98 relations: Acetate, Acetic acid, Acid dye, Acid strength, Acidifier, Acidity regulator, Acids in wine, Aconitic acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Aerobic organism, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Alcohol, Anhydrous, Ascorbic acid, Aspergillus niger, Bath bomb, Bath salts, Benedict's reagent, Benzene, Biochemistry, British Pharmacopoeia, Buffering agent, Calcium citrate, Calcium hydroxide, Carbon, Carbon disulfide, Carboxylic acid, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Chloroform, Citrate, Citric acid cycle, Citrique Belge, Citrus, Commodity chemicals, Conjugate acid, Corn starch, Corn steep liquor, Cultivar, Decarboxylation, Dietary supplement, Dimethyl sulfoxide, E number, Effervescence, Elution, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ..., European Union, Food coloring, Glucose, Gram per litre, Hans Adolf Krebs, Hard water, Hepatitis, Heroin, Hydrate, Hydrogen, Isocitric acid, Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Lactic acid, Lanthanide, Limescale, Manhattan Project, Metabolism, Molar concentration, Mold, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Needle exchange programme, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Organic acid, Oxygen, Passivation (chemistry), Penicillium, Petroleum, Pfizer, PH, Pharmaceutical drug, Photographic developer, Photographic film, Physiology, Portland cement, Precipitation (chemistry), Preservative, Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, Redox, Sigma-Aldrich, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium citrate, Stainless steel, Stop bath, Sucrose, Sulfuric acid, Toluene, United States Pharmacopeia, Vincent of Beauvais. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Acetate is a negative ion, or anion, typically found in aqueous solution.
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Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
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An acid dye is a dye which is a salt of a sulfuric, carboxylic or phenolic organic acid.
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The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
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Acidifiers are inorganic chemicals that either produce or become acid.
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Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives added to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).
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The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine.
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Aconitic acid is an organic acid.
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
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Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (Nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.
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A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water, for example, salts lacking their water of crystallisation.
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Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties.
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Aspergillus niger or A. niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
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A bath bomb is a hard-packed mixture of dry ingredients which effervesces when wet.
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Bath salts are water-soluble, pulverized minerals that are added to water to be used for bathing.
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Benedict's reagent (often sold as Benedict's Qualitative Solution or Benedict's Solution) is a chemical reagent named after an American chemist, Stanley Rossiter Benedict.
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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
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The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is an annual published collection of quality standards for UK medicinal substances.
A buffering agent is a weak acid or base used to maintain the acidity (pH) of a solution near a chosen value after the addition of another acid or base.
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Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid.
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Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
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A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).
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Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist.
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Chelation describes a particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions.
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A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.
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A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
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Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
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A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution.
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The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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Citrique Belge or Citric Belge, located in Tienen is a Belgian biotech company and one of the biggest producers of citric acid.
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Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
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A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+), by a base—in other words, the base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
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Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
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Corn steep liquor is a by-product of corn wet-milling.
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A cultivarCultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar.
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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
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A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.
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Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
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E numbers are codes for substances that can be used as food additives for use within the European Union and Switzerland.
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Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from a release of the gas.
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In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.
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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.
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Ethyl acetate (systematically, ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3-COO-CH2-CH3, simplified to C4H8O2.
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, widely abbreviated as EDTA (for other names, see Table), is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid.
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
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Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
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A gram per litre or gram per liter (g/L or g/l) is a unit of measurement of mass concentration that shows how many grams of a certain substance are present in one litre of a usually liquid or gaseous mixture.
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Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.
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Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
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Hepatitis (plural: hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
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Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine (BAN, INN)) and commonly known by its street names of H, smack, boy, horse, brown, black, tar, and others is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C. R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, which is found naturally in the opium poppy.
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In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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Isocitric acid is a protonated form of isocitrate, which is a substrate of the citric acid cycle.
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The is the official Pharmacopoeia of Japan.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.
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The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the fifteen metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
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Limescale is the hard, off-white, chalky deposit found in kettles, hot-water boilers and the inside of inadequately maintained hot-water central heating systems.
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The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
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Molar concentration, also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution, or of any chemical species in terms of amount of substance in a given volume.
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A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
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The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, being less affected by environmental factors such as air and water.
Penicillium is a genus of ascomycetous fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, New York, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
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In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer (or just developer) is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
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Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world, used as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and most non-speciality grout.
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Precipitation is the creation of a solid.
A preservative is a substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, beverages etc.
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Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, also known as tricarballylic acid, carballylic acid, and beta-carboxyglutaric acid, is a tricarboxylic acid that has three carboxylic acid functional groups.
Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is an American life science and high technology company with over 9,600 employees and operations in 40 countries.
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Sodium bicarbonateThe prefix "bi" in "bicarbonate" comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is two times as much carbonate (CO3) in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and other bicarbonates as in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and other carbonates.
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Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citric acid (though most commonly the third).
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In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
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Stop bath is a chemical bath usually used in processing traditional black-and-white photographic films, plates, and paper used after the material has finished developing.
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Sucrose is a common, naturally occurring carbohydrate found in many plants and plant parts.
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Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.
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Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is a colourless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners.
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The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes an official compendium in a combined volume with the National Formulary as the USP-NF.
The Dominican friar Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis or Vincentius Burgundus) (c. 1190 – 1264?) wrote the Speculum Maius, the main encyclopedia that was used in the Middle Ages.
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2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxypentanedioic acid-3-carboxylic acid, ATC code A09AB04, ATCvet code QA09AB04, Acid of lemon, Citric (acid), Citric Acid, Citrus acid, E 330, E330, HOOCCH2(OH)C(COOH)CH2COOH, Hydrogen citrate, Sour salt.