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Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to as A.C. Milan or simply Milan, is a professional Italian football club based in Milan, Lombardy, that plays in Serie A. Milan was founded in 1899 by English lace-maker Herbert Kilpin and businessman Alfred Edwards among others.
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The Abazins or Abaza (Abaza: абаза, Abazalar, أباظة) are an ethnic group of the Caucasus, closely related to the Abkhaz and Circassian (Adyghe) people.
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Abbas I (عباس الأول, I. 1 July 1812 – 13 July 1854), also known as Abbas Hilmi I Pasha or Abbas Pasha was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan.
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Abbas II Hilmi Bey (also known as ‘Abbās Ḥilmī Pasha) (عباس حلمي باشا) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914.
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Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954), commonly known as Sisi, is the sixth and incumbent President of Egypt, in office since June 2014.
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Abdel Halim Ali Shabana (Arabic: عبدالحليم علي شبانة), commonly known as Abdel Halim Hafez (عبد الحليم حافظ) (June 21, 1929 – March 30, 1977), is among the most popular Egyptian and Arab singers.
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Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi (عبد الرحمن الأبنودى) (1938 – 21 April 2015) was a popular Egyptian poet, and more recently a children's books writer.
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The Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples at Abu Simbel (أبو سمبل in Arabic), a village in Nubia, southern Egypt, near the border with Sudan.
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Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is an annual publication of university rankings by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change, or stasis.
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Adly Mahmoud Mansour (عدلى محمود منصور; born 23 December 1945) is an Egyptian judge and statesman who is the President (or Chief Justice) of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt.
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The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.
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The Africa Cup of Nations, officially CAN (Coupe d'Afrique des Nations), also referred to as African Cup of Nations, or AFCON, is the main international association football competition in Africa.
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Africa.com is an internet media company.
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The African Handball Nations Championship is the official competition for senior national handball teams of Africa, and takes place every two years.
Afro-Eurasia, Afroeurasia,Field, Henry.
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Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).
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The AfroBasket (alternatively known as the FIBA Africa Championship, FIBA African Championship, or FIBA AfroBasket) is the men's basketball continental championship of Africa, played biennially under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball, the basketball sport governing body, and the FIBA African zone thereof.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
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Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.
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Colonel Ahmed ‘Urabi or Orabi (أحمد عرابى, ˈæħmæd ʕoˈɾɑːbi in Egyptian Arabic; 31 March 1841 – 21 September 1911), widely known in English (and by himself) as Ahmad Arabi or Arabi Pasha, was a nationalist Egyptian and an officer of the Egyptian army.
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Ahmed Fouad Negm (أحمد فؤاد نجم,; 22 May 1929 – 3 December 2013), popularly known as el-Fagommi الفاجومي (was an Egyptian vernacular poet. Negm is well known for his work with Egyptian composer Sheikh Imam, as well as his patriotic and revolutionary Egyptian Arabic poetry. Negm has been regarded as "a bit of a folk hero in Egypt.".
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Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed or Aḥmad Luṭfī Sayyid Pasha (15 January 1872 – 5 March 1963) was an Egyptian intellectual, anti-colonial activist and the first director of Cairo University.
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O29-L1-G43 | nebty.
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Ain Shams University (جامعة عين شمس) is an institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt.
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Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
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Al Ahly Sporting Club (Egyptian pronunciation), commonly known as Al Ahly, or simply as Ahly, is the first genuine Egyptian sporting club.
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Al Sharqia Governorate (محافظة الشرقية,, peasant pronunciation:; Eastern Governorate or "Eastern Province") is the 3rd most populous of the governorates of Egypt.
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Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
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Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (الجماعة الإسلامية, "the Islamic Group"; also transliterated El Gama'a El Islamiyya; also called "Islamic Groups" and transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya) is an Egyptian Sunni Islamist movement, and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States and European Union.
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Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442),Franz Rosenthal,.
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Al-Muqawqis (المقوقس) is mentioned in Islamic history as a ruler of Egypt, who corresponded with the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (جلال الدين السيوطي) (c. 1445–1505 AD), whose full Arabic name is Abu al-Fadl 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr b. Muhammad Jalal al-Din al-Khudayri al-Suyuti, also known as Ibn al-Kutub (son of books) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific Arab writers of the Middle Ages, whose works deal with a wide variety of subjects in Islamic theology.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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Alexandria Governorate (محافظة الإسكندرية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Alexandria University (جامعة الإسكندرية) is a public research university in Alexandria, Egypt.
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Ali Pasha Mubarak (1823-Nov. 14, 1893 CE) was an Egyptian public works and education minister during the second half of the nineteenth century.
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Fatimah Rifaat (June 5, 1930 – January 1996), better known by her pen name Alifa Rifaat (أليفة رفعت), was an Egyptian author whose controversial short stories are renowned for their depictions of the dynamics of female sexuality, relationships, and loss in rural Egyptian culture.
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The All-Palestine Government (حكومة عموم فلسطين) was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
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Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
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The American University in Cairo (AUC) is an independent, nonprofit, English language, liberal arts university located in Cairo, Egypt.
The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.
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Amr Abd El-Basset Abd El-Azeez Diab (عمرو عبدالباسط عبد العزيز دياب;His common shortened name, Amr Diab, is pronounced in Egyptian Arabic as born 11 October 1961) is an Egyptian popstar and composer of Pop music.
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Amr Shabana (born 20 July 1979 in Cairo) is a former professional squash player from Egypt.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile Valley, generally corresponding to modern Northwest Africa.
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The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt; it is officially (but seldom) known as The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt.
Antipater of Sidon (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros) or Antipatros Sidonios (Ἀντίπατρος Σιδώνιος) in the Anthologies, was an ancient Greek poet in the second half of the 2nd century BC.
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Muhammad Anwar El Sadat (محمد أنور السادات; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
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Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
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The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally, the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
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The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
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The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
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Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.
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The Armenian Catholic Church (Հայ Կաթողիկէ Եկեղեցի, Hay Kat’oġikē Ekeġec’i) is one of the sui juris Eastern Catholic Churches of the Catholic Church.
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The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
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Arnaut (Ottoman Turkish: آرناﺌود) is a Turkish term used to denote Albanians.
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Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of Ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 100 AD.
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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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Aswan (أسوان; Ancient Egyptian:; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ; Συήνη), formerly spelled Assuan, is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
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The Aswan Dam is an embankment dam built across the Nile at Aswan, Egypt between 1898 and 1902.
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Aswan Governorate (محافظة أسوان) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.
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Asyut Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten.
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On 14 August 2013 Egyptian security forces raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Avaris (Egyptian:, Budge notation: Hut-waret, Αὔαρις, Auaris) was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos, in the ancient Land of Goshen.
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Ayman Abd El Aziz Nour (أيمن عبد العزيز نور,; born 5 December 1964) is an Egyptian politician, a former member of the Egyptian Parliament, founder and chairman of the El Ghad party.
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The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; دووگەلی ئەییووبی; Eyyûbîler) was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt.
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The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era.
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El-Wahat el-Bahariya or el-Bahariya (Arabic: الواحات البحرية, al-Wāḥāt al-Baḥrīya, meaning "the Seaside Oases") is a depression in Egypt.
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The Bahá'í Faith (fa Bahá'iyyat, بهائية Bahá'iyya In English, "Bahá'í" is pronounced with two syllables according to the on the Bahá'í World News Service Website (Bahá'í: Ba-HIGH). In Persian, بهائی is pronounced with three syllables. The exact realization of the English pronunciation varies. The Oxford English Dictionary has, Merriam-Webster has, and the Random House Dictionary has, all with three syllables. See and – A Guide to Pronunciation part 1 and 2, for more pronunciation instructions.) is a monotheistic religion which emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind.
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Baladi (بلدي; relative-adjective "of town", "local", "rural", comparable to English "folk", with a lower-class connotation) can refer to an Egyptian musical style, the folk style of Egyptian bellydance (Raqs Baladi), or the Masmoudi Sogheir rhythm, which is frequently used in baladi music.
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A bank is a financial intermediary that creates credit by lending money to a borrower, thereby creating a corresponding deposit on the bank's balance sheet.
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The Banu Judham is a Yemeni tribe that emigrated to Syria and Egypt and dwelled with the Azd and Hamdan Kahlani tribes.
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A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
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Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936.
The Battle of Tel el-Kebir or el-Tal el-Kebir was fought between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military near Tel-el-Kebir.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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BBC Online is the brand name and home for the BBC's UK online service.
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The Beach Handball World Championship is a biannual beach handball competition for women and men national teams.
Bedawi Arabic (also known as Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, Bedawi, Levantine Bedawi Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Bedouins mostly in eastern Egypt, and also in Jordan, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Syria.
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The Bedouin (also Bedouins; from the Arabic badw بَدْو or badawiyyīn/badawiyyūn/"Al Buainain بَدَوِيُّون, plurals of badawī بَدَوِي) are an Arab seminomadic group, descended from nomads who have historically inhabited the Arabian and Syrian Deserts.
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Beheira Governorate (البحيرة,, "the Lake") is a coastal governorate in Egypt.
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Beja (also called Bedawi, Bedauye, To Bedawie, Ta Bedawie, Hadareb, or by dialect names; Beja: Bidhaawyeet, Tu-Bdhaawi) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.
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The Beja people (البجا) are an ethnic group inhabiting Sudan, as well as parts of Eritrea, Egypt, and the Sahara desert.
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Belly dance or bellydance is a Western-coined name for a type of Middle Eastern dance.
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Beni Suef (محافظة بنى سويف) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Berber or the Amazigh languages or dialects (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ.
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The Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen/imazighen/, singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ/Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.
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The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.
Bilady, laki hubbi wa fu'adi ("My homeland, you have my love and my heart"; بلادي لك حبي و فؤادي Bilādī, Laki ḥubbī wa-fu’ādī) is the national anthem of Egypt.
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A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.
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In Egypt, the law against blasphemy is one of the instruments which the government and the Sunni majority use to persecute Egyptian minorities who do not subscribe to Sunni religious views.
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Club Atlético Boca Juniors is an Argentine sports club based in the La Boca neighbourhood of Buenos Aires.
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A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side.
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Boutros Boutros-Ghali (بطرس بطرس غالى,; born 14 November 1922) is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from January 1992 to December 1996.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) at the United States Department of State is one of three bureaus and two offices that constitute the Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs.
The Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs is an agency of the Department of State within the United States government that deals with U.S. foreign policy and diplomatic relations with the nations of the Near East.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Persia.
On 31 December 2000 the Confederation of African Football (CAF) has published a ranking with the most successful clubs of the 20th century in the African continent (CAF African Club of the Century).
Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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The Cairo Derby, also known as the Egyptian Derby, is a football match between Egyptian clubs Al Ahly SC and Zamalek SC.
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Cairo Governorate (Muhafazat al Qahirah) is the most populated of the governorates of Egypt.
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Cairo International Airport (Arabic:; Maṭār al-Qāhirah al-Duwaliyy) is the international airport of Cairo and the busiest in Egypt and serves as the primary hub for EgyptAir and EgyptAir Express as well as several other airlines.
The Cairo International Film Festival (مهرجان القاهرة السينمائي الدولي) is an annual film festival held in Cairo, Egypt.
The Cairo Metro (مترو أنفاق القاهرة Metro Anfāq al-Qāhirah, lit. "Cairo Tunnel Metro" or مترو الأنفاق) is the first rapid transit system in Greater Cairo, Egypt and the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and only four in the Arab world.
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The Cairo Opera House (دار الأوبرا المصرية, Dār el-Opera el-Masreyya; literally "Egyptian Opera House"), part of Cairo's National Cultural Center, is the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.
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Cairo University (previously King Fuad I University, Egyptian University) is a public university in Giza, Egypt.
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A caliphate (خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (خَليفة)—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community.
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Cambyses II (کمبوجيه دوم; page Aramaic כנבוזי, Kanbūzī; Greek Καμβύσης, Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew כמבישה, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was King of Kings of Persia.
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A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
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Capital punishment, death penalty or execution is punishment by death.
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The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington, D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, and Brussels.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "An act or event that provokes or is used to justify war".
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The Center for Biological Diversity (Center), based in Tucson, Arizona, is a nonprofit membership organization with approximately 625,000 members and online activists, known for its work protecting endangered species through legal action, scientific petitions, creative media and grassroots activism.
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) is the official statistical agency of Egypt that collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates all statistical data and the Census.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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A cereal is any true grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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People's Republic of China – Egypt relations were established on May 30, 1956.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christianity is a minority religion in Egypt.
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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
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The cinema of Egypt refers to the flourishing Egyptian Arabic-language film industry based in Cairo, the capital of Egypt.
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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca or ca. (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date.
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The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
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Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.
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Civil liberties are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation without due process.
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The term civil service can refer to either a branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed (hired) on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations; or the body of employees in any government agency apart from the military, which is a separate extension of any national government.
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Classical Arabic (CA), also known as Quranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries).
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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69Walker, p. 129. – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, shortly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion.
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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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A confederation (also known as confederacy or league) is a union of political units for common action in relation to other units.
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The Confederation of African Football (CAF,; Confédération Africaine de Football; الإتحاد الأفريقي لكرة القدم) is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Coptic art is a term used either for the art of Egypt produced in the early Christian era or for the art produced by the Coptic Christians themselves.
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The Coptic Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular Church in full communion with the Catholic Church.
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Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: met.rem.ən.khēmi, Sahidic: mənt.rəm.ən.kēme, Greek: Μετ Ρεμνχημι Met Rem(e)nkhēmi) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
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The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the largest Christian Church in Egypt, and also the largest in the Middle East overall.
The Copts are an ethno-religiousDiedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde, International African Institute, International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Project Muse, JSTOR (Organization), "Africa: journal of the International African Institute, Volume 63", pp 86-96, 270-1, Edinburgh University Press for the International African Institute, 1993 group situated in North Africa and the Middle East, mainly in the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination.
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Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2 The CPI currently ranks 177 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).".
Corvée is a form of suggested, but not required labor done by volunteers in the private sector.
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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.
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The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, known in modern times as Kadıköy in Istanbul province of Republic of Turkey, although it was then separate from Constantinople.
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A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.
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The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations where, according to current archaeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
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Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.
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The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history.
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Cyrene (Kyrēnē) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
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Not to be confused with Oued Ed-Dahab Province in Moroccan Western Sahara. Dahab (دهب,, "gold") is a small town situated on the southeast coast of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
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Dakahlia Governorate (الدقهلية) is an Egyptian governorate lying north east of Cairo.
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Dakhla Oasis (الداخلة,; BGN), also spelt Dakhleh and translates to the inner oasis, is one of the seven oases of Egypt's Western Desert (part of the Libyan Desert).
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Damietta Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").
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The Denshawai Incident is the name given to a dispute which occurred in 1906 between British military officers and locals in Egypt.
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A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent.
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A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
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Dihyah (or Dahyah) Wahi al-Kalbi (دحية الكلبى, Dihyat ul-Kalbi) was the envoy who delivered Islamic prophet Muhammad's message to the Roman Emperor Heraclius.
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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.
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The Dom (also called "Doma" and "Domi"; دومي / ALA-LC:, دومري /; هناجره) of the Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus, Central Asia and India are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group.
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Domari is an Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.
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Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
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Dual control is the situation in which a national government accepts to share control of its country with representatives of foreign governments, called controllers, because it is indebted to them.
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In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by either wind or water flow.
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A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
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Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
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Economic liberalism is the ideological belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals and not by collective institutions or organizations.
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An economic system is a system of production and exchange of goods and services as well as allocation of resources in a society.
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The economy of Egypt was a highly centralized planned economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
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Egypt participated in the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics in Singapore.
Egypt competed at the 2013 Mediterranean Games in Mersin, Turkey from the 20th to 30 June 2013.
Egypt first participated at the Olympic Games in 1912, and has sent athletes to compete in most editions of the Summer Olympic Games since then.
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During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Righteous Caliphs, and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown.
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The Egyptian national basketball team is the basketball side that represents Egypt in international competitions.
The Egypt national football team, (منتخب مصر الوطني لكرة القدم) also known as The Pharaohs, represents Egypt in association football and is governed by the Egyptian Football Association (EFA), the governing body for football in Egypt.
The Egyptian national handball team is the national handball team of Egypt and is controlled by the Egyptian Handball Federation.
Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.
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EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران) is the flag carrier airline of Egypt.
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Egypt–Iran relations refers to the current and historical relations between Egypt and Iran.
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The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-'Isrā'īlīyah; הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords.
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Egypt–Israel relations are foreign relations between Egypt and Israel.
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Egypt–Russia relations (Российско-египетские отношения) refer to bilateral relations between Egypt and Russia.
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Egypt–Saudi Arabia relations are the relations between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Egyptian–Turkish relations are bilateral relations between Egypt and Turkey.
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Since the establishment of UAE in 1971, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates relations were always at a good level and developing at an unprecedented rate.
Egypt–United States relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Egypt and the United States.
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (القوات الجوية المصرية), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
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Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
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The Egyptian Armed Forces (EAAF) (القوات المسلحة المصرية) are the military forces of Egypt and are the largest in Africa and the Middle East, and also one of the largest in the world.
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Egyptian Army ranks.
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Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment used in Ancient Egypt for thousands of years.
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The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long.
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The Egyptian Constituent Assembly of 2012 (CA) is the committee for the creation of a new Constitution of Egypt.
The Constitution of 1923 was a constitution of Egypt from 1923–1952.
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former fundamental law of Egypt.
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt.
The Constitutional Declaration of 2011 (also known as the Provisional Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt) was a measure adopted by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt on 30 March 2011.
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 19 March 2011, following the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt in two rounds on 15 and 22 December 2012.
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 14 and 15 January 2014 and with Egyptians abroad voting between 8 and 12 January.
Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.
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The Egyptian identification card controversy is a series of events, beginning in the 1990s, that created a de facto state of disenfranchisement for Egyptian Bahá'ís, atheists, agnostics, and other Egyptians who did not identify themselves as Muslim, Christian, or Jewish on government identity documents.
Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
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The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
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The Egyptian National Military Museum is the official museum of the Egyptian Army.
Egyptian National Railways (ENR; السكك الحديدية المصرية) is the national railway of Egypt and managed by the parastatal Egyptian Railway Authority (ERA; الهيئة القومية لسكك حديد مصر).
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Egyptian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Egyptians and Egyptian culture.
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The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights (EOHR), founded in April 1985 and with its headquarters in Cairo, Egypt, is a non-profit NGO and one of the longest-standing bodies for the defense of human rights in Egypt.
A parliamentary election to the People's Assembly of Egypt was held from 28 November 2011 to 11 January 2012, following the revolution that ousted President Hosni Mubarak, after which the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) dissolved the parliament of Egypt.
Egyptian parliamentary elections to the House of Representatives will take place in October, November and December of 2015.
The Egyptian pound (جنيه مصري or in Alexandrian accent) (sign: E£ or ج.م; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt.
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A presidential election was held in Egypt in two rounds, the first on 23 and 24 May 2012 and the second on 16 and 17 June.
A presidential election in Egypt took place between 26 and 28 May 2014.
Law 102 of 1983 empowered the Prime Minister to designate certain areas to be declared as protectorates.
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The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
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The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan.
The Egyptian revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, began on 23 July 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The Egyptian Revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), began on 25 January 2011 and was part of the Arab Spring.
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in Ancient Egypt, and regions under Egyptian control.
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Egyptians (مَصريين; مِصريّون) are an ethnic group and the citizens of Egypt sharing a common culture and a variety of Arabic.
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Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
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EgyptSat 1 or MisrSat-1 is Egypt's first Earth remote sensing satellite.
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EgyptSat 2 also called (MisrSat 2) is Egypt's second remote sensing Earth observation satellite built by the Russian RSC Energia and the Egyptian NARSS while the incorporated cameras and payload was developed by OAO Peleng and NIRUP Geoinformatsionnye Sistemy in Belarus.
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The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XVIII) (c. 1543–1292 BC) is the best known ancient Egyptian dynasty.
El Dabaa (الضبعة) is a Markaz in Egypt that lies 183.9 miles away from Cairo Airport, Cairo on the north coast.
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El-Mahalla El-Kubra – commonly shortened to – is a large industrial and agricultural city in Egypt, located in the middle of the Nile Delta on the western bank of the Damietta branch.
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Elections in Egypt are held for the President and a unicameral legislature.
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An Emergency Law was first enacted in Egypt in 1958, as Law No.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Environmental migrant refers to people who are forced to migrate from or flee their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment which compromise their well being or secure livelihood, such changes are held to include increased droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal weather patterns such as monsoons.
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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
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Emirates Telecommunications Corporation, branded trade name Etisalat (اتصالات, literally "communications"), is a multinational UAE based telecommunications services provider, currently operating in 15 countries across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
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Etisalat Egypt is a subsidiary of Etisalat U.A.E., the sole telecommunications services provider in the United Arab Emirates from 1976 until the arrival of Du (telco) in February 2007, and the first 3.5G network operator in Egypt.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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The Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile) (also called the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Egypt, Arabic: الكنيسة الإنجيلية El-Kanisah El-Injiliyah), sometimes referred to as the Coptic Evangelical Church of Egypt, is a Protestant church that started as a mission of the United Presbyterian Church of North America among Muslim and Coptic Egyptians in the late nineteenth century.
Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha in Hisma took place in October, 628AD, 6th month of 7AH of the Islamic calendar.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
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Faiyum Governorate (محافظة الفيوم) is one of the governorates of Egypt in the middle of the country.
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Falafel (فلافل) is a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both.
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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, population unbalance, or government policies.
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The Farafra depression (واحة الفرافرة) is the second biggest depression by size located in Western Egypt and the smallest by population, near latitude 27.06° North and longitude 27.97° East.
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Farouk I of Egypt (فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal, I.; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the last King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I of Egypt, in 1936.
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The Fatimid Caliphate (الفاطميون) (909-1171) was a Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
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Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ) (plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
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Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
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Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women.
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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
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The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred twenty-five years, from ca. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time, the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the eleventh dynasty.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
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Folk etymology, pseudo-etymology, or reanalysis is change in a word or phrase over time resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
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Foreign Affairs is an American journal of international relations and U.S. foreign policy.
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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
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The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom.
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The Free Officers (حركة الضباط الأحرار) were a group of nationalist officers in the armed forces of Egypt and Sudan that instigated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.
Freedom House is a U.S. based government fundedGiannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case".
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Freedom of religion or freedom of belief is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.
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Constitutionally, the freedom of belief is "absolute" and the practice of religious rites is provided in Egypt, although the Government places restrictions on these rights in practice.
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Orient, ostensibly to protect French trade interests, undermine Britain's access to India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
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Fuad II (II.) (born 16 January 1952 as Prince Ahmad Fuad) is a member of the Egyptian house of Muhammad Ali, who formally reigned as the last King of Egypt and Sudan from July 1952 to June 1953.
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Ful medames (فول مدمس,; alternate spellings include ful mudammas, as well as foule mudammes), or simply fūl is an Egyptian dish of cooked fava beans served with vegetable oil, cumin, and optionally with chopped parsley, garlic, onion, lemon juice and chili pepper.
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Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.
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The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X - p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...".), or simply Gaza, is a pene-exclave region of Palestine on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
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The Gaza–Israel conflict is a part of the wider Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
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George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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Gharbia Governorate (Egyptian Arabic: محافظة الغربية, Western Governorate) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Gilles Kepel (born 30 June 1955) is a French political scientist and specialist of the Islam and contemporary Arab world.
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Giza (sometimes spelt Gizah or Jizah; ⲅⲓⲍⲁ; الجيزة), is the third largest city in Egypt.
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Giza Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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The Giza Necropolis (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
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Global Telecom Holding S.A.E. (formerly Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E.) is an international telecommunications company operating GSM networks in the Middle East, Africa, Canada, and Asia.
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Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
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The governance of the Gaza Strip was carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh, from 2007 until 2014.
The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is a planned museum of artifacts of ancient Egypt.
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The Great Sphinx of Giza (أبو الهول, The Terrifying One; literally: Father of Dread), commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía) is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the Byzantine Empire.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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The Greeks of Egypt or Egyptiotes (Αιγυπτιώτες) have had a thriving presence in the country from the Hellenistic period until the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, when most were forced to leave.
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The Green Revolution refers to a series of research and development and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian genetist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
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GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in Finland in July 1991.
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Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1998 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous U.S. editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
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The Gulf of Aqaba or Gulf of Eilat (خليج العقبة, transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah; מפרץ אילת, transliterated: Mifratz Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.
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The northern end of the Red Sea bifurcates into the Sinai Peninsula, creating the Gulf of Suez (خليج السويس; transliterated: khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly: بحر القلزم, transliterated: baḥar al-qulzum) in the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east.
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Hamdeen Sabahi (حمدين صباحى Ḥamdīn Ṣabāhī,; born 5 July 1954) is an Egyptian politician, journalist and poet.
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Handball at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics took place at the Suntec Hall 602 in Singapore.
The handball tournaments at the 2013 Mediterranean Games in Mersin took place between 22 June and 30 June.
Hassan Fathy (1900–1989, Arabic: حسن فتحي) was a noted Egyptian architect who pioneered appropriate technology for building in Egypt, especially by working to re-establish the use of mud brick (or adobe) and traditional as opposed to western building designs and lay-outs.
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Hathor (or; Egyptian:; in Άθωρ, meaning "mansion of Horus")Hathor and Thoth: two key figures of the ancient Egyptian religion, Claas Jouco Bleeker, pp.
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Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies; 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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The Headquarters of the Arab League is located in Tahrir Square and near the downtown business district of Cairo, Egypt.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
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During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Hesham Mohamed Qandil (also spelled: Hisham Kandil ; هشام محمد قنديل) (born 17 September 1962) is an Egyptian engineer and civil servant who was Prime Minister of Egypt from 2012 to 2013.
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The history of Achaemenid Egypt is divided into two eras.
The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
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The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta.
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The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954.
The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Pasha dynasty (1805–1953) spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt.
The historic core of the indigenous community consisted mainly of Arabic-speaking Rabbanites and Karaites.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
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In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a certain residence.
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The House of Representatives (مجلس النواب, Maǧlis an-Nowwab) is the unicameral parliament of Egypt.
Freedom House, the "independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world," rated Egypt "not free" in 2011.
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A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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Hurghada (الغردقة) is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt.
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Sultan Hussein Kamel (السلطان حسين كامل, Sultan Hüseyin Kamil Paşa; November 1853 – 9 October 1917) was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.
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Hydropower or water power (from the ύδρω, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
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The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khaseshet, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Greek Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a mixed group of Asiatic people from Western Asia who took over the eastern Nile Delta, ending the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt and initiating the Second Intermediate Period.
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Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
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The World Championship in handball for men has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1938.
Imhotep (also spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep; called Imuthes (Ἰμούθης) by the Greeks; fl. 27th century BC (c. 2650–2600 BC); Egyptian: meaning "the one who comes in peace, is with peace") was an Egyptian polymath who served under the Third Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.
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Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
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Articles related to Egypt include.
The Infitah (انفتاح, "openness") was Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's policy of "opening the door" to private investment in Egypt in the years following the 1973 October War (Yom Kippur War) with Israel.
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The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Isaac Fanous (December 19, 1919 – January 14, 2007) was an Egyptian artist and scholar, who specialized in Coptic art and founded its contemporary school.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Islam in Egypt is the dominant religion in country with around 80 million Muslims, comprising 94.7% of the population, as of 2010.
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Islamism (اسلام پرستی; إسلاموية), also known as Political Islam, is a set of ideologies holding that "Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life." Islamism is a controversial concept not just because it posits a political role for Islam but also because its most extreme advocates believe their Islamic views are superior to all others', and that the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.
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Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification (pejorative Muhammadization) is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
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Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.
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Ismailia Governorate (محافظة الإسماعيلية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel", commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force, and navy. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel; Lieutenant general (Rav Aluf) Gadi Eizenkot has served as Chief of Staff since 2015. An order from Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on 26 May 1948 officially set up the Israel Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah, incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi. The IDF served as Israel's armed forces in all the country's major military operations—including the 1948 War of Independence, 1951–1956 Retribution operations, 1956 Sinai War, 1964–1967 War over Water, 1967 Six-Day War, 1967–1970 War of Attrition, 1968 Battle of Karameh, 1973 Operation Spring of Youth, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1976 Operation Entebbe, 1978 Operation Litani, 1982 Lebanon War, 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict, 1987–1993 First Intifada, 2000–2005 Second Intifada, 2002 Operation Defensive Shield, 2006 Lebanon War, 2008–2009 Operation Cast Lead, 2012 Operation Pillar of Defense, and 2014 Operation Protective Edge. The number of wars and border conflicts in which the IDF has been involved in its short history makes it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world. While originally the IDF operated on three fronts—against Lebanon and Syria in the north, Jordan and Iraq in the east, and Egypt in the south—after the 1979 Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, it has concentrated its activities in southern Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories, including the First and the Second Intifada. The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways. Differences include the mandatory conscription of women and its structure, which emphasizes close relations between the army, navy, and air force. Since its founding, the IDF has been specifically designed to match Israel's unique security situation. The IDF is one of Israeli society's most prominent institutions, influencing the country's economy, culture and political scene. In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel Prize for its contribution to education. The IDF uses several technologies developed in Israel, many of them made specifically to match the IDF's needs, such as the Merkava main battle tank, Achzarit armoured personnel carrier, high tech weapons systems, the Iron Dome missile defense system, Trophy active protection system for vehicles, and the Galil and Tavor assault rifles. The Uzi submachine gun was invented in Israel and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. Following 1967, the IDF has close military relations with the United States, including development cooperation, such as on the F-15I jet, THEL laser defense system, and the Arrow missile defense system.
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The Israeli Air Force (IAF;, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
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The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (النزاع الفلسطيني - الإسرائيلي al-Niza'a al'Filastini al 'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-פלסטיני Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The peace process in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years despite the ongoing violence which has prevailed since the beginning of the conflict.
Italians in Egypt, also referred to as Italian Egyptians, are a community with a history that goes back to Roman times.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute and public policy think tank devoted to research and analysis of critical issues facing the Middle East.
The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries or Jewish exodus from Arab countries (יציאת יהודים ממדינות ערב, Yetziat yehudim mi-medinot Arav; هجرة اليهود من الدول العربية والإسلامية) was the departure, flight, evacuation and migration, of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.
The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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The June 2013 Egyptian protests, also called June 30 Revolution, were mass protests that occurred in Egypt on 30 June 2013, marking the one-year anniversary of Mohamed Morsi's inauguration as president.
Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate (Egyptian Arabic: محافظة كفر الشيخ) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Kanzy Emad El-Defrawy (born May 5, 1994) is an Egyptian squash player.
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The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings.
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The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology is a museum of archaeology located on the University of Michigan central campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the United States.
Khamsin, khamseen, chamsin or hamsin (خمسين, "fifty"), more commonly known in Egypt as khamaseen (خماسين), is a dry, hot, sandy local wind, blowing from the south, in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Kharga Oasis (الخارجة), also romanized as Al-Kharijah, (meaning "the outer") is the southernmost of Egypt's five western oases.
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The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.
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The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
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The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient African kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.
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Koine Greek (UK English, US English, or; in Merriam-Webster from Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic or Hellenistic Greek (Modern Greek Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language"), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity.
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Kom Ombo (Arabic: كوم أمبو) (Coptic: Embo; Ὄμβοι Omboi, Ptol. iv. 5. § 73; Steph. B. s. v.; It. Anton. p. 165) or Ombos (Juv. xv. 35) or Latin: Ambo (Not. Imp. sect. 20) and Ombi – is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for the Temple of Kom Ombo.
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The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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Kushari, also koshary, kosheri or koshari (كشرى), is an Egyptian dish made in the 19th century, made of rice, macaroni and lentils mixed together, topped with a tomato-vinegar sauce; some add short pieces of spaghetti garnished with chickpeas and crispy fried onions.
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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Lake Nasser (بحيرة ناصر) is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
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A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
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There are a number of languages spoken in Egypt, but Egyptian Arabic is by far the most widely spoken in the country.
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Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom around 1350 BC – the Amarna period.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
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Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
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The Second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict between four rival organizations seeking to control Libya.
The Libyan Desert, also known as the Western Desert, forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and covers an area of approximately.
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Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested language form of Greek.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.
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In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin, who are usually, though not necessarily, of the same family.
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This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, known as transcontinental states, or more properly as intercontinental states.
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
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The Lloyd George ministry, a coalition government led by David Lloyd George, came to power in the United Kingdom in December 1916.
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Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
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Louis Awad (لويس عوض) (el-Minya, 1915 - 1990) was an Egyptian intellectual and writer.
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Luxor (or; الأقصر; Egyptian Arabic:; Sa'idi Arabic) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate.
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Luxor Governorate has been one of Egypt's governorates since 7 December 2009, when Hosni Mubarak announced its separation from Qena Governorate.
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The Luxor massacre was the killing of 62 people, mostly tourists, on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahri, an archaeological site and major tourist attraction across the Nile River from Luxor in Egypt.
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The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank produced by the United States.
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Mahmoud Mukhtar (محمود مختار) (May 10, 1891 - March 28, 1934) was an Egyptian sculptor.
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Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies who have strategic working relationships with U.S. Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
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Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
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The Maltese of Egypt, also known as Egyptian Franco-Maltese, are an ethnic minority group in Egypt.
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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king, also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
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Marcus Antonius (Latin:; January 14, August 1, 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
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Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Μαρκοϲ; מרקוס) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
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The Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch (الكنيسة الأنطاكية السريانية المارونية al-Kanīsa al-Anṭākiyya al-Suryāniyya al-Mārūniyya; Ecclesia Maronitarum) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome.
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Marsa Alam (مرسى علم) is a town in south-eastern Egypt, located on the western shore of the Red Sea.
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The Arabic domain name مصر (meaning "Egypt", romanized as masr) is the internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet for Egypt.
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Matrouh Governorate (محافظة مطروح) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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The media of Egypt is highly influential in Egypt and in the Arab World, attributed to its large audience and increasing freedom from governmental control.
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The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or very close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe, Africa and Asia meet.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Memphis (منف; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.
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Menes (Mnj, probably pronounced *; Μήνης; مينا) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I).
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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Middle French (moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611.
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The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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A minaret (مناره, minare), from منارة, also known as Goldaste (گلدسته) "lighthouse", is a distinctive architectural feature of mosques, generally a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown, usually either free-standing or taller than associated support structure.
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The Ministry of Justice is the justice ministry of the government of Egypt.
Minya Governorate is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt.
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MinyaAlso spelled el… or al… …Menia, …Minia or …Menya.
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Mobinil (The Egyptian Company for Mobile Services) (موبينيل (الشركة المصرية لخدمات التليفون المحمول), Mobinil, al-Sharikah al-Miṣriyyah li-Khidmāt al-Tilifūn al-Maḥmūl) is a mobile phone operator in Egypt, founded in 1998.
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Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
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Mohamed Fawzi (5 March 1915 – February 2000) was an Egyptian general and politician who served as minister of defense.
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Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Soliman (محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان,; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former statesman.
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Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
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Mohamed Mounir (محمد منير) (born October 10, 1954) is an Egyptian singer and actor, with a musical career spanning more than three decades.
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Mohammed Abdel Wahab (محمد عبد الوهاب), also transliterated Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab (March 13, 1902 – May 4, 1991) was a prominent 20th-century Arab Egyptian singer and composer.
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Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species in a field at a time.
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Monotheism is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God.
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Monufia Governorate (محافظة المنوفية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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A mosque (مسجد and مسجد masjid, plural مساجد masājid) is a place of worship for followers of Islam.
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Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, محمد عبده) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu'tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu'tazila.
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The Muhammad Ali dynasty (Usrat Muhammad 'Ali; Albanian: Dinastia e Muhamed (Mehmet) Ali Pashës; Turkish: Mehmet Ali Paşa Hanedanı, Kavalalılar Hanedanı) was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, from the 19th to the mid-20th Century.
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Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
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Muhammad Husayn Haykal (also spelled Haikal or Heikal or Heykal محمد حسين هيكل; August 20, 1888 – December 8, 1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt.
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Muhammad Loutfi Goumah (محمد لطفي جمعة muħammæd lūtfi ǧomʿa; also spelled Mohammed Lotfy Gomaa or Muhammed Lotfy Jouma') (January 18, 1886 Alexandria − June 15, 1953 Cairo), is an Egyptian patriot, essayist, author, and barrister, he studied law and became one of Egypt's most famous lawyers and public speakers.
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Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب,; 20 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954.
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Mulukhiyah, mloukhiya, molokhia, molohiya, mulukhiyya, malukhiyah, or moroheiya (ملوخية) is the leaves of Corchorus species (Jute leaves) used as a vegetable.
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Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.
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Music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), shortened to the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
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At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
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According to traditional accounts, the Muslim conquests (الغزوات, al-Ġazawāt or الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests, began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
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The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
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The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (sometimes spelled Mutawakelite Kingdom of Yemen; المملكة المتوكلية اليمنية), also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the written Greek language, used on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in the 16th to 12th centuries BC, before the hypothesised Dorian invasion which was often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
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Nabil Elaraby (Arabic: نبيل العربي; born 15 March 1935) is an Egyptian diplomat who has been Secretary-General of the Arab League since July 2011.
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Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ,; December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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The Napoleonic Code (and officially Code civil des Français) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
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Naqada is a town on the west bank of the Nile in the Egyptian governorate of Qena.
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Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC.
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A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.
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The National Democratic Party (الحزب الوطني الديمقراطي Al-Ḥizb Al-Waṭanī Ad-Dīmūqrāṭī), often simply called in الحزب الوطني Al-Ḥizb al-Waṭaniy – the "National Party", was an Egyptian political party.
A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country.
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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.
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A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
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Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.
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Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
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Nawal El Saadawi (نوال السعداوى, born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician and psychiatrist.
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Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nakhthorheb(''Nḫht-Ḥr-Ḥbyt'', "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360—342 BC) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty, as well as the last native ruler of Ancient Egypt.
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Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370 – ca. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh.
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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
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The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.
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The New Suez Canal (قناة السويس الجديدة) is the name of a waterway project in Egypt, to expand the capacity of the existing Suez Canal.
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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.
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New Valley Governorate (محافظة الوادي الجديد) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
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The Nile (النيل, Eg. en-Nīl, Std. an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Iteru) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.
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The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
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Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).
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Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
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The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
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A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business.
Non-denominational Muslims are Muslims who adhere to a form of Islam that is not restricted to any specific denomination.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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North Sinai Governorate (محافظة شمال سيناء) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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The North Yemen Civil War (ثورة 26 سبتمبر) was fought in North Yemen between royalist partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970.
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Nour El Sherbini, (born 1 November 1995) is an Egyptian professional squash player.
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Nour El Tayeb, (born March 8, 1993 in Cairo) is a professional squash player who represents Egypt.
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Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt.
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The term Nubian describes an ethnic group that originated in modern-day Sudan and Egypt.
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In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) or cienega (Southwestern United States) is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source.
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The occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt occurred between 1948 and October 1956 and again from March 1957 to June 1967.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).
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Omneya Abdel Kawy (born 15 August 1985, in Cairo) is an Egyptian professional squash player.
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), is an international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
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Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
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The Orascom Group is an Egyptian company group.
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Oriental Orthodoxy is the faith of those Christian churches which as a rule recognize only the first three ecumenical councils—the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the First Council of Ephesus.
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Osiris (alternatively Ausir, Asiri or Ausar, among other spellings), was an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Egypt: Egypt (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation) is a sovereign country located in eastern North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia.
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The term "Palestine refugee", originally included both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence was in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Parmouti (Coptic), also known as Barmouda, is the eighth month of the Coptic calendar.
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Pashons (Coptic: IPA), also known as Bashans, is the ninth month of the Coptic calendar.
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Pelusium was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said.
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The Perry–Castañeda Library (PCL) is the main central library of the University of Texas at Austin library system in Austin, Texas.
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The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
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Petroglyphs are pictogram and logogram images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading.
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Seheruibre Padibastet, better known as Petubastis III, is a proposed Egyptian ruler, c. 522 – 520 BCE, who revolted against Persian rule and satrap Aryandes.
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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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Pharaoh (Dictionary Reference: or) is the common title of the kings of Ancient Egypt until the Macedonian conquest.
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Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from French; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
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Port Said Governorate (محافظة بورسعيد) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or control the behavior of people.
The Presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when he became the 44th President of the United States.
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The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
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The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organization's assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
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The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government.
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Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.
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The proposed new capital of Egypt is a large-scale project announced by Egyptian housing minister Mostafa Madbouly at the Egypt Economic Development Conference on 13 March 2015.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC.
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In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian) is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects.
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The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
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The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
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The Pyramid of Djoser (or Zoser), or step pyramid (kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis.
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Qalyubia Governorate (محافظة القليوبية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Qasim Amin (Arabic: قاسم أمين; born 1 December 1863, Alexandria,Political and diplomatic history of the Arab world, 1900-1967, Menahem Mansoor died April 22, 1908, Cairo) was an Egyptian jurist, Islamic Modernist and one of the founders of the Egyptian national movement and Cairo University.
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Qena Governorate (محافظة قنا) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Qere and Ketiv, from the Aramaic qere or q're, (" read") and ketiv, or ketib, kethib, kethibh, kethiv, (" written"), also known as "keri uchesiv" or "keri uchetiv," refer to a small number of differences between what is written in the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible, as preserved by scribal tradition, and what is read.
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QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company.
The Rabaa Al-Adawiya Mosque (مسجد رابعة العدوية), also transliterated Rabi'a Al-Adawiya, Rabaa El-Adawia or Rabaa El-Adaweya, is a mosque located on the northern edge of Nasr City district in eastern Cairo.
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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also transliterated Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
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Ramesses II (variously transliterated as "Rameses" or "Ramses"; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Ramses Wissa Wassef (1911–1974) was an Egyptian architect and professor of art and architecture at the College of Fine Arts in Cairo and founder of the Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Centre.
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Ramy Mohamed Ashour (born September 30, 1987, in Cairo, Egypt) is a professional squash player from Egypt.
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Ranim Mohamed Yasser Saad El Din El Weleily (born 1 January 1989, in Alexandria, Egypt) is a professional squash player from Egypt.
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Raqs sharqi (رقص شرقي,; literally "oriental dancing") is the classical Egyptian style of belly dance that developed during the first half of the 20th century.
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Ras SedrAlso spelled: Ras Sidr, Ras Sudr, Ras Sudar (راس سدر) is an Egyptian town located on the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea coast.
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A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
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The Red Sea, (also the Erythraean Sea), is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
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Red Sea Governorate (محافظة البحر الأحمر) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.
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Refugees of Iraq are Iraqi nationals who have fled Iraq due to war or persecution.
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Sudanese refugees are persons originating from the country of Sudan, but seeking refuge outside the borders of their native country.
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In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
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A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in his or her home country.
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Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Republic of Egypt (جمهورية مصر), was the official name of Egypt from the abolition of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy in 1953 until Egypt's union with Syria in the United Arab Republic in 1958.
Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي / ALA-LC: Rifā‘ah Rāf‘i al-Ṭahṭāwī; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual.
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The Catholic population in Egypt is considerably small as compared to the rest of the Christian population in Egypt.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs.
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Muhammad Sa'id Pasha (محمد سعيد باشا, Mehmed Said Paşa, March 17, 1822 – January 18, 1863) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence.
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Sa'idi Arabic (صعيدى, locally:,; also known as Saidi Arabic and Upper Egypt Arabic) is the variety of Arabic spoken by Sa'idis south of Cairo, Egypt to the border of Sudan.
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Saad Zaghloul (سعد زغلول; also: Saad Zaghlûl, Sa'd Zaghloul Pasha ibn Ibrahim) (1859 – 23 August 1927) was an Egyptian revolutionary, and statesman.
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Port Safaga, also known as Safaga (سفاجا), is a town in Egypt, on the coast of the Red Sea, located south of Hurghada.
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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Greatest Desert') is the largest hot desert and third largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic.
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The Salafi movement or Salafist movement is an ultra-conservative orthodoxical movement within Sunni Islam that references the doctrine known as Salafism.
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Mohammad Salah Eldin Bahgat Helmy (صلاح الدين بهجت حلمى), known as "Salah Jaheen" or "Salah Jahin" (صلاح جاهين,; December 25, 1930 – April 21, 1986) was a leading Egyptian poet, lyricist, playwright and cartoonist.
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Salama Moussa (or Musa; 1887 – 4 August 1958) (سلامه موسى), born into a wealthy, land owning Coptic family in the town of Zagazig located in the Nile delta, Egypt.
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San Stefano Grand Plaza (سان ستفانو جراند بلازا) is a structural complex including a Four Seasons hotel, apartments, offices, a shopping mall and a marina in Alexandria, Egypt.
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Sasanian Egypt (known in Middle Persian sources as Agiptus) refers to the brief rule of Egypt and parts of Libya by the Sasanian Empire, which lasted from 619 to 629, until the Sasanian rebel Shahrbaraz made an alliance with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius and had control over Egypt returned to him.
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Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Sayed Darwish (سيد درويش,; 17 March 1892 – 15 September 1923) was an Egyptian singer and composer who was considered the father of Egyptian popular music and one of Egypt's greatest musicians and its single greatest composer.
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ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".
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Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.
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The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.
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Semi-presidentialism is a system of government in which a president exists along with a prime minister and a Cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.
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In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).
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The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World refers to remarkable constructions of classical antiquityAnon.
Sham ennisim (شم النسيم,, from Coptic: shom ennisim) is an Egyptian national holiday marking the beginning of spring.
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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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Sharm el-Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
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Sherif Ismail Mohamed (born 6 July 1955;شريف إسماعيل.) is an Egyptian engineer who is the current prime minister of Egypt, appointed on 19 September 2015.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (سيناء; سينا), or "סיני" in Hebrew, is a triangular peninsula in Egypt about in area.
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The Siwa (Sioua) language, Siwi, also known as Oasis Berber or ambiguously as Zenati, is a Berber language of Egypt, spoken by 15,000 to 20,000 peopleGrammatical Contact in the Sahara: Arabic, Berber, and Songhay in Tabelbala and Siwa, Lameen Souag, PhD thesis, SOAS, 2010 in the oases of Siwa and Gara, near the Libyan border.
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The Siwa Oasis (Siwi: Isiwan/ⵉⵙⵉⵡⴰⵏ; واحة سيوة Wāḥat Sīwah) is an oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
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The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
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Snow is precipitation in the form of flakes of crystalline water ice that falls from clouds.
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A human society is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
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Sohag (Saidi pronunciation), also known as Sawhāj, Suhag and Suhaj, is a city in Egypt that lies on the west bank of the Nile.
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Sohag Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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South Sinai Governorate (محافظة جنوب سيناء) is the least populated governorate of Egypt.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ, Bœotian: Φίξ, Arabic: أبو الهول) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the head of a human and the body of a lion.
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Spoken language, is language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language.
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Squash is a racquet sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
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Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area.
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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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State within a state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("Deep State"), such as the armed forces, intelligence agencies, or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership.
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A stock market or equity market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares); these may include securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea.
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Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.
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Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan.
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There are tens of thousands of Sudanese refugees in Egypt, most of them seeking refuge from ongoing military conflicts in their home country of Sudan.
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Suez (السويس; -arz) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
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The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
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The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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Suez Governorate (محافظة السويس) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
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Sufism (تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam.
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Sultan (سلطان) is a noble title with several historical meanings.
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The Sultanate of Egypt is the name of the short-lived protectorate that the United Kingdom imposed over Egypt between 1914 and 1922.
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The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad (French: Jeux olympiques d'été), first held in 1896, are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee.
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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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The Supreme Constitutional Court (المحكمة الدستورية العليا, Al-Mahkamah al-Dustūrīyah al-‘Ulyā) (or SCC) is an independent judiciary body in the Arab Republic of Egypt, with its new seat in the Cairo suburb of Maadi.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF; المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة,, also Higher Council of the Armed Forces) is a statutory body of between 20 to 25 senior Egyptian military officers and is headed by Field Marshal Abdul Fatah al-Sisi and Lieutenant General Sedki Sobhi.
Susa (fa Shush;; Hebrew שׁוּשָׁן Shushān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Shush; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Elamite, First Persian Empire and Parthian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Syro-Lebanese of Egypt (شوام مصر, transliterated: Shawam Masr) (Syro-Libanais d'Egypte), also known as the Levantines of Egypt, or simply the Syrians of Egypt, are an ethnic minority group in Egypt.
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Taha Hussein (November 15, 1889 – October 28, 1973) was one of the most influential 20th century Egyptian writers and intellectuals, and a figurehead for the The Egyptian Renaissance and the modernist movement in the Middle East and North Africa.
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Tahrir Square (ميدان التحرير,, English: Liberation Square), also known as "Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
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Talaat Pasha Harb (طلعت حرب) (25 November 1867 - 13 August 1941) was a leading Egyptian economist and founder of Banque Misr (The Bank of Egypt), and its group of companies, in May 1920.
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is the term for a school or order of Sufism, or especially for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking ḥaqīqah "ultimate truth".
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Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim (October 9, 1898 – July 26, 1987) (توفيق الحكيم Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm) was a prominent Egyptian writer.
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A tax (from the Latin taxo; "rate") is a financial charge or other levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state to fund various public expenditures.
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Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
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Tax revenue is the income that is gained by governments through taxation.
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Telecom Egypt or Telecom Egypt SAE (TE) (المصرية للإتصالات), is Egypt’s main telephone company.
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There are 3 mobile network operators in Egypt: Mobinil, Vodafone and Etisalat.
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Muhammed Tewfik Pasha (محمد توفيق باشا, Muhammed Tevfik Paşa); April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
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Thanaweya Amma (Arabic: ثانوية عامة) is series of standardized tests in Egypt that lead to the General Secondary Education Certificate for public secondary schools and serves as the entrance examination for Egyptian public universities.
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The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.
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The Diplomat is an online international news magazine covering politics, society, and culture in the Asia-Pacific region.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
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For the Sumerian Renaissance, see Third Dynasty of Ur The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
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The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor.
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The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a short-living province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
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Tombos is an archaeological site in Northern Sudan.
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Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological pain and possibly injury to an organism, usually to one who is physically restrained or otherwise under the torturer's control or custody and unable to defend against what is being done to him or her.
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The Treaty of Bern (formally the Treaty concerning the formation of a General Postal Union), signed in 1874, established the General Postal Union, which is today known as the Universal Postal Union.
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Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
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A Tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.
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Trinity Journal is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal.
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Tunis (تونس; Amazigh: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ) is the capital of Tunisia.
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The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.
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Turkish people (Türk milleti), or Turks (Türkler), are a Turkic ethnic group.
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Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
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The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 402 BC.
Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم), born (فاطمة إبراهيم السيد البلتاجى; see Kunya) on an uncertain date (December 31, 1898 or May 4, 1904Umm Kulthūm. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/613905/Umm-Kulthum) and who died February 3, 1975, was an internationally famous Egyptian singer, songwriter, and film actress of the 1920s to the 1970s.
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The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922.
A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria.
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The United Arab States (UAS) was a short-lived confederation of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) and North Yemen from 1958 to 1961.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is an independent, bipartisan U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
United States foreign aid is aid given by the United States government to other governments.
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The Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program provides grants and loans to help countries purchase weapons and defense equipment produced in the United States as well as acquiring defense services and military training.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
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The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
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University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Michigan (U-M, UM, UMich, or U of M), frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.
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The University of Texas at Austin, informally UT Austin, UT, University of Texas, or Texas in sports contexts, is a public research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
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Upper and Lower Egypt also referred to as The Two Lands is a name used for Ancient Egypt.
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The Valley of the Kings (وادي الملوك), the Valley of the gates of the Kings (وادي ابواب الملوك), is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).
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Vassal States were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, or city province (or state) in the name of and as representative of the monarch.
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Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a, born 7 October 1952) has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012, succeeding Dmitry Medvedev.
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Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications company headquartered in London and with its registered office in Newbury, Berkshire.
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Vodafone Egypt is the largest mobile phone company in Egypt in terms of active subscribers.
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The Wafd Party ("Delegation Party"; حزب الوفد, Hizb al-Wafd) was a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt.
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The War on Terror (WoT), also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States.
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This article covers drinking water supply and sanitation in Egypt.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006. The Guardian. 14 November 2006) was a Scottish historian, an Emeritus Professor in Arabic and Islamic studies at the University of Edinburgh.
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The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or حرب تشرين; or מלחמת יום כיפור), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.
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The Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs, or Genç Türkler) were a political reform movement in the early 20th century, favoring replacement of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire with a constitutional monarchy.
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Yuval Steinitz (יובל שטייניץ; born 10 April 1958) is an Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for Likud and as Minister of National Infrastructure, Energy and Water Resources.
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Zagazig (الزقازيق,, peasant pronunciation) is a town in Lower Egypt.
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Zamalek Sports Club (نادي الزمالك للألعاب الرياضية), is an Egyptian sports club based in Meet Okba, Giza, Egypt that plays in the Egyptian Premier League.
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Zayd ibn Harithah (زيد بن حارثة) or Zayd mawla Muhammad (c. 581 – 629 CE) was a companion of Muhammad who was at one stage regarded as his (adoptive) son.
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Muhammad Husayn Haykal's novel Zaynab (commonly pronounced) is considered the first modern Egyptian novel, published in 1913.
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Zewail City of Science and Technology is a nonprofit, independent institution of learning, research and innovation.
.eg is the Latin alphabet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Egypt.
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The 10th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Mesolithic and Epipaleolithic periods, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch.
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The 1948 Arab–Israeli War or the First Arab–Israeli War was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states.
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The first Mediterranean Games were held in Alexandria, Egypt, where 734 athletes (all men) from 10 countries participated.
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The Egyptian "bread riots" of 1977 affected most major cities in Egypt from 18–19 January 1977.
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The 1999 World Men's Handball Championship was the 16th edition of the World Championship in team handball.
The 2001 FIFA World Youth Championship took place in Argentina between June 17 and July 8, 2001.
The 2004 Beach Handball World Championships are a nine-team tournament in both men's and women's beach handball, held at El Gouna in Egypt in 2004.
The 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the 17th U-20 tournament, which was hosted by Egypt from 24 September to 16 October, in the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said, Suez and Ismaïlia.
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On 3 July 2013, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution.
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The 22nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 22 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 35° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 6th of October War Panorama is a museum and memorial to the 1973 October war, located in Heliopolis, Cairo.
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A .R . EGYPT, A .R . Egypt, A.R. Egypt, Arab Republic Of Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, EGY, Egipt, Egipto, Egypt (name), Egypt info, Egypte, Egyptian Republic, Ejipt, Etymology of Egypt, Eygpt, Eypt, Eytp, Gift of the Nile, ISO 3166-1:EG, Jumhuriyat Misr al'Arabiyah, Kemmet, Kimet, Miṣr, Name of Egypt, Names of Egypt, National identity of Egyptians, Republic of Eygpt, Second Egyptian Republic, The Arab Republic of Egypt, Égypte, جمهورية مصرالعربية, جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة, مصر.