75 relations: Annulus (mathematics), Base (topology), Boundary (topology), Cantor set, Charles Weibel, Clopen set, Closed set, Closure (topology), Comb space, Complement (set theory), Connected component (graph theory), Connected space, Connectedness locus, Continuous function, Contractible space, Convex set, Covering space, Cycle graph, Discrete space, Discrete two-point space, Discrete valuation ring, Disjoint sets, Disk (mathematics), Empty set, Equivalence class, Equivalence relation, Euclidean space, Extremally disconnected space, Finite topological space, General linear group, Genus (mathematics), Graph (mathematics), Hausdorff space, Homeomorphism, Homotopy, Hyperconnected space, Idempotence, If and only if, Image (mathematics), Intermediate value theorem, Interval (mathematics), Local ring, Locally connected space, Long line (topology), Manifold, Mathematics, Maximal element, N-connected, Neighbourhood (mathematics), Open set, ..., Partially ordered set, Partition of a set, Path (topology), Product topology, Projective module, Quotient space (topology), Rational number, Real line, Real number, Separated sets, Sierpiński space, Simply connected space, Subset, Subspace topology, T1 space, Topological manifold, Topological property, Topological space, Topological vector space, Topologist's sine curve, Topology, Totally disconnected space, Uniformly connected space, Union (set theory), Unit interval. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics, an annulus (the Latin word for "little ring", with plural annuli) is a ring-shaped object, especially a region bounded by two concentric circles.
In mathematics, a base (or basis) B for a topological space X with topology T is a collection of open sets in T such that every open set in T can be written as a union of elements of B.We are using a convention that the union of empty collection of sets is the empty set.
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In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of S, not belonging to the interior of S. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set.
In mathematics, the Cantor set is a set of points lying on a single line segment that has a number of remarkable and deep properties.
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Charles Alexander Weibel (born October 28, 1950 in Terre Haute, Indiana) is an American mathematician working on algebraic K-theory, algebraic geometry and homological algebra.
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In topology, a clopen set (a portmanteau of closed-open set) in a topological space is a set which is both open and closed.
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In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set.
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In mathematics, the closure of a subset S in a topological space consists of all points in S plus the limit points of S. The closure of S is also defined as the union of S and its boundary.
In mathematics, particularly topology, a comb space is a subspace of \R^2 that looks rather like a comb.
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In set theory, a complement of a set A refers to things not in (that is, things outside of) A. The relative complement of A with respect to a set B is the set of elements in B but not in A. When all sets under consideration are considered to be subsets of a given set U, the absolute complement of A is the set of all elements in U but not in A.
In graph theory, a connected component (or just component) of an undirected graph is a subgraph in which any two vertices are connected to each other by paths, and which is connected to no additional vertices in the supergraph.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a connected space is a topological space that cannot be represented as the union of two or more disjoint nonempty open subsets.
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In one-dimensional complex dynamics, the connectedness locus in a parameter space of polynomials or rational functions consists of those parameters for which the corresponding Julia set is connected.
In mathematics, a continuous function is, roughly speaking, a function for which small changes in the input result in small changes in the output.
In mathematics, a topological space X is contractible if the identity map on X is null-homotopic, i.e. if it is homotopic to some constant map.
In Euclidean space, a convex set is the region such that, for every pair of points within the region, every point on the straight line segment that joins the pair of points is also within the region.
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In mathematics, more specifically algebraic topology, a covering map (also covering projection) is a continuous function p from a topological space, C, to a topological space, X, such that each point in X has an open neighbourhood evenly covered by p (as shown in the image); the precise definition is given below.
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In graph theory, a cycle graph or circular graph is a graph that consists of a single cycle, or in other words, some number of vertices connected in a closed chain.
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In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a discontinuous sequence, meaning they are isolated from each other in a certain sense.
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In topology, a branch of mathematics, a discrete two-point space is the simplest example of a totally disconnected discrete space.
In abstract algebra, a discrete valuation ring (DVR) is a principal ideal domain (PID) with exactly one non-zero maximal ideal.
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no element in common.
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In geometry, a disk (also spelled disc).
In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.
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In mathematics, when a set has an equivalence relation defined on its elements, there is a natural grouping of elements that are related to one another, forming what are called equivalence classes.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is the relation that holds between two elements if and only if they are members of the same cell within a set that has been partitioned into cells such that every element of the set is a member of one and only one cell of the partition.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
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In mathematics, a topological space is termed extremally disconnected or extremely disconnected if the closure of every open set in it is open.
In mathematics, a finite topological space is a topological space for which the underlying point set is finite.
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication.
In mathematics, genus (plural genera) has a few different, but closely related, meanings.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a representation of a set of objects where some pairs of objects are connected by links.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space, separated space or T2 space is a topological space in which distinct points have disjoint neighbourhoods.
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In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function.
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In topology, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (Greek ὁμός (homós).
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In mathematics, a hyperconnected space is a topological space X that cannot be written as the union of two non-empty closed sets (whether disjoint or non-disjoint).
Idempotence is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science, that can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application.
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In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
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In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function on a subset of its domain.
In mathematical analysis, the intermediate value theorem states that if a continuous function f with an interval as its domain takes values f(a) and f(b) at each end of the interval, then it also takes any value between f(a) and f(b) at some point within the interval.
In mathematics, an (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic number fields examined at a particular place, or prime.
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In topology and other branches of mathematics, a topological space X is locally connected if every point admits a neighbourhood basis consisting entirely of open, connected sets.
In topology, the long line (or Alexandroff line) is a topological space somewhat similar to the real line, but in a certain way "longer".
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that resembles Euclidean space near each point.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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In mathematics, especially in order theory, a maximal element of a subset S of some partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is not smaller than any other element in S. A minimal element of a subset S of some partially ordered set is defined dually as an element of S that is not greater than any other element in S. The notions of maximal and minimal elements are weaker than those of greatest element and least element which are also known, respectively, as maximum and minimum.
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In the mathematical branch of algebraic topology, specifically homotopy theory, n-connectedness is a way to say that a space vanishes or that a map is an isomorphism "up to dimension n, in homotopy".
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In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space.
In topology, an open set is an abstract concept generalizing the idea of an open interval in the real line.
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In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (or poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.
In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of the set's elements into non-empty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in one and only one of the subsets.
In mathematics, a path in a topological space X is a continuous function f from the unit interval I.
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In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology.
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In mathematics, particularly in abstract algebra and homological algebra, the concept of projective module over a ring R is a generalisation of the idea of a free module (that is, a module with basis vectors).
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a quotient space (also called an identification space) is, intuitively speaking, the result of identifying or "gluing together" certain points of a given topological space.
In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, p and q, with the denominator q not equal to zero.
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In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.
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In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.
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In topology and related branches of mathematics, separated sets are pairs of subsets of a given topological space that are related to each other in a certain way: roughly speaking, neither overlapping nor touching.
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In mathematics, the Sierpiński space (or the connected two-point set) is a finite topological space with two points, only one of which is closed.
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In topology, a topological space is called simply-connected (or 1-connected) if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed, staying within the space, into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question (see below for an informal discussion).
In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
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In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space X is a subset S of X which is equipped with a topology induced from that of X called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology).
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other.
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In topology, a branch of mathematics, a topological manifold is a topological space (which may also be a separated space) which locally resembles real n-dimensional space in a sense defined below.
In topology and related areas of mathematics a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space which is invariant under homeomorphisms.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, that satisfy a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.
In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.
In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the topologist's sine curve is a topological space with several interesting properties that make it an important textbook example.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study), is the study of topological spaces.
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In topology and related branches of mathematics, a totally disconnected space is a topological space that is maximally disconnected, in the sense that it has no non-trivial connected subsets.
In topology and related areas of mathematics a uniformly connected space or Cantor connected space is a uniform space U such that every uniformly continuous function from U to a discrete uniform space is constant.
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all distinct elements in the collection.
In mathematics, the unit interval is the closed interval, that is, the set of all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1.
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