317 relations: Absorption (skin), Acute (medicine), Aerosol, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alliant Techsystems, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Ammunition, Amsterdam, Analytical chemistry, Anti-tank warfare, Areva NC, Argentina, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Armor-piercing shot and shell, Arsenic, Attica, Australia, Bahrain, Balkan Wars, Basra, Belgium, Bell AH-1 Cobra, Bernard D. Rostker, Beta particle, Biochemistry, Biological half-life, BNFL, Boeing, Boeing 747, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian War, By-product, Cadmium, Cancer, CANDU reactor, Carcinogen, Carcinogenesis, Case study, Central nervous system, Chain reaction, Challenger 1, Challenger 2, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chernobyl, China, China National Nuclear Corporation, Chronic condition, Clearance (medicine), Clinical Psychology Review, ..., Cluster munition, Cobalt, Cohort study, Combustion, Congenital disorder, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Counterweight, Cuba, Davy Crockett (nuclear device), Dáil Éireann, Density, Dental porcelain, Dentures, Distribution (pharmacology), Dose (biochemistry), Dosimetry, DSO National Laboratories, Egypt, El Al, El Al Flight 1862, Electron microscope, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Enriched uranium, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental impact of war, Epidemiology, European Committee on Radiation Risk, European Parliament, European Union, External ballistics, Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, Fallujah, Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (Russia), Fiesta (dinnerware), Finland, Fissile material, Flammability, Fragmentation (weaponry), France, Frangibility, Gamma ray, Gatling gun, GAU-12 Equalizer, GAU-8 Avenger, Gene, Genetics, Geneva Conventions, Genocide Convention, Geography of Iraq, George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, Gold, Greece, Gulf War, Half-life, Hand grenade, Hawaii, Heart, Heavy water reactor, Hippocampus, Hugh McManners, Human brain, Human rights, Human sex ratio, Hydrofluoric acid, Immune system, Immunotoxin, Incendiary device, India, Industrial radiography, Infant mortality, Ingestion, Inhalation, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, International Journal of Epidemiology, International law, Ionizing radiation, Iraq, Iraq War, Iridium, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of protactinium, Isotopes of thorium, Israel, Jalalabad, Japan, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Journal of Radiological Protection, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Keel, Kidney, Kinetic energy, Kinetic energy penetrator, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kosovo, Kuwait, Land mine, Latin American Parliament, LAV-25, Lead, Leukemia, Literature review, Liver, Louise Arbour, Lymphoma, Lynn Goldman, M1 Abrams, M197 electric cannon, M2 Bradley, M242 Bushmaster, M61 Vulcan, Mass number, Materiel, McDonnell Douglas, McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, MEDACT, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, MEDLINE, Mercury (element), Metal toxicity, Microgram, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Molybdenum, Moratorium (law), Multi-National Force – Iraq, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NATO, NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Natural uranium, Neoplasm, Neptunium, Neurology, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Nickel, Non-governmental organization, Norway, Nuclear fission, Nuclear marine propulsion, Nuclear power, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oncology, Operation Anaconda, Osmium, Paducah, Kentucky, Pakistan, Pekka Haavisto, Pen Duick, Persian Gulf, Phalanx CIWS, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Pigment, Plastic, Plating, Plutonium, Poison, Polyurethane, Portsmouth, Ohio, Projectile, Proteinuria, Protocol I, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radiography, RAND Corporation, Rat, Red Army, Redox, Reproduction, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Rodent, Royal Society, Russia, Sabot, Sailing ballast, Sandia National Laboratories, Saudi Arabia, Secretary General of NATO, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Serbia, Shock and awe, Simon Wessely, Skeleton, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, Soviet Union, Spallation, Spleen, Staballoy, Staining, Stress (biology), Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Sweden, T-62, T-64, T-72, T-80, T-90, Taiwan, Tank, Teratology, Terminal ballistics, Thailand, The BMJ, The Guardian, The Observer, The Pentagon, Tissue culture, Titanium, Toxic heavy metal, Toxicity, Toxicology, Transuranium element, Traveling wave reactor, Tungsten, Turkey, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Convention against Torture, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Air Force, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Siena, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium glass, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium oxide, Uranium trioxide, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Uranyl, Uranyl acetate, Uranyl fluoride, Urenco Group, Vehicle armour, Vitreous enamel, Warsaw Pact, Weapon of mass destruction, World Health Organization, Y. K. J. Yeung Sik Yuen, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 30 mm caliber. Expand index (267 more) » « Shrink index
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with a rapid onset, a short course, or both.
An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
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The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK) was an American aerospace, defense, and sporting goods company with its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
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Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.
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Ammunition (commonly shortened to ammo) is propellant and projectile, or broadly anything that can be used in combat including bombs, missiles, warheads, landmines, naval mines, and anti-personnel mines.
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Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during the First World War.
Areva NC, formerly COGEMA (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires) is a French company, created in 1976 from the production division of the French government's CEA (English: Atomic Energy Commission.) It is an industrial group active in all stages of the uranium fuel cycle, including uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, and recycling.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a triservice laboratory in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and was chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961.
An armor-piercing (AP) shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
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Attica (Αττική, or; or) is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf.
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The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913.
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Basra, also written Basrah (البصرة; BGN: Al Başrah), is the capital of Basra Governorate, located on the Shatt al-Arab river in southern Iraq between Kuwait and Iran.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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The Bell AH-1 Cobra (company designation: Model 209) is a two-blade, single engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine, transmission and rotor system of the Bell's UH-1 Iroquois. The AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake. The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps (USMC) as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires. The United States Forest Service refers to their program as the Firewatch Cobra. Garlick Helicopters also converts surplus AH-1s for forest firefighting under the name FireSnake.
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Bernard Daniel Rostker (born February 1, 1944) was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) from 1977 to 1979; Director of the United States Selective Service System from 1979 to 1981; Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) from 1994 to 1998; Under Secretary of the Army from 1998 to 2000; and Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness in 2000-2001.
Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40.
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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
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The biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug, signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity, as per the MeSH definition.
British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) was a nuclear energy and fuels company owned by the UK Government.
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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets and satellites.
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The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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The CANDU (short for CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a Canadian-invented, pressurized heavy water reactor used for generating electric power.
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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
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Carcinogenesis or oncogenesis or tumorigenesis is the actual formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
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A Case Study involves an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
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The British FV4030/4 Challenger 1, was the main battle tank (MBT) of the British Army from 1983 to the mid-1990s, when it was superseded by the Challenger 2.
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The FV4034 Challenger 2 is a British main battle tank (MBT) in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman.
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The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (IPA; Чорнобиль,; Чернобыль,, Polish: Czarnobyl, טשערנאבל) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, Ukraine near the border with Belarus.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is a state-owned entity founded in 1955 in Beijing.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
In medicine, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the renal excretion ability, that is, the rate at which waste substances are cleared from the blood.
Clinical Psychology Review is an academic journal that reviews the field of clinical psychology.
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
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A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) used in medicine, nursing, social science, actuarial science, business analytics, and ecology.
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Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
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Congenital disorder, also known as congenital disease, birth defect or anomaly, is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause.
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW or CCWC), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.
The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted on 26 October 1979 in Vienna, Austria.
A counterweight is an equivalent counterbalancing weight that balances a load.
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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.
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The M-28 or M-29 Davy Crockett Weapon System(s) was the tactical nuclear recoilless gun (smoothbore) for firing the M-388 nuclear projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a porcelain used by a dental technician to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers, for the patient.
Dentures, also known as false teeth, are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
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Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of drug from one location to another within the body.
A dose is a quantity of something (chemical, physical, or biological) that may impact an organism biologically; the greater the quantity, the larger the dose.
Whilst Dosimetry in its original sense is the measurement of the absorbed dose delivered by ionizing radiation, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body.
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DSO National Laboratories (DSO) is the national defence research agency of Singapore.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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El Al Israel Airlines Ltd (TASE: ELAL), trading as El Al (אל על, "To The Skies" or "Skywards", إل عال), is the flag carrier of Israel.
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On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo aircraft of the state-owned Israeli airline El Al, crashed into the Groeneveen and Klein-Kruitberg flats in the Bijlmermeer (colloquially "Bijlmer") neighbourhood (part of Amsterdam-Zuidoost) of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a technique for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
The environmental impact of war focuses on the modernization of warfare and its increasing effects on the environment.
Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
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The European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) is an informal committee formed in 1997 following a meeting by the European Green Party at the European Parliament to review the Council of Europe's directive 96/29Euratom, issued in May of the previous year.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a non-powered projectile in flight.
The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American twin-engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic in the early 1970s.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
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Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation and Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (or Rosatom), were a Russian federal executive body in 1992-2008 (as Federal Ministry in 1992-2004 and as Federal Agency in 2004-2008).
Fiesta is a line of ceramic Art Deco dinnerware glazed in differing solid colors manufactured and marketed by the Homer Laughlin China Company of Newell, West Virginia.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.
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In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion.
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Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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A material is said to be frangible if through deformation it tends to break up into fragments, rather than deforming elastically and retaining its cohesion as a single object.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
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The General Dynamics GAU-12/U Equalizer is a five-barrel 25 mm Gatling-type rotary cannon.
The General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm hydraulically driven seven-barrel Gatling-type cannon that is typically mounted in the United States Air Force's Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II.
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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.
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Original document, single pages as PDF, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of war.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
The geography of Iraq is diverse and falls into four main regions: the desert (west of the Euphrates), Upper Mesopotamia (between the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers), the northern highlands of Iraqi Kurdistan, and Lower Mesopotamia, the alluvial plain extending from around Tikrit to the Persian Gulf.
George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen (born 12 April 1946) is a British Labour Party politician who was the tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, between October 1999 and early January 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana in that position.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
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A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand.
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Hawaii (locally,; Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959.
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The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
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A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear power reactor, commonly using unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
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Joseph Hugh McManners is a British medical research charity director, author, television producer and presenter, journalist, and musician, and songwriter.
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The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.
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Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.
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In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
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Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
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An immunotoxin is a human-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.
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Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Industrial radiography is the use of ionizing radiation to view objects in a way that cannot be seen otherwise.
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) is the flow of air into an organism.
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The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons (ICBUW) is a global coalition of 160 groups in 33 countries.
The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons was an advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 8 July 1996.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal published by MDPI.
The International Journal of Epidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in epidemiology.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Ionizing (or ionising in British English) radiation is radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
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Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Protactinium (Pa) has no stable isotopes.
Although thorium (Th), with atomic number 90, has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 14.05 billion years, considerably longer than the age of the earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Jalalabad (Pashto/Persian: جلال آباد), formerly called Adina Pur (Pushto:آدينه پور) as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health.
Journal of Radiological Protection is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering radiobiological research on all aspects of radiological protection, including non-ionizing as well as ionizing radiations.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.
In boats and ships, keel can refer to either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.
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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
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In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
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A kinetic energy penetrator (KE weapon; also a long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour which, like a bullet, does not contain explosives and uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejeon, South Korea was established in 1959 as the sole professional research-oriented institute for nuclear power in South Korea, and has rapidly built a reputation for research and development in various fields.
Prior to a change (other than minor edits), discussion NEEDS to take place.
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
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The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent organization composed by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
The LAV-25 (Light Armored Vehicle) is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps and Canadian Army.
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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
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A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.
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Louise Arbour, (born February 10, 1947) was the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, a former justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and the Court of Appeal for Ontario and a former Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.
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Lymphoma is any of a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells.
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Lynn R. Goldman is the Dean of the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services.
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The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank produced by the United States.
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The M197 electric cannon is a three-barreled electric Gatling-type rotary cannon used by the United States military.
The M2 Bradley, or Bradley IFV, is an American infantry fighting vehicle, manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, formerly United Defense as part of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle family.
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The M242 Bushmaster is a 25 mm (25×137mm) chain-driven autocannon.
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The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute).
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The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967.
The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft that constitutes the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet family.
Medact is an organisation of British health professionals concerned with nuclear proliferation and other problems of a global nature.
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Medicine, Conflict and Survival is a scholarly publication covering the health aspects of violence and human rights.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information.
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Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
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In the metric system, a microgram (µg; in the U.S. recommended when communicating medical information: mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth of a kilogram, one millionth of a gram, or one thousandth of a milligram.
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The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government, and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
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A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq—codenamed "Operation Iraqi Freedom"—and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
The National Academy of Medicine, known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) until June 30, 2015, is an American non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
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Neoplasm (from Ancient Greek νέος- neo "new" and πλάσμα plasma "formation, creation") is an abnormal growth of tissue, and when also forming a mass is commonly referred to as a tumor or tumour.
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Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
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Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
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A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
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Neurotoxicity occurs when exposure to natural or artificial toxic substances, which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause damage to nervous tissue.
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Neurotoxicology and Teratology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the toxicological effects of chemical and physical agents on the nervous system.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
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A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship with power provided by a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station.
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A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and began operations on January 19, 1975.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson (mainly) and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors.
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Operation Anaconda took place in early March 2002.
Osmium (from Greek osme (ὀσμή) meaning "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
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Paducah is the county seat of McCracken County, Kentucky, United States.
Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Pekka Olavi Haavisto (born 23 March 1958 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and minister representing the Green League.
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The Pen Duick yachts are ocean racing yachts from the 1960s and 1970s.
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The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
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The Phalanx CIWS is a close-in weapon system for defense against anti-ship missiles.
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Philosophical Transactions later Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.) is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
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Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.
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Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
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Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
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In biology, poisons are substances which cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.
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Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
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Portsmouth is a city in and the county seat of Scioto County, Ohio, United States.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
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Proteinuria (or; from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine.
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Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international conflicts, where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or racist regimes" are to be considered international conflicts.
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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
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Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.
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RAND Corporation (Research ANd Development) is a nonprofit global policy think tank originally formed by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.
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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
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A rhabdomyosarcoma, commonly referred to as RMS, is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells are thought to arise from skeletal muscle progenitors.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
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The President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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A sabot is a device used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile, such as a bullet, that is smaller than the bore diameter, or which must be held in a precise position.
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Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail.
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The Sandia National Laboratories, managed and operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), are two major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratories.
Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Secretary General of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief official of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.
Serbia (Србија, Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија, Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.
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Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.
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Sir Simon Charles Wessely, FMedSci (born Sheffield, 1956) is a British psychiatrist.
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The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
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The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) was established as a public company by the Republic of South Africa Nuclear Energy Act in 1999 and is wholly owned by the State.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
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The spleen (from Greek σπλήν—splḗn) is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
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Staballoy is the name of two different classes of metal alloys, one class typically used for munitions and a different class developed for drilling rods.
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Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
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Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus.
The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (before 1999, known as the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) was a think tank of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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The T-62 is a main battle tank, a further development of the T-55.
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The T-64 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank introduced in the early 1960s.
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The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
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The T-80 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union.
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The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is essentially a modernisation of the T-72B, incorporating many features of the T-80U (it was originally to be called the T-72BU, later renamed to T-90).
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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
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Terminal ballistics, a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits its target.
Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Observer is a British newspaper, published on Sundays.
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The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia.
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Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
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A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.
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Toxicology (from the Ancient Greek words τοξικός toxikos "poisonous" and λόγος logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
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The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
A traveling-wave reactor (TWR) is a type of nuclear reactor that nuclear engineers anticipate can convert fertile material into usable fuel through nuclear transmutation, in tandem with the burnup of fissile material.
Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the intergovernmental organization; the United Nations.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA, GA, or, from the Assemblée Générale, "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.
The University of Siena (Università degli Studi di Siena, abbreviation: UNISI) in Siena, Tuscany is one of the oldest and first publicly funded universities in Italy.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
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Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium, usually in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration.
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Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
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Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
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Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
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Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature.
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The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula 2+.
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Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O) is the acetate salt of uranium and is a yellow-green crystalline solid made up of yellow-green rhombic crystals and has a slight acetic odor. Uranyl acetate is slightly radioactive, the precise radioactivity depends on the isotopes of uranium present. This compound is a nuclear fuel derivative, and its use and possession are sanctioned by international law.
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Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2), a compound of uranium, is an intermediate in the conversion of uranium hexafluoride UF6 to an uranium oxide or metal form and is a direct product of the reaction of UF6 with moisture in the air.
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The Urenco Group is a nuclear fuel company operating several uranium enrichment plants in Germany, the Netherlands, United States, and United Kingdom.
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Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles, or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
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Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
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The Warsaw Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War, led by the USSR.
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A weapon of mass destruction (WMD or WoMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.
Bernard Yeung Kam John Yeung Sik Yuen GOSK (born 1 January 1947) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Mauritius.
The 2003 Invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 and signaled the start of the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States (prior to 19 March, the mission in Iraq was called Operation Enduring Freedom, a carryover from the War in Afghanistan).
The 30 mm caliber is a specific size of autocannon ammunition.
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