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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a 200-year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC. [1]

166 relations: Abydos (Hellespont), Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Agesilaus II, Alcibiades, Alexander I of Epirus, Alexander the Great, Aliartos, Amphipolis, Amyntas IV of Macedon, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greek art, Ancient Greek philosophy, Antalcidas, Archaic Greece, Archidamus II, Argos, Aristotle, Artaphernes, Artaxerxes II of Persia, Artemisium, Athens, Attica, Battle of Aegospotami, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Battle of Coronea (394 BC), Battle of Crocus Field, Battle of Cynoscephalae, Battle of Lade, Battle of Leuctra, Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), Battle of Mantinea (418 BC), Battle of Marathon, Battle of Mycale, Battle of Naupactus, Battle of Plataea, Battle of Pylos, Battle of Salamis, Battle of Tegyra, Battle of Thermopylae, Boeotia, Byzantium, Caranus (son of Philip II), Chalkidiki, Classical antiquity, Classics, ..., Cleisthenes, Cleomenes I, Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon, Cleopatra of Macedon, Conspiracy of Cinadon, Corfu, Corinth, Corinthian War, Dardanelles, Darius I, Datis, Death of Alexander the Great, Delian League, Delos, Deme, Demosthenes, Diadochi, Diarchy, Egypt, Epaminondas, Epidamnos, Eponymous archon, Euboea, Eurysthenes, Exchequer, First Persian invasion of Greece, Halicarnassus, Hellenistic period, Helots, Hercules, Hermes, Hippias (tyrant), History of Greece, Illyrians, India, Ionia, Ionian Revolt, Isagoras, Isonomia, Laconia, Leonidas I, Leotychidas, List of isthmuses, List of kings of Sparta, Literature, Lysander, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mantineia, Mardonius, Megarian decree, Melian Dialogue, Messene, Miletus, Miltiades, Mount Athos, Mycenaean Greece, Naxos, Nea Poteidaia, Nicias, Ostracism, Oxyrhynchus, Paeonia (kingdom), Pausanias (general), Peace of Antalcidas, Peace of Nicias, Peisistratos, Pella, Pelopidas, Peloponnese, Peloponnesian War, Pericles, Persian people, Philip II of Macedon, Phocion, Phocis, Phocis (ancient region), Piraeus, Plague of Athens, Plataea, Plutarch, Polis, Politics, Pontoon bridge, Potidaea, Procles, Pydna, Roman Empire, Samos, Second Persian invasion of Greece, Sicilian Expedition, Sicily, Sparta, Spartan hegemony, Struma (river), Syracuse, Sicily, Tegea, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theban hegemony, Thebes, Greece, Themistocles, Thespiae, Thirty Tyrants, Thirty Years' Peace, Thomas R. Martin, Thrace, Thracians, Thucydides, Tribute, Trireme, Trittys, Trojan War, Turkey, Western culture, Will Durant, Xenophon, Xerxes I. Expand index (116 more) »

Abydos (Hellespont)

Abydos (Ἄβῡδος) or Abydus, an ancient city of Troad (Troas), in Asia Minor, situated at Nara Burnu or Nagara Point on the best harbor on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aegina

Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.

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Agesilaus II

Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from approximately 400 BC to 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as thought commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.

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Alcibiades

Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs; c. 450 – 404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general.

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Alexander I of Epirus

Alexander I of Epirus (Ἀλέξανδρος Α' τῆς Ἠπείρου, 370 BC – 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μολοσσός), was a king of Epirus (350–331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.

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Aliartos

Aliartos (Αλιάρτος) is a small town and municipality in the Boeotia regional unit, Greece, at 109 kilometres from Athens.

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Amphipolis

Amphipolis (aka Amfípolis, Αμφίπολη; Ἀμφίπολις) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece.

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Amyntas IV of Macedon

Amyntas IV (Greek: Ἀμύντας Δ΄) was a titular king of Macedonia in 359 BC and member of the Argead dynasty.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Greek architecture

The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.

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Ancient Greek art

The arts of ancient Greece have exercised considerable influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Antalcidas

Antalcidas (Ἀνταλκίδας, Antalkídas; died), son of Leon, was an ancient Greek soldier, politician, and diplomat from Sparta.

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Archaic Greece

The Archaic period in Greece (800 BC – 480 BC) is a period of ancient Greek history that followed the Greek Dark Ages.

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Archidamus II

Archidamus II (Ἀρχίδαμος Β΄) was a Eurypontid king of Sparta who reigned from approximately 476 BC to 427 BC.

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Argos

Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Artaphernes

Artaphernes (Ἀρταφέρνης, from Median Rtafarnah), was the brother of the Achaemenid king of Persia, Darius I, satrap of Sardis and Persian general.

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Artaxerxes II of Persia

Artaxerxes II Mnemon (12, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.

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Artemisium

Artemisium or Artemision (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον) is a cape north of Euboea, Greece.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attica

Attica (Αττική, or; or) is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece.

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Battle of Aegospotami

The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War.

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Battle of Artemisium

The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)

The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes.

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Battle of Coronea (394 BC)

The Battle of Coronea in 394 BC was a battle in the Corinthian War, in which the Spartans and their allies under King Agesilaus II defeated a force of Thebans and Argives that was attempting to block their march back into the Peloponnese.

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Battle of Crocus Field

The Battle of Crocus Field was a battle in the Third Sacred War, fought between the armies of Phocis, under Onomarchos, and the combined Thessalian and Macedonian army under Philip II of Macedon.

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Battle of Cynoscephalae

The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V.

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Battle of Lade

For war between the navy of Rhodes and the navy of Macedon in 201 BC, see Battle of Lade (201 BC). The Battle of Lade (Ναυμαχία τῆς Λάδης, Naumachia tēs Ladēs) was a naval battle which occurred during the Ionian Revolt, in 494 BC.

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Battle of Leuctra

The Battle of Leuctra (Λεῦκτρα, Leûktra) was a battle fought on July 6, 371 BC, between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.

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Battle of Mantinea (362 BC)

The Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans.

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Battle of Mantinea (418 BC)

The Battle of Mantinea of 418 BC was a significant engagement in the Peloponnesian War.

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Battle of Marathon

The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Mycale

The Battle of Mycale (Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης; Machē tēs Mykalēs) was one of the two major battles that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.

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Battle of Naupactus

The Battle of Naupactus was a naval battle in the Peloponnesian War.

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Battle of Plataea

The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Pylos

The naval Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War at the peninsula of Pylos, on the present-day Bay of Navarino in Messenia, and was an Athenian victory over Sparta.

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Battle of Salamis

The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was fought between an Alliance of Greek city-states and the Persian Empire in 480 BC, in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens.

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Battle of Tegyra

The Battle of Tegyra (375 BC) (also known as the Battle of Tegyrae)Plutarch, was an ancient Greek battle between Theban and Spartan hoplite forces.

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Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Boeotia

Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Beotia (or; Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Byzantium

Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.

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Caranus (son of Philip II)

Caranus (Greek: Κάρανος) was a rumoured son of Philip and Cleopatra Eurydice; a half-brother of Alexander the Great.

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Chalkidiki

Chalcidice or Chalkidiki (Χαλκιδική), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classics

Classics (also Classical Studies) is the study of the languages, literature, laws, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other material culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; especially during Classical Antiquity (ca. BCE 600 – AD 600).

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Cleisthenes

Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης, also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family.

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Cleomenes I

Cleomenes (Greek Κλεομένης Kleomenes; died c. 489 BC) was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.

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Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon

Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη), born Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα) was a mid-4th century BCE Macedonian noblewoman, niece of Attalus, and last of the seven wives of Philip II of Macedon.

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Cleopatra of Macedon

Cleopatra of Macedon (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was an Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.

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Conspiracy of Cinadon

The conspiracy of Cinadon was an attempted coup d'état which took place in Sparta in the 4th century BC during the first years of the reign of Eurypontid King Agesilaus II (398 BC-358 BC).

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Corfu

Corfu (Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra; Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.

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Corinth

Corinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is a city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Corinthian War

The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, c. 550–486 BCE) was the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Datis

For other uses of the word Dati, see Dati (disambiguation). Datis or Datus (Old Persian: Dâtiça), was a Median admiral who served the Persian Empire, under Darius the Great.

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Death of Alexander the Great

The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates.

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Delian League

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 to 173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Delos

The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical and archaeological sites in Greece.

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Deme

In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (δῆμος) was a suburb of Athens or a subdivision of Attica, the region of Greece surrounding Athens.

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Demosthenes

Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs; 384–322 BC) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.

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Diadochi

The Diadochi (from Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors") were the rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.

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Diarchy

Diarchy (or dyarchy; from the Greek δι- / δύο meaning "two" and ἄρχω meaning "to rule") is a form of government in which two individuals ("diarchs") are joint heads of state.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Epaminondas

Epaminondas (Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas; d. 362 BC), was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a preeminent position in Greek politics.

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Epidamnos

The ancient Greek city of Epidamnus or Epidamnos (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).

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Eponymous archon

In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, eponymos archon).

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Euboea

Euboea (Εύβοια, Evvia; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete.

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Eurysthenes

In Greek mythology, Eurysthenes (Εὐρυσθένης, "widely ruling") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.

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Exchequer

The Exchequer is a government department of the United Kingdom probably originating in the Anglo-Saxon period lasting until 1834, responsible for the management and collection of taxation and other government revenues.

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First Persian invasion of Greece

The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BC, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE.

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Halicarnassus

Halicarnassus (Halikarnassós or Ἀλικαρνασσός Alikarnassós; Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Helots

The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia (areas ruled by Sparta).

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Hercules

Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles, who was the son of Zeus (Roman equivalent Jupiter) and the mortal Alcmene.

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Hermes

Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia.

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Hippias (tyrant)

Hippias of Athens (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC.

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History of Greece

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern state of Greece, as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they ruled historically.

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Illyrians

The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula (Messapia).

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Ionia

Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία or Ἰωνίη; İyonya) is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Ionian Revolt

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.

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Isagoras

Isagoras (Ἰσαγόρας), son of Tisander, was an Athenian aristocrat in the late 6th century BC.

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Isonomia

Isonomia (ἰσονομία "equality of political rights,"Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English LexiconThe Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes", Mogens Herman Hansen, ISBN 1-85399-585-1, P.81-84 from the Greek ἴσος isos, "equal," and νόμος nomos, "usage, custom, law,") was a word used by ancient Greek writers such as HerodotusHerodotus 3.80 and Thucydides to refer to some kind of popular government.

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Laconia

Laconia (Λακωνία), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.

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Leonidas I

Leonidas I (or; Doric and Modern Greek: Λεωνίδας, Leōnidas; Ionic Greek: Λεωνίδης, Leōnidēs; died 480 BC), was a Greek warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta.

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Leotychidas

Leotychidas (also Leotychides, Latychidas; Λεωτυχίδας; c. 545 BC–469 BC) was a ruler of Sparta in 491–476 BC.

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List of isthmuses

An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water that otherwise separates them.

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List of kings of Sparta

This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.

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Literature

Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latin litaritura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts.

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Lysander

Lysander (or; died 395 BC, Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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Mantineia

Mantineia (also Mantinea; Μαντίνεια; also Koine Greek Ἀντιγόνεια Antigoneia) was a city in ancient Greece that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history.

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Mardonius

Mardonius (Mardoniye, Μαρδόνιος; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC.

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Megarian decree

The Megarian Decree was a set of economic sanctions levied upon Megara c. 432 BC by the Athenian Empire shortly before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.

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Melian Dialogue

The Melian Dialogue is a dramatic set-piece debate inserted by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides in his History of the Peloponnesian War concerning the invasion of the island of Melos by Athens in 416 BCE.

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Messene

Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messini), officially Ancient Messene, is a local community (topiki koinotita) of the municipal unit (dimotiki enotita) Ithomi, of the municipality (dimos) of Messini within the regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) of Messenia in the region (perifereia) of Peloponnese, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided.

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Miletus

Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.

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Miltiades

Miltiades (Μιλτιάδης; c. 550 – 489 BC), also known as Miltiades the Younger, was the son of Cimon Coalemos, a renowned Olympic chariot-racer.

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Mount Athos

Mount Athos (Όρος Άθως, Οros Αthos) is a mountain and peninsula in Northern Greece.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece refers to the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC).

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Naxos

Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island—at the largest of the Cyclades island group in the Aegean.

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Nea Poteidaia

Nea Poteidaia (Νέα Ποτείδαια, also Νέα Ποτίδαια) is a small town in the Moudania municipal unit, in Chalkidiki, Greece.

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Nicias

Nicias (Νικίας Nikias; c. 470 BC – 413 BC), was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War.

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Ostracism

Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.

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Oxyrhynchus

Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is a city in Upper Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.

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Paeonia (kingdom)

In antiquity, Paeonia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες).

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Pausanias (general)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan of the 5th century BC.

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Peace of Antalcidas

The Peace of Antalcidas (387 BC), also known as the King's Peace, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece.

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Peace of Nicias

The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.

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Peisistratos

Peisistratos (Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BCE), latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BCE.

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Pella

Pella (Πέλλα), is best known as the ancient and wealthy capital of the kingdom of Macedon in the time of Alexander the Great.

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Pelopidas

Pelopidas (Πελοπίδας; died 364 BC) was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece.

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Peloponnese

The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos; see also list of Greek place names) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.

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Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Pericles

Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was arguably the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age— specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Persian people

The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.

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Philip II of Macedon

Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.

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Phocion

Phocion (Φωκίων Phokion; c. 402 BC – c. 318 BC; nicknamed The Good) was an Athenian statesman and strategos, and the subject of one of Plutarch's Parallel Lives.

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Phocis

Phocis (Φωκίδα,, Φωκίς) is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Phocis (ancient region)

Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi.

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Piraeus

Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.

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Plague of Athens

The Plague of Athens was a devastating epidemic which hit the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC), when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.

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Plataea

Plataea or Plataeae (Πλαταιαί) was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polis

Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις) literally means city in Greek.

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Politics

Politics (from πολιτικός politikos, definition "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people.

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Pontoon bridge

A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.

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Potidaea

Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.

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Procles

In Greek legends, Procles (Προκλῆς, "the renowned") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.

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Pydna

Pydna (in Greek: Πύδνα, older transliteration: Púdna) was a Greek city in ancient Macedon, the most important in Pieria.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Samos

Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.

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Second Persian invasion of Greece

The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.

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Sicilian Expedition

The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War).

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.

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Sparta

Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) or Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.

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Spartan hegemony

The polis of Sparta was the greatest military land power of classical Greek antiquity.

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Struma (river)

The Struma or Strymónas (Bulgarian Струма, pronounced, Greek Στρυμόνας, Turkish (Struma) Karasu 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse.

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Tegea

Tegea (Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Greece, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Theatre of ancient Greece

The Theatre of Ancient Greece or Ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece 700 BC.

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Theban hegemony

The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.

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Thebes, Greece

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.

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Themistocles

Themistocles (Θεμιστοκλῆς Themistokles; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general.

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Thespiae

Thespiae (Greek: Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek city (polis) in Boeotia.

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Thirty Tyrants

The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, oi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.

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Thirty Years' Peace

The Thirty Years' Peace was a treaty, signed between the ancient Greek city-states Athens and Sparta, in the year 446/445 BC.

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Thomas R. Martin

Thomas R. Martin (born 1947) is an American historian who is a specialist in the history of the Greco-Roman world.

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Thrace

Thrace (demonym Thracian; Θρᾴκη, Thrāikē; modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakija; Trakya; in Antiquity also referred to as Europe prior to extending the meaning for the whole continent) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.

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Thracians

The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Southeastern Europe.

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Thucydides

Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídēs,; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian historian, political philosopher and general.

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Tribute

A tribute (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.

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Trireme

A trireme (derived from Latin: triremis "with three banks of oars;" τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Trittys

Trittyes (Ancient Greek: τριττύες; singular trittys - τριττύς) were population divisions in ancient Attica, established by the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.

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Will Durant

William James Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.

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Xenophon

Xenophon (Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC), son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Xerxes I

Xerxes I of Persia (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 Xšayaṛšā, meaning "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth of the king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Classic Greece, Classical Greek culture, Classical Greek world, Classical period in Greece, Greece in classical antiquity, Hellenic period.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_Greece

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