab Al-Masihiyin) are ethnic Arabs of the Christian faith, They are the remnants of ancient Arab Christian clans and Arabized Christians, such as Melchites and Rum Christians.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχή τέχνη – arkhḗ tékhnē – composed by ἀρχή "origin" and τέχνη "art, craft") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures.
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Arianism is a nontrinitarian belief that asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, but is entirely distinct from and subordinate to God the Father.
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Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.
Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as the Remonstrants.
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Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.
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The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the Christian teaching found in the New Testament that the resurrected Jesus was taken up to Heaven in his resurrected body, in the presence of eleven of his apostles, occurring 40 days after the resurrection.
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Aspersion (la. aspergere/aspersio), in a religious context, is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water.
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The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻIttā d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia.
The Athanasian Creed, or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.
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Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας, Athanásios Alexandrías; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the twentieth bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Attila (or; fl. 434–453), frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
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Augustine of Hippo (or; Oxford English Dictionary. March 2011. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 May 2011. Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin, and also sometimes as Blessed Augustine in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius (modern-day Annaba, Algeria), located in Numidia (Roman province of Africa). He is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions. According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith." In his early years, he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism of Plotinus. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 387, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory. When the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the pre-Schism Catholic Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople closely identified with Augustine's City of God. In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint, a preeminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. He is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.. catholicapologetics.info Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. In the East, some of his teachings are disputed and have in the 20th century in particular come under attack by such theologians as Father John Romanides. But other theologians and figures of the Orthodox Church have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Father Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque, which has been rejected by the Orthodox Church. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.Saint Augustine in the Greek Orthodox Tradition, by Rev. Dr. George C. Papademetriou. Webpage: http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith8153 Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, and has even had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 28 August and carries the title of Blessed.
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Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean.
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.
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Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning self-headed) is the status of a hierarchical Christian church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches).
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The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
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Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also a particular church.
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The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of his public ministry.
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Baptismal regeneration is the name given to doctrines held by major Christian denominations which maintain that salvation is intimately linked to the act of baptism, without necessarily holding that salvation is impossible apart from it.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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Believer's baptism (occasionally called credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe") is the Christian practice of baptism as this is understood by many Protestant churches, particularly those that descend from the Anabaptist and English Baptist tradition.
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Benedict of Nursia (San Benedetto da Norcia) (c. 480 – 543 or 547) is a Christian saint, honoured by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church as the patron saint of Europe and students.
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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.
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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.
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Bible prophecy or biblical prophecy comprises the passages of the Bible that claim to be communications from God to humans through prophets.
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The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of ancient books found, in some editions of the Bible, in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
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A biblical canon, or canon of scripture, is a list of books considered to be authoritative scripture by a particular religious community.
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Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible.
Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".
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Biblical infallibility is the belief that what the Bible says regarding matters of faith and Christian practice is wholly useful and true.
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.
Biblical Sabbath is a weekly day of rest or time of worship.
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A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for God, to religious or holy persons or things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
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The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, "Anglican realignment" and other Anglican churches.
Different religious groups include different books in their Biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books, or incorporate additional material into canonical books.
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In some Christian movements (especially Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism), to be born again is to undergo a "spiritual rebirth" (regeneration) of the human spirit from the Holy Spirit, contrasted with the physical birth everyone experiences.
Poyasny ("little bow", literally belt bow) and zemnoy poklon ("great bow", literally "ground bow") are different kinds of bows used in an Eastern Orthodox worship service.
The branch theory is a theological hypothesis within Anglicanism, holding that the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion are the three principal branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.
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British Columbia, also commonly referred to by its initials BC, is a province located on the west coast of Canada.
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The British Orthodox Church, formerly known as the Orthodox Church of the British Isles, is a small Oriental Orthodox jurisdiction, canonically part of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.
A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the of goods, services, or both to consumers.
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Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.
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The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canon Press is a Christian publishing house in Moscow, Idaho.
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The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
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The Carolingian Renaissance, the first of three medieval renaissances, was a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire occurring from the late eighth century to the ninth century, taking inspiration from the Christian Roman Empire of the 4th century.
The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.
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Catechesis (from Greek: κατήχησις, "instruction by word of mouth", generally "instruction") is basic Christian religious education of children and adult converts to Christianity.
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The Catechism of the Catholic Church (or CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.
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Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States.
Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chalcedonian Definition (also Confession or Creed of Chalcedon) was adopted in A.D. 451 at the Council of Chalcedon in Asia Minor.
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of historically mainstream congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostals.
Charles Haddon (CH) Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was a British Particular Baptist preacher.
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The Chi Rho is one of the earliest forms of christogram, and is used by some Christians.
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The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated in October 1978 by more than 200 evangelical leaders at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI), held in Chicago.
Chrismation, in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, as well as in the Assyrian Church of the East initiation rites, consists of the sacrament or mystery more commonly known in the West as confirmation - although Italian normally uses cresima ("chrismation"), rather than confermazione ("confirmation").
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Christ (Χριστός, Christós, meaning "anointed") is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Māšîaḥ) and the Syriac ܡܫܝܚܐ (M'shiha), the Messiah, and is used as a title for Jesus in the New Testament.
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The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism.
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Christendom has several meanings.
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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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Christian art is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity.
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The Christian Church is a term used by some to refer to the whole group of people belonging to the Christian religious tradition throughout history.
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The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States in the Reformed tradition.
The group of Christians known as the Christian Churches or Churches of Christ are congregations within the Restoration Movement that no have formal denominational affiliation with other congregations, but still share many characteristics of belief and worship.
The Christian Cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.
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A denomination in Christianity is a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine.
The phenomenon of large-scale migration of Christians is the main reason why Christians' share of the population has been declining in many countries. Many Muslim countries have witnessed disproportionately high emigration rates among their Christian minorities for several generations. Today, most Middle Eastern people in the United States are Christians, and the majority of Arabs living outside the Arab World are Arab Christians. Push factors motivating Christians to emigrate include religious discrimination, persecution, and cleansing. Pull factors include prospects of upward mobility as well as joining relatives abroad.
Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.
Christian mortalism incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal;.
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Christian music is music that has been written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life and faith.
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Christian mythology is the body of myths associated with Christianity.
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Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
Christian pop culture (or Christian popular culture), is the vernacular Christian culture that prevails in any given society.
Christian rock is a form of rock music that promotes Jesus or emphasizes the Jesus way and is typically performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals and bands whose members focus the lyrics on matters of Christian faith.
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Christian theology is the study of Christian belief and practice.
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Most Christian authorities and bodies view marriage (also called Holy Matrimony) as a state instituted and ordained by God for the lifelong relationship between one man as husband and one woman as wife.
The doctrine of sin is central to Christianity, since its basic message is about redemption in Jesus Christ.
The relationship between Christianity and politics is a historically complex subject and a frequent source of disagreement throughout the history of Christianity, as well as in modern politics between the Christian right and Christian left.
Christianity is the largest Australian religion according to the national census.
Christianity is the largest religion in Europe.
The practice of Christianity in Korea revolves around two of its largest branches, Protestantism and Catholicism, accounting for 8.6 millionAccording to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office.
Christianity has a long history in what is now Sudan.
Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
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Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo; Cristóbal Colón; Cristóvão Colombo; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, Genoa; died 20 May 1506, Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa.
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches.
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Church attendance refers to the reception of Christian religious services offered by a particular denomination, or more generally, by any Christian religious organization.
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The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, some of whom were eminent teachers and great bishops.
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The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
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The Church of South India (CSI) is the successor of the Church of England in India after Indian Independence.
In Christianity, a church service is a formalized period of communal worship, often but not exclusively occurring on Sunday, or Saturday in the case of those churches practicing seventh-day Sabbatarianism.
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Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through common beliefs and practices.
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Churchmanship (or tradition in most official contexts) is a way of talking about and labelling different tendencies, parties, or schools of thought within the Church of England and the sister churches of the Anglican Communion.
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A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist or SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania), or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cucculas worn by the Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries. A reform movement seeking a simpler lifestyle started in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, which led to development of the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. After that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century. In 1891 certain abbeys formed a new Order called Trappists (Ordo Cisterciensium Strictioris Observantiae – OCSO), which today exists as an order distinct from the Common Observance.
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Titus Flavius Clemens (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), known as Clement of Alexandria to distinguish him from the earlier Clement of Rome, was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of Holy Communion (also called Eucharist, The Lord's Supper) to those who are members in good standing of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation.
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Cluny Abbey (or Cluni, or Clugny) dedicated to St Peter, is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
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Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.
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The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae that includes about 310 species.
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A commendation ceremony (commendatio) is a formal ceremony that evolved during the Early Medieval period to create a bond between a lord and his fighting man, called his vassal (Latin vassus).
The bond uniting Christians as individuals and groups with each other and with Jesus Christ, is described as communion.
The communion of saints (in Latin, communio sanctorum), when referred to persons, is the spiritual union of the members of the Christian Church, living and the dead, those on earth, in heaven, and, for those who believe in purgatory, those also who are in that state of purification.
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Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.
Confirmation is a rite of initiation in several Christian denominations, normally carried out through anointing, the laying on of hands, and prayer, for the purpose of bestowing the Gift of the Holy Spirit.
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Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Consecrated life, in the canonical sense defined by the Catholic Church, is a stable form of Christian living by those faithful who feel called to follow Jesus Christ in a more exacting way recognized by the Church.
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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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Consubstantial (Latin: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin Christian christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios.
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Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the largest Christian Church in Egypt, and also the largest in the Middle East overall.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, known in modern times as Kadıköy in Istanbul province of Republic of Turkey, although it was then separate from Constantinople.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
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The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel (Basle in the once-preferred English spelling) by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
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The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils.
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The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
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A creed (also confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
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The Crossing of the Red Sea (Hebrew: קריעת ים סוף Kriat Yam Suph - Crossing of the Sea of Reeds) is part of the Biblical narrative of the escape of the Israelites, led by Moses, from the pursuing Egyptians in the Book of Exodus.
A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
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Crucifixion is a form of slow and painful execution in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead.
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The crucifixion of Jesus occurred during the 1st century AD, most probably between the years 30 and 33.
The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.
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Cultural Christians are individuals who identify themselves with Christian culture while not being religious Christians.
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Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) (c. 200 – September 14, 258) was bishop of Carthage and an important Early Christian writer, many of whose Latin works are extant.
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The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
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Debate is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy; especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.
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The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical Laïcité movement.
Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus; c. 201 – June 251), was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.
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Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the 16th century in the Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Old Testament that are not part of the current Hebrew Bible.
Diarmaid Ninian John MacCulloch, Kt, FBA, FSA, FRHistS (born 31 October 1951) is the Professor of the History of the Church at the University of Oxford (since 1997) and a fellow (formerly a senior tutor) of St Cross College, Oxford (since 1995).
New!!: Christianity and Diarmaid MacCulloch ·
The Diocese of Rome (Dioecesis Urbis seu Romana, Diocesi di Roma) is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Rome.
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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.
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In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to students of Jesus and is found in the New Testament only in the Gospels and Acts.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Catholic monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former members and functions.
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions.
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Doctrine (from doctrina or possibly from Sanskrit: dukrn) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system.
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The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, hence the abbreviation OP used by members), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216.
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Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.
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The East–West Schism is the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and which began in the 11th century.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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The Eastern Catholic Churches are 23 self-governing particular churches in full communion with the Pope.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.
Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination.
Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
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An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
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Ecumenical creeds is an umbrella term used in the Western Church to refer to the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed, the Chalcedonian Creed, and the Athanasian Creed.
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The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, I Aftoú Theiotáti Panagiótis, o Archiepískopos Konstantinoupóleos, Néas Rómis kai Oikoumenikós Patriárchis, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church, often being regarded as the spiritual leader of the 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide.
Ecumenism is any interdenominational initiative aimed at greater cooperation among Christian churches.
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The Edict of Milan was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
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Education is the process of facilitating learning.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.
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The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
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An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
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The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
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The Epistle of James (Iakōbos), the Book of James, or simply James, is one of the twenty-two epistles (didactic letters) in the New Testament.
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The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
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Esoteric Christianity is an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a mystery religion, and profess the existence and possession of certain esoteric doctrines or practices of which the public is unaware (or even to which they may be denied access) but which are understood by a small group of people.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
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In Christianity, eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology.
Eternity in common parlance is either an infinite or an indeterminately long period of time.
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Ethics, or moral philosophy, is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
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The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተ ክርስቲያን; transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the predominant Oriental Orthodox Christian Church in Ethiopia.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper, and other names) is a rite considered by most Christian churches to be a sacrament.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος, Eusébios; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a Roman historian, exegete, and Christian polemicist of Greek descent.
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The Evangelical Christian Church (Christian Disciples) as an evangelical Protestant Canadian church bodyhttp://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/pub/rc/rel/eccc-ecec-eng.asp Religions in Canada (2009) Retrieved on 17/10/09 in North America can be traced to the formal organization of the Christian Church in 1804, in Bourbon County, Kentucky under the leadership of Barton Warren Stone (1772–1844).
The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology is a Christian reference work published by Baker Books.
Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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Evangelism is the preaching of the gospel or the practice of giving information about a particular doctrine or set of beliefs to others with the intention of converting others to the Christian faith.
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Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι 'to lead out') is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
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Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others for thousands of years.
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In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage), or co-residence and/or shared consumption (see Nurture kinship).
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Fasting is primarily an act of willing abstinence or reduction from certain or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
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Filioque, Latin for "and (from) the Son", is a phrase included in some later forms of the Nicene Creed but not others, not appearing in the original version.
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The First Apology was an early work of Christian apologetics addressed by Justin Martyr to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.
The First Council of Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The First Vatican Council (Concilium Vaticanum Primum) was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.
The Four Marks of the Church is a term describing four specific adjectives — one, holy, catholic and apostolic — indicating four major distinctive marks or distinguishing characteristics of the Christian Church.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European armed expedition originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi); born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, but nicknamed Francesco; 1181/1182 October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Francis' father was Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant. Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon gathered followers. His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (commonly called the Third Order). In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas nativity scene. In 1224, he received the stigmata, making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died during the evening hours of October 3, 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142 (141). On July 16, 1228, he was proclaimed a saint by Pope Gregory IX. He is known as the patron saint of animals and the environment, and is one of the two patron saints of Italy (with Catherine of Siena). It is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of October 4. He is also known for his love of the Eucharist, his sorrow during the Stations of the Cross, and for the creation of the Christmas crèche or Nativity Scene.
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Franciscans are people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St Francis of Assisi and of his main associates and followers, such as St Clare of Assisi, St Anthony of Padua, and St Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.
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Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, composer, and Latin and Greek scholar.
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Frisia or Friesland is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of Germany.
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Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) better known as G. K. Chesterton, was an English writer, lay theologian, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, literary and art critic, biographer, and Christian apologist.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Genuflection (or genuflexion), bending at least one knee to the ground, was from early times a gesture of deep respect for a superior.
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Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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The Gnostic Gospels is a collection of about 54 ancient texts based upon the teachings of several spiritual leaders, written from the 2nd to the 4th century AD.
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Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern term categorizing a collection of ancient religions whose adherents shunned the material world – which they viewed as created by the demiurge – and embraced the spiritual world.
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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition that God revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.
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God the Father is a title given to God in various religions.
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Godhead is a Middle English variant of the word godhood, and denotes the divinity or substance (Ousia) of God in Christianity, or the Trinity.
Good Friday is a Christian religious holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary.
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A gospel is an account describing the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.
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The Gospel According to John (also referred to as the Gospel of John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John; Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Ioannen euangelion) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible.
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The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan euangelion), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels.
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The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels.
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The Gospel According to Matthew (κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament.
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The Gospel According to Thomas, (or the Gospel of Thomas), is an early Christian non-canonical sayings-gospel that many scholars believe provides insight into the oral gospel traditions.
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Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.
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The Great Apostasy is a term used by some religious groups to describe the perceived fallen state of traditional Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, because they claim it allowed the traditional Greco-Roman mysteries and deities of solar monism such as Mithras and Sol Invictus and idol worship into the church.
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The Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981), referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire.
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The Great Fire of Rome was an urban fire that started on the night between 18 and 19 July in the year 64 AD.
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In Christian eschatology, the great tribulation (θλίψις μεγάλη, thlipsis megalē) is a period mentioned by Jesus in the Olivet discourse as a sign that would occur in the time of the end.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism and science.
Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an American Calvinist philosopher, apologist, and debater.
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Helmut Richard Niebuhr (September 3, 1894 – July 5, 1962) is considered one of the most important Christian theological ethicists in 20th century America, most known for his 1951 book Christ and Culture and his posthumously published book The Responsible Self.
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Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
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In the context of Christian theology, the Harrowing of Hell (Latin: Descensus Christi ad Inferos, "the descent of Christ into hell") is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into Hell (or Hades) between the time of his Crucifixion and his Resurrection when he brought salvation to all of the righteous who had died since the beginning of the world (excluding the damned).
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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.
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Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.
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Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
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In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of torment and punishment in an afterlife.
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In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
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Henry Scowcroft Bettenson (1908, Bolton, Lancashire – 1979) was an English Classical scholar, translator and author.
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Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.
Heresy is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs.
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The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation".
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The term "historical Jesus" refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')".
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The historical-grammatical method is a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the Biblical author's original intended meaning in the text.
This article gives a historical overview of Christian positions on Persecution of Christians, persecutions by Christians, religious persecution and toleration.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences.
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Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.
The Holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from 19th-century Methodism, and to a number of Evangelical Christian denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements which emphasized those beliefs as a central doctrine.
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The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة), is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea but also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
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In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
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The Holy See (Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.
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Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is a term found in English translations of the Bible, but understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
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For the large majority of Christians, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.
Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
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The Horn of Africa (Geeska Afrika, Gaaffaa Afriikaa, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd, القرن الأفريقي al-qarn al-'afrīqī, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ) (shortened to HOA; alternatively Somali Peninsula) is a peninsula in Northeast Africa.
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A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized staff and equipment.
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Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli(1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary.
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Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
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Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethno-religious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
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Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, sediment, foundation, substance, or subsistence) is a technical term in Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.
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The ichthys or ichthus, from the Greek ikhthýs (ἰχθύς, "fish"), is a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile of a fish.
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IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
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Ideology, in the Althusserian sense, is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence." It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's goals, expectations, and motivations.
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Idolatry is the worship of an idol or a physical object as a representation of a god.
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Iglesia ni Cristo (abbreviated as INC; English: Church of Christ) is an international Christian denomination that originated in the Philippines.
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Ignatius of Antioch (Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; or 50 – 98 to 117), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing"), was an Apostolic Father and the third bishop of Antioch.
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Immersion baptism (also known as baptism by immersion or baptism by submersion) is a method of baptism that is distinguished from baptism by affusion (pouring) and by aspersion (sprinkling), sometimes without specifying whether the immersion is total or partial, but very commonly with the indication that the person baptized is immersed completely.
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Immortality is the ability to live forever or eternal life.
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The Incarnation in traditional Christianity is the belief that the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos (Word), "became flesh" by being conceived in the womb of Mary, also known as the Theotokos (Birth-giver to God) or "Mater Dei" (mother of God).
Independent Catholic churches are Christian groups, particularly small groups, led by bishops and identifying with Catholic tradition but not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church nor with any other churches whose sacraments are recognized by the Roman Catholic Church (such as the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Asia (in particular North Asia) to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of experts agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago. These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of creation myths. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean sea. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" often does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many Indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
In the teaching of the Catholic Church, an indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins" which may reduce either or both of the penance required after a sin has been forgiven, or after death, the time to be spent in Purgatory.
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Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
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The Inquisition is a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy.
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Intercession of the saints is a doctrine held by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and most Anglicans, that saints may be asked to intercede (or pray) for others.
The term interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.
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Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος) (early 2nd century – c. AD 202), also referred to as Saint Irenaeus, was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire (now Lyon, France).
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Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (the elect) and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to faith in Christ.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Jacobus Arminius (October 10, 1560 – October 19, 1609), the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period, served from 1603 as professor in theology at the University of Leiden.
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James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew: Yaʿqob, Greek: Ἰάκωβος; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.
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The New Testament frequently cites Jewish scripture to support the claim of the Early Christians that Jesus of Nazareth is the messiah, and faith in Jesus as the Christos and his imminent expected Second Coming.
Christians consider Jesus to be the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.
The Jesus Seminar was a group of about 150 critical scholars and laymen founded in 1985 by Robert Funk under the auspices of the Westar Institute.
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Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, were the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
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Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ; mashiach, mashiah, moshiah, or moshiach, "anointed ") is a term used in the Hebrew Bible to describe priests and kings, who were traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil as described in.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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John Calvin (Jean Calvin,; born Jehan Cauvin: 10 July 150927 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
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John Knox (c. 1513 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman, theologian and writer who was a leader of the Protestant Reformation and is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
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John Carson Lennox (born 7. November 1943) is a Northern Irish mathematician, philosopher of science, Christian apologist, and Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford.
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John "Jack" McManners CBE FBA (25 December 1916 – 4 November 2006) was a British clergyman and historian of religion who specialized in the history of the Church and other aspects of religious life in 18th century France.
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John Charlton Polkinghorne, (born 16 October 1930) is an English theoretical physicist, theologian, writer and Anglican priest.
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John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an Anglican minister and theologian who, with his brother Charles Wesley and fellow cleric George Whitefield, is credited with the foundation of the evangelical movement known as Methodism.
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The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ) is a document created, and agreed to, by the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (PCPCU) and the Lutheran World Federation in 1999, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue.
Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian, Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; IVDÆA, يهودية, Yahudia) is the biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine.
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Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin (100 – 165 AD), was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
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Keith A. Mathison (born 1967) is an American theologian.
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The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
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The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used.
Socially, kneeling, similarly to bowing, is associated with reverence, submission and obeisance, particularly if one kneels before a person who is standing or sitting: the kneeling position renders a person defenseless and unable to flee.
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Koine Greek (UK English, US English, or; in Merriam-Webster from Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic or Hellenistic Greek (Modern Greek Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language"), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity.
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The German term (literally "culture struggle") refers to power struggles between emerging constitutional and democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
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The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, or The Day of the Lord or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Din is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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The Latin Church is part of the Catholic Church.
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The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement or LDS restorationist movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.
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A lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion.
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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima - English: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the liturgical calendar of many Christian denominations that begins on Ash Wednesday and covers a period of approximately six weeks before Easter Sunday.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
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A Christian denomination is a generic term for a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine.
The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
The Jesuits have made numerous significant contributions to the development of science.
This is a list of Roman Catholic clerics throughout history who have made contributions to science, mostly during periods of Church domination of public life.
Christians have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, literatures and business.
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Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latin litaritura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts.
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The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
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Liturgy (λειτουργία) is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular beliefs, customs and traditions.
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Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; -ruЛифляндия / Liflyandiya) is a historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
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The Lord's Prayer, also called the Our Father and the Pater Noster, is a venerated Christian prayer that, according to the New Testament, was taught by Jesus to his disciples.
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Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches initially designed to be pejorative.
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The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global communion of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
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Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower. Macau (Au4mun2), also spelled Macao, officially known as the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is one of the special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China.
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The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in which the Lutheran and Calvinist reformers related to secular authorities, such as princes, magistrates, or city councils", i.e. "the magistracy".
Moshe ben Maimon (משה בן-מימון), or Mūsā ibn Maymūn (موسى بن ميمون), acronymed Rambam (רמב"ם – for "Rabbeinu Moshe Ben Maimon", "Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son of Maimon"), and Latinized Moses Maimonides, a preeminent medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher and astronomer, became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages.
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The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church centred in the Indian state of Kerala.
Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Μαρκοϲ; מרקוס) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws.
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Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German friar, priest, professor of theology, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
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Martinism is a form of Christian mysticism and esoteric Christianity concerned with the fall of the first man, his state of material privation from his divine source, and the process of his return, called 'Reintegration' or illumination.
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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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According to the New Testament, Mary (Miriam: מרים; BC – AD), also known as Saint Mary or the Virgin Mary, was a Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus.
Mary Magdalene (מרים המגדלית, original Greek: Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή),Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή in Matt 27:56; 27:61; 28:1;;;; replaces "η" with "τη" because of the case change.
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The Massacre of Verden, Bloodbath of Verden, or Bloody Verdict of Verden (German Blutgericht von Verden) was a massacre of 4,500 captive Saxons in October 782.
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Matthew Henry (18 October 1662 – 22 June 1714) was a Welsh-born or British Non-Conformist minister and author.
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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
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A medieval university is a corporation organized during the High Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
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Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric.
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Mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on charity for their livelihood.
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The Mennonites are Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (at that time, a part of the Holy Roman Empire).
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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A messiah (literally, "anointed one")http://etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame.
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Messianic Judaism is a movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the Christian belief that Jesus is the Messiah— with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition.
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Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley.
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Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is a Christological formula of the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
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Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "thousand years"), or chiliasm in Greek, is a belief held by some Christian denominations that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth in which "Christ will reign" for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come" of the New Heavens and New Earth).
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In Christian churches, a minister is someone who is authorized by a church or religious organization to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.
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The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.
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The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad HaHazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"), one of history's foremost rabbis.
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Christian mission is "an organized effort for the propagation of the Christian faith." Missions often involve sending individuals and groups, called "missionaries," across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism (conversion to Christianity, or from one Christian tradition to another).
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
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Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.
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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
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A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks.
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Monotheism is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God.
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A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
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Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity.
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Mortal sins (peccata mortalia) in Catholic theology are wrongful acts that condemn a person to Hell after death if unforgiven.
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Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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The Muslim conquest of Syria (Arabic: الفتح الإسلامي لبلاد الشام) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.
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Nag Hammadi (نجع حمادى), is a city in Upper Egypt.
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The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe.
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A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.
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The National Council of Churches in Australia (NCCA) is an ecumenical organisation bringing together a number of Australia's Christian churches in dialogue and practical cooperation.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States of America, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Nativity of Jesus, also called simply The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, and secondarily on some apocryphal texts.
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Neo-charismatic movement are a category of evangelical churches who teach about the gifts of the Spirit, Spiritual warfare and Power evangelism.
Nero (Latin: Nerō Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
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Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes the disunion between the human and divine natures of Jesus.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.
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The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a profession of faith widely used in Christian liturgy.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.
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Nondenominational (or non-denominational) Christian institutions are those not formally aligned with an established religious denomination, but are historically Protestant, or that remain otherwise officially autonomous.
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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The Northern United States can be a geographic and/or historical term and definition.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
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Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.
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The term Old Catholic Church originated with groups which separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority.
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The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.
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Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
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The one true church is the assertion by a number of Christian churches that they alone represent the church to which Jesus gave his authority in the Great Commission.
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Ontario is one of the ten provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada.
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Open communion is the practice of Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive Holy Communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lord's Supper).
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Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels.
Orans, a loanword from Medieval Latin translated as one who is praying or pleading, also Orant or Orante, is a posture or bodily attitude of prayer, usually standing, with the elbows close to the sides of the body and with the hands outstretched sideways, palms up.
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Ordinance is a Protestant Christian term for baptism, communion and other religious rituals.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
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Oriental Orthodoxy is the faith of those Christian churches which as a rule recognize only the first three ecumenical councils—the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the First Council of Ephesus.
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Origen (Ὠριγένης, Ōrigénēs), or Origen Adamantius (Ὠριγένης Ἀδαμάντιος, Ōrigénēs Adamántios; 184/185 – 253/254), was a scholar and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
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Original sin, also called ancestral sin, is the Christian doctrine of humanity's state of sin resulting from the fall of man, stemming from Adam's rebellion in Eden.
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Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own or Judaism.
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Pan-European identity refers to the sense of personal identification with Europe.
A Parament or Parement; (from Late Latin paramentum, adornment, parare, to prepare, equip), a term applied by ancient writers to the hangings or ornaments of a room of state.
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In Catholic canon law, a particular Church (ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community headed by a bishop or someone recognised as the equivalent of a bishop.
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Particular judgment, according to Christian eschatology, is the Divine judgment that a departed person undergoes immediately after death, in contradistinction to the general judgment (or Last Judgment) of all people at the end of the world.
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A pastor (UK:; US) is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
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A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch.
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Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
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Paul the Apostle (Paulos; c. 5 – c. 67), originally known as Saul of Tarsus (שאול התרסי; Saulos Tarseus), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
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The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, better known as the Paulist Fathers, is a Roman Catholic society of apostolic life for men founded in New York City in 1858 by Servant of God Fr.
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Penance is repentance of sins as well as the proper name of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, and Anglican Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession.
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Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή, Pentēkostē, "the fiftieth ") is the Greek name for Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai (still celebrated in Judaism as Shavuot).
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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
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Perichoresis (from περιχώρησις perikhōrēsis, "rotation") describes the relationship between each person of the triune God (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit).
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Persecution of Christians can be traced historically based on the biblical account of Jesus in the first century of the Christian era to the present time.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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The Pharisees (/ˈfærəˌsiːz/) were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; c. 204/5 – 270) was a major philosopher of the ancient world.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Political Catholicism is a political and cultural conception which promotes the ideas and social teaching of the Catholic Church (Catholic social teaching) in public life through government action.
Politics (from πολιτικός politikos, definition "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people.
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Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; AD 69 – 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
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The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
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Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; on 16 April 1927) served as Pope of the Catholic Church from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
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Pope Gregory I (Gregorius I; c. 540 – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
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Pope Leo I (400 – 10 November 461), also known as Saint Leo the Great, was Pope from 29 September 440 to his death in 461.
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Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
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Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphyrios; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre.
Postchristianity is the loss of the primacy of the Christian worldview in political affairs, especially in the Global North where Christianity had previously flourished in favor of alternative worldviews such as secular nationalism.
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Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism.
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Prayer (from the Latin precari "to ask earnestly, beg, entreat") is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication.
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A preacher usually means a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to a congregation or other large group of people, although one can also preach components of any worldview or philosophy.
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Presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος,: "elder" or "priest" in Christian usage) in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, presbyter referring to ordinary elders and episkopos referring exclusively to the office of bishop.
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Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles.
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The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the pope from other bishops and their sees.
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialised educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
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The term religious profession is used in many western-rite Christian denominations (including those of Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and other traditions) to refer to the solemn admission of men or women into a religious order by means of public vows.
In religion, a prophet is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and to speak for them, serving as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people.
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Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture.
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The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
The Protestant work ethic (or the Puritan work ethic) is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work and frugality are a result of a person's salvation in the Protestant faith, particularly in Calvinism, in contrast to the focus upon religious attendance, confession, and ceremonial sacrament in the Catholic tradition.
Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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Purgatory, according to Catholic Church doctrine, is an intermediate state after physical death in which those destined for heaven "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven".
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The Quakers (or Religious Society of Friends) is a Christian movement which professes the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine it derives from.
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Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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Questions of Truth is a book by John Polkinghorne and Nicholas Beale which offers their responses to 51 questions about science and religion.
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In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
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The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
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In Christian eschatology the rapture refers to the belief that either before, or simultaneously with, the Second Coming of Jesus Christ to earth, believers who have died will be raised and believers who are still alive and remain shall be caught up together with them (the resurrected dead believers) in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air.
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Frederick Antony Ravi Kumar Zacharias (born 26 March 1946) is an Indian-born Canadian-American Christian apologist.
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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
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Reginald Horace Fuller (March 24, 1915 – April 4, 2007) was an Anglo-American Biblical scholar, ecumenist, and Anglican priest.
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The relationship between religion and science has been a subject of study since Classical antiquity, addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
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Religion in Canada encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs.
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Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
A cult image or idol is a material object, representing a deity, to which religious worship is directed.
Since the acceptance of the Big Bang theory as the dominant physical cosmological paradigm, there have been a variety of reactions by religious groups as to its implications for their respective religious cosmologies.
Religious violence is a term that covers phenomena where religion is either the subject or object of violent behavior.
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A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
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The Restoration Movement (also known as the American Restoration Movement or the Stone-Campbell Movement, and pejoratively as Campbellism) is a Christian movement that began on the United States frontier during the Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) of the early 19th century. The pioneers of this movement were seeking to reform the church from within and sought "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the church of the New Testament."Rubel Shelly, I Just Want to Be a Christian, 20th Century Christian, Nashville, TN 1984, ISBN 0-89098-021-7 It has been described as the "oldest ecumenical movement in America": Especially since the mid-20th century, members of these churches do not identify as Protestant but simply as Christian.. Richard Thomas Hughes, Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ in America, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996 ISBN 978-0-8028-4086-8: "arguably the most widely distributed tract ever published by the Churches of Christ or anyone associated with that tradition."Samuel S Hill, Charles H Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, Mercer University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-86554-758-2 pp. 854 The Restoration Movement developed from several independent strands of religious revival that idealized apostolic Christianity. Two groups, which independently developed similar approaches to the Christian faith, were particularly important. The first, led by Barton W. Stone, began at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and identified as "Christians". The second began in western Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia) and was led by Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander Campbell, both educated in Scotland; they eventually used the name "Disciples of Christ". Both groups sought to restore the whole Christian church on the pattern set forth in the New Testament, and both believed that creeds kept Christianity divided. In 1832 they joined in fellowship with a handshake. Among other things, they were united in the belief that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; that Christians should celebrate the Lord's Supper on the first day of each week; and that baptism of adult believers by immersion in water is a necessary condition for salvation. Because the founders wanted to abandon all denominational labels, they used the biblical names for the followers of Jesus.McAlister, Lester G and Tucker, William E (1975), Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press, ISBN 978-0-8272-1703-4 Both groups promoted a return to the purposes of the 1st-century churches as described in the New Testament. One historian of the movement has argued that it was primarily a unity movement, with the restoration motif playing a subordinate role. The Restoration Movement has since divided into multiple separate groups. There are three main branches in the US: the Churches of Christ, the unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Some characterize the divisions in the movement as the result of the tension between the goals of restoration and ecumenism: the Churches of Christ and unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations resolved the tension by stressing restoration, while the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) resolved the tension by stressing ecumenism.Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-89900-909-4, 573 pp. A number of groups outside the US also have historical associations with this movement, such as the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ in Australia. Because the Restoration Movement lacks any centralized structure, having originated in a variety of places with different leaders, there is no consistent nomenclature for the movement as a whole.. The term "Restoration Movement" became popular during the 19th century; this appears to be due to the influence of Alexander Campbell's essays on "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things" in the Christian Baptist. The term "Stone-Campbell Movement" emerged towards the end of the 20th century as a way to avoid the difficulties associated with some of the other names that have been used, and to maintain a sense of the collective history of the movement. Other names that have been used include "the Brotherhood", "the Cause" and "the churches." While the use of the word "movement" is supported by a fairly broad consensus, no single terminology is generally accepted or has official status.
Christian primitivism, also described as restorationism, is the belief that Christianity should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church, which restorationists see as the search for a more pure and more ancient form of the religion.
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The major resurrection appearances of Jesus in the canonical gospels (and to a lesser extent other books of the New Testament) are reported to have occurred after his death, burial and resurrection, but prior to his ascension.
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death to take the punishment deserved by others for the sins of the world, Jesus rose again from the dead.
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν, trans: anastasis ton nekros; literally: "a standing up again"; "raising up (of) the dead") is a term frequently used in the New Testament to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life).
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
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A rite or ritual is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act.
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Robert McNair Price (born July 7, 1954) is an American theologian and writer.
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Roger E. Olson (born 1952) is Professor of Theology, George W. Truett Theological Seminary, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA.
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The role of Christianity in civilization has been intricately intertwined with the history and formation of Western society.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman Rite, the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
The Rosicrucian Fellowship – "An International Association of Christian Mystics" – was founded in 1909 by Max Heindel with the aim of heralding the Aquarian Age and promulgating "the true Philosophy" of the Rosicrucians.
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
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Sabbath School is a function of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh Day Baptist and some other sabbatarian denominations, usually comprising a song service and lesson.
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In Christianity, Sabellianism in the Eastern church or Patripassianism in the Western church (also known as modalism, modalistic monarchianism, or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian or anti-trinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son, and Holy Spirit are three different modes or aspects of one monadic God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons within the Godhead—that there are no real or substantial differences among the three, such that there is no substantial identity for the Spirit or the Son.
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Sacramental bread (Hostia), sometimes called the body of Christ, altar bread, the host, the Lamb or simply Communion bread, is the bread which is used in the Christian ritual of the Eucharist.
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Sacramental wine, Communion wine or altar wine is wine obtained from grapes and intended for use in celebration of the Eucharist (referred to also as the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion).
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Roman Catholic teaching holds that there are seven sacraments which Christ instituted and entrusted to the Church.
The term sacred mysteries generally denotes the area of supernatural phenomena associated with a divinity or a religious ideology.
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A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness, or likeness to God.
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Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (1170 – August 6, 1221), was a Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican Order.
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Saint Peter (Petrus, Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, שמעון בר יונה; died 64 AD), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church.
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Salvation (Latin salvatio; Greek sōtēria; Hebrew yeshu'ah) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from some dire situation.
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Salvation, in Christianity, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
The School of Antioch was one of the two major centers of the study of biblical exegesis and theology during Late Antiquity; the other was the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
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ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".
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The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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A scribe is a person who writes books or documents by hand in hieroglyphics, cuneiform or other scripts and may help keep track of records.
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A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of daylight.
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The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a concept in Christianity regarding a future return of Jesus to Earth after his "first coming" and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
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The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1272–1274.
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the seventh of the first seven ecumenical councils by both West and East.
The Second Great Awakening was a Religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States.
Second Temple Judaism (Judaism between the construction of the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE) witnessed major historical upheavals and significant religious changes that would affect not only Judaism but also Christianity (which calls it the Deuterocanonical period or Intertestamental period).
The Second Vatican Council (Latin: Concilium Oecumenicum Vaticanum Secundum, informally known as Vatican II) addressed relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the modern world.
The Septuagint (from the Latin septuaginta, "seventy") is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek.
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A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
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The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6 and 7).
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The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
The sign of the cross (signum crucis), or blessing oneself or crossing oneself, is a ritual blessing made by members of many branches of Christianity.
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Sir Banister Flight Fletcher (15 February 1866, London – 17 August 1953, London) was an English architect and architectural historian, as was his father, also named Banister Fletcher.
Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards unempirical knowledge or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.
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The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.
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Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.
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Sola scriptura (Latin ablative, "by Scripture alone") is the Christian doctrine that the Bible is the supreme authority in all matters of doctrine and practice.
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A solemnity is a feast day of the highest rank in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite, celebrating a mystery of faith such as the Trinity, an event in the life of Jesus, his mother Mary, or another important saint.
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Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of god, son of a god or son of Heaven.
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Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
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Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
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The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is a region of the United States of America.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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The split of early Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries of the Common Era.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 CE, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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Stephen or Steven is a masculine first name, derived from the Greek name Στέφανος (Stéfanos), in turn from the Greek word "στέφανος", meaning "wreath, crown, honour, reward", literally "that which surrounds or encompasses".
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert.
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Subsistit in (subsists in) is a Latin phrase, which appears in the eighth paragraph of Lumen gentium, a landmark document of the Second Vatican Council of the Catholic Church: This sentence and the correct meaning of "subsists in" affects the definition of the Church with important implications for how the Catholic Church views itself, its relations with other Christian communities and other religions.
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Technically speaking, substitutionary atonement is the name given to a number of Christian models of the atonement that all regard Jesus as dying as a substitute for others, 'instead of' them.
The Summa contra Gentiles, also known as the Summa contra Gentes, is one of the best-known books by St Thomas Aquinas.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
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A Sunday school (also sometimes referred to as a Sabbath school), is a Christian educational institution, usually (but not always) catering to children and other young people.
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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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Sydney Eckman Ahlstrom (16 December 1919 – July 3, 1984) was an American historian.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia.
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The Syriac Orthodox Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܬܪܝܨܬ ܫܘܒܚܐ), also known as the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Eastern Mediterranean, with members spread throughout the world.
Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The Taizé Community is an ecumenical monastic order in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France.
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Taizé is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Burgundy in eastern France.
The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ, or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra is the canon of the Hebrew Bible.
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The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue, are a set of commandments which the Bible describes as being given to the Israelites by God at biblical Mount Sinai.
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Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 240 AD), was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
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The arts represent an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture.
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In Christianity, the gospel (euangélion; gospel), or the Good News, is the news of the coming of the Kingdom of God, and of Jesus's death on the cross and resurrection to restore people's relationship with God.
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For the DC Comics setting New Earth, see Infinite Crisis The New Earth is an expression used in the Book of Isaiah (Is 65:17 & 66:22), 2 Peter (2 Peter 3:13), and the Book of Revelation (Rev 21:1) in the Bible to describe the final state of redeemed humanity.
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The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Godness power (original Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum) were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.
The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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The Shape of Sola Scriptura is a 2001 book by Reformed Christian theologian Keith Mathison.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university, seminary, or school of divinity.
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Theophilus, Patriarch of Antioch (Θεόφιλος ὁ Ἀντιοχεύς) succeeded Eros c. 169, and was succeeded by Maximus I c. 183, according to Henry Fynes Clinton, but these dates are only approximations.
Theoria (θεωρία) is Greek for contemplation.
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The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
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Tommaso d'Aquino, OP (1225 – 7 March 1274), also known as Thomas Aquinas, was an Italian Dominican friar and Catholic priest who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis".
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Thomas Müntzer (ca. 1489 – 27 May 1525) was a German preacher and theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Luther and the established Catholic church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany.
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Thou shalt not kill (LXX; οὐ φονεύσεις.), You shall not murder (Hebrew תִּרְצָח lo tirṣaḥ) or You shall not kill (KJV), is a moral imperative included as one of the Ten Commandments in the Torah, specifically Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17.
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"Thou shalt not steal" is one of the Ten Commandments of the Torah, which are widely understood as moral imperatives by legal scholars, Jewish scholars, Catholic scholars, and Post-Reformation scholars.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 177 islands with a total surface area of about scattered over of the southern Pacific Ocean, of which 52 islands are inhabited by its 103,000 people.
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Total depravity (also called radical corruption, or pervasive depravity), is a theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin.
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A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Latin trinitas "triad", from trinus "threefold") defines God as three consubstantial persons, expressions, or hypostases: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit; "one God in three persons".
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Turkish people (Türk milleti), or Turks (Türkler), are a Turkic ethnic group.
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Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia.
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Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament.
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Ultramontanism is a religious belief found within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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Unitarian Universalism is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for the affirmation that God is one entity, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism, which defines God as three persons in one being.
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United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the second largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Roman Catholic Church.
The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was established on 22 June 1977 when most congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
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The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in Europe.
The University of Fribourg (Université de Fribourg; Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland.
The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Paris (L'Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a French university, founded circa 1150 in Paris, France, recognised 1200 by King Philip II and 1215 by Pope Innocent III, as one of the first universities.
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A personal value is an individual's absolute or relative and ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action.
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who were first heard of in southern Poland, but later moved around Europe establishing kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century.
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Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is a walled enclave within the city of Rome.
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Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Rite and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
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A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine (Vitis), but more generally it can refer to any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems or runners.
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The vision hypothesis is a term used to cover a range of theories that question the physical resurrection of Jesus, and suggest that sightings of a risen Jesus were visionary experiences.
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Welfare is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for all citizens, sometimes referred to as public aid.
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Western Christianity consists of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church and a variety of Protestant denominations.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.
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Western esotericism, also called esotericism and esoterism, is a scholarly "generic label for a large and complicated group of historical phenomena" which share an air de famille.
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Western Rite Orthodoxy or Western Orthodoxy or Orthodox Western Rite are terms used to describe Orthodox congregations and groups which are autocephalous Churches or are an accommodation as a rite in an Eastern Orthodox Church or Oriental Orthodox Churches, but which use traditional Western liturgies rather than adopting Eastern liturgies such as the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
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Why I Am Not a Christian is an essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell.
William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 – September 19, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist, and expert on ceramics.
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William H. Brackney (born 1948 in Washington D.C.) is the Millard R. Cherry Distinguished Professor of Christian Theology and Ethics at Acadia Divinity College in Wolfville, Nova Scotia and an ordained Baptist minister, presently accredited by the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches and the American Baptist Churches, USA.
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William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American Christian apologist, analytic Christian philosopher, and theologian.
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William Miller (February 15, 1782 – December 20, 1849) was a Baptist preacher, from the United States, who is credited with beginning the mid-nineteenth century North American religious movement that was known as the Millerites.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
The World Methodist Council, founded in 1881, is a consultative body and association of churches in the Methodist tradition.
In demographics and general statistics, the term world population refers to the total number of living humans on Earth.
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A comprehensive world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point of view.
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Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yeshua (ישוע, with vowel pointing יֵשׁוּעַ – yēšūă‘ in Hebrew) was a common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ("Yehoshuah" – Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible and among Jews of the Second Temple period.
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Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism is the religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, whose Supreme Being was Ahura Mazda.
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1 Corinthians 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians by Paul the Apostle.
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The 1910 World Missionary Conference, or the Edinburgh Missionary Conference, was held on 14 to 23 June, 1910.
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