99 relations: Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Amstetten, Lower Austria, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Bavarian language, Botha, Bulgarian language, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Cockney, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish and Norwegian alphabet, Danish language, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian Arabic phonology, English language, English orthography, Estonian language, Estonian orthography, Faroese language, Flemish, French language, French orthography, French phonology, German language, German orthography, Gurmukhī alphabet, Hangul, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Indian English, ..., International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Jyutping, Kaingang language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Leuven, Luxembourgish language, Marathi language, Marathi phonology, New Zealand English, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Pakistani English, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Revised Romanization of Korean, Scottish English, Shiwiar language, Silesian language, Singapore English, South African English, Standard German phonology, Stavangersk, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Urdu alphabet, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Vowel, West Frisian language, Written Chinese, Wu Chinese, Yoruba language. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Amstetten is a town in Lower Austria.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
Bavarian (Bairisch; Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch), is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria.
Botha is a common Afrikaans surname, derived from the Friso-Saxon Both.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The term Cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
The Danish and Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and has consisted of the following 29 letters since 1917 (Norwegian) and 1948 (Danish).
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various migrant communities.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Flemish or Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands, or Vlaams) is the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "")..
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
The Kaingang language (also spelled Kaingáng) is an indigenous language spoken in the South of Brazil, belonging to the Gê language family.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Leuven (Louvain,, often used in English) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a Moselle Franconian variety of West Central German that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
Marathi (मराठी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by Marathi people of Maharashtra.
The phoneme inventory of the Marathi language is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages.
New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ) is the dialect of the English language used in New Zealand.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Shiwiar, also known as Achuar, Jivaro, Maina, is a Jivaroan language spoken along the Pastaza and Bobonaza rivers in Ecuador.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka, Slezština, język śląski/etnolekt śląski) is a West Slavic lect, related to Polish and Czech.
Singapore English refers to varieties of the English language spoken in Singapore, of which there are two main forms – Standard Singapore English (SSE) and Singapore Colloquial English (better known as Singlish).
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects spoken by South Africans.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Stavangersk, Stavanger dialect or Stavanger Norwegian (Stavangersk, Stavanger-dialekt (Bokmål) or Stavangerdialekt (Nynorsk)) is a dialect of Norwegian used in Stavanger.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
Wu (Suzhou Wu:, Shanghai Wu) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in Zhejiang province, the municipality of Shanghai, and southern Jiangsu province.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa mainly in Nigeria.