Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
And Ads-free!

Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. [1]

327 relations: -ase, Acetolactate decarboxylase, Acetylcholinesterase, Activation energy, Active site, Active transport, Adenosine triphosphate, Alcohol, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Allosteric regulation, Amino acid, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Amylase, Ancient Greek, Anselme Payen, Antibiotics, Antimicrobial resistance, Aspirin, Émile Duclaux, Beer, Beta-lactamase, Beta-mannosidase, Binding site, Biofuel, Biological detergent, Biology, Biomass, Biomolecular structure, Biotin, Biscuit, Blood sugar, Blue cheese, BRENDA, Brewing, Camembert, Cancer syndrome, Carbonic anhydrase, Carcinogenesis, Catabolism, Catalase, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Cell (biology), Cellular compartment, Cellular respiration, Cellulase, Cellulosic ethanol, Cheese, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical industry, ..., Chemical reaction, Chemoselectivity, Cholesterol, Chymosin, Chymotrypsin, Chymotrypsinogen, Citric acid cycle, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Competitive inhibition, Concentration, Conformational change, Conformational ensembles, Conformational proofreading, Contact lens, Cooking, Covalent bond, Cyanide, Cyclooxygenase, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytochrome P450, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Dairy, Daniel E. Koshland, Jr., David Chilton Phillips, Denaturation (biochemistry), Diacetyl, Diastase, Diffusion, Diffusion limited enzyme, Dihydrofolate reductase, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, Drug, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Eduard Buchner, Egg white, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothermic process, Entropy, Enzyme activator, Enzyme assay, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme Commission number, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Enzyme promiscuity, Eukaryote, Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, ExPASy, Fat, Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthase, Feedback, Fermentation in food processing, Firefly, Flavin group, Flour, Flux (metabolism), Folic acid, Food processing, Fumarase, Function (biology), Functional group, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Genome, George Edward Briggs, Germline mutation, Gibbs free energy, Globular protein, Glucanase, Glucokinase, Glucose, Glycogen, Glycogen synthase, Glycolysis, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Guar gum, Heme, Herbivore, Hermann Emil Fischer, Hexokinase, Hexosaminidase, High fructose corn syrup, HIV, Homeostasis, Human gastrointestinal tract, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hydride, Hydrolase, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hypoallergenic, Inflammation, Influenza, Inorganic compound, Insulin, Integrase, Intellectual disability, IntEnz, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inverted sugar syrup, Ion, Ion transporter, Iron-sulfur cluster, Isomer, Isomerase, Isozyme, Β-Lactam, J. B. S. Haldane, James B. Sumner, John Howard Northrop, Juice, KEGG, Kinase, Kraft paper, Lactase, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Laundry detergent, Law of mass action, Leonor Michaelis, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligase, Lignin, Lignin peroxidase, Ligninase, Lipase, List of enzymes, Liver, Louis Pasteur, Luciferase, Lung, Lyase, Lysosome, Lysozyme, Macromolecular crowding, Macromolecule, Malt, Maltose, Maud Menten, Meat, Meat tenderizer, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, MetaCyc, Methotrexate, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Mitochondrion, Mixed inhibition, Molecular biology, Molecule, Monomer, Multicellular organism, Multiprotein complex, Muscle contraction, Myosin, Myristoylation, Negative feedback, Neuraminidase, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nomenclature, Non-competitive inhibition, Nuclease, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, Oxidoreductase, Oxyanion hole, Pancreas, Papain, Paper, Pectinase, Penicillin, Pentose phosphate pathway, Pepsin, Periplasm, Personal care, PH, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylketonuria, Phosphatase, Phosphorylation, Poison, Polymerase, Polymerase chain reaction, Post-translational modification, Product (chemistry), Proofreading (biology), Prostaglandin, Protease, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Protein, Protein domain, Protein engineering, Protein folding, Protein secondary structure, Protein targeting, Protonation, Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, Pullulanase, Pyruvate carboxylase, Pyruvic acid, Reaction mechanism, Reaction rate, Reaction rate constant, Recombinant DNA, Redox, Regioselectivity, Regulation of gene expression, Restriction enzyme, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Ribbon diagram, Riboflavin, Ribosome, Ribozyme, Richard Willstätter, RNA, RNA polymerase, Roquefort, Ruminant, S-Adenosyl methionine, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme, Saliva, Side chain, Signal transduction, Skin cancer, Solution, Solvent, Starch, Statin, Stereospecificity, Stomach, Structural biology, Substrate (chemistry), Sugar, Superoxide dismutase, Tay–Sachs disease, Temperature, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thiamine, Tissue (biology), Transcription (genetics), Transferase, Transition state, Translation (biology), Triosephosphate isomerase, Trypsin, Turn (biochemistry), Ultraviolet, Uncompetitive inhibitor, Urease, Virus, Vitalism, Vitamin, Wendell Meredith Stanley, Wilhelm Kühne, Wort, X-ray crystallography, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Xylanase, Yeast, Zymase, Zymogen, 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Expand index (277 more) »

-ase

The suffix -ase is used in biochemistry to form names of enzymes.

New!!: Enzyme and -ase · See more »

Acetolactate decarboxylase

In enzymology, an acetolactate decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, and two products, (R)-2-acetoin and CO2.

New!!: Enzyme and Acetolactate decarboxylase · See more »

Acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol ACHE), also known as AChE or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase in the body.

New!!: Enzyme and Acetylcholinesterase · See more »

Activation energy

In chemistry, activation energy is a term introduced in 1889 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius to describe the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Activation energy · See more »

Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Active site · See more »

Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor (often a concentration gradient).

New!!: Enzyme and Active transport · See more »

Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

New!!: Enzyme and Adenosine triphosphate · See more »

Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

New!!: Enzyme and Alcohol · See more »

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).

New!!: Enzyme and Alcohol dehydrogenase · See more »

Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of a protein by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the protein's active site.

New!!: Enzyme and Allosteric regulation · See more »

Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

New!!: Enzyme and Amino acid · See more »

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

An aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

New!!: Enzyme and Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase · See more »

Amylase

An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

New!!: Enzyme and Amylase · See more »

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

New!!: Enzyme and Ancient Greek · See more »

Anselme Payen

Anselme Payen (6 January 1795 – 12 May 1878) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

New!!: Enzyme and Anselme Payen · See more »

Antibiotics

Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

New!!: Enzyme and Antibiotics · See more »

Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is when microbes are less treatable with one or more medication used to treat or prevent infection.

New!!: Enzyme and Antimicrobial resistance · See more »

Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a salicylate medication, often used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation.

New!!: Enzyme and Aspirin · See more »

Émile Duclaux

Émile Duclaux (24 June 1840 – 5 February 1904) was a French microbiologist and chemist born in Aurillac, Cantal.

New!!: Enzyme and Émile Duclaux · See more »

Beer

Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar.

New!!: Enzyme and Beer · See more »

Beta-lactamase

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by some bacteria that provide resistance to β-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.

New!!: Enzyme and Beta-lactamase · See more »

Beta-mannosidase

Beta-mannosidase (mannanase, mannase, beta-D-mannosidase, beta-mannoside mannohydrolase, exo-beta-D-mannanase, lysosomal beta A mannosidase) is an enzyme with system name beta-D-mannoside mannohydrolase, which is in humans encoded by the MANBA gene.

New!!: Enzyme and Beta-mannosidase · See more »

Binding site

In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.

New!!: Enzyme and Binding site · See more »

Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

New!!: Enzyme and Biofuel · See more »

Biological detergent

A biological detergent is a laundry detergent that contains enzymes harvested from micro-organisms such as bacteria adapted to live in hot springs.

New!!: Enzyme and Biological detergent · See more »

Biology

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

New!!: Enzyme and Biology · See more »

Biomass

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Biomass · See more »

Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a protein, DNA, or RNA molecule, and that is important to its function.

New!!: Enzyme and Biomolecular structure · See more »

Biotin

Biotin, also known as vitamin H or coenzyme R, is a water-soluble B-vitamin (vitamin B7).

New!!: Enzyme and Biotin · See more »

Biscuit

Biscuit is a term used for a variety of baked, commonly flour-based food products.

New!!: Enzyme and Biscuit · See more »

Blood sugar

The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal.

New!!: Enzyme and Blood sugar · See more »

Blue cheese

Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-grey, blue-green, or blue-brown mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria.

New!!: Enzyme and Blue cheese · See more »

BRENDA

BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase) is an enzyme information system representing one of the most comprehensive enzyme repositories.

New!!: Enzyme and BRENDA · See more »

Brewing

Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.

New!!: Enzyme and Brewing · See more »

Camembert

Camembert is a soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

New!!: Enzyme and Camembert · See more »

Cancer syndrome

A cancer syndrome or family cancer syndrome is a genetic disorder in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predispose the affected individuals to the development of cancers and may also cause the early onset of these cancers.

New!!: Enzyme and Cancer syndrome · See more »

Carbonic anhydrase

The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons (or vice versa), a reversible reaction that occurs relatively slowly in the absence of a catalyst.

New!!: Enzyme and Carbonic anhydrase · See more »

Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis or oncogenesis or tumorigenesis is the actual formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Carcinogenesis · See more »

Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

New!!: Enzyme and Catabolism · See more »

Catalase

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).

New!!: Enzyme and Catalase · See more »

Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

New!!: Enzyme and Catalysis · See more »

Catalytic triad

A catalytic triad refers to the three amino acid residues that function together at the centre of the active site of some hydrolase and transferase enzymes (e.g. proteases, amidases, esterases, acylases, lipases and β-lactamases).

New!!: Enzyme and Catalytic triad · See more »

Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Cell (biology) · See more »

Cellular compartment

Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.

New!!: Enzyme and Cellular compartment · See more »

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

New!!: Enzyme and Cellular respiration · See more »

Cellulase

Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides; specifically, the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-D-glucans.

New!!: Enzyme and Cellulase · See more »

Cellulosic ethanol

Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the inedible parts of plants.

New!!: Enzyme and Cellulosic ethanol · See more »

Cheese

Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

New!!: Enzyme and Cheese · See more »

Chemical equilibrium

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

New!!: Enzyme and Chemical equilibrium · See more »

Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

New!!: Enzyme and Chemical industry · See more »

Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

New!!: Enzyme and Chemical reaction · See more »

Chemoselectivity

Chemical reactions are defined usually in small contexts (only up to a small number of neighbouring atoms), such generalizations are a matter of utility.

New!!: Enzyme and Chemoselectivity · See more »

Cholesterol

Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule.

New!!: Enzyme and Cholesterol · See more »

Chymosin

Chymosin or rennin is a protease found in rennet.

New!!: Enzyme and Chymosin · See more »

Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.

New!!: Enzyme and Chymotrypsin · See more »

Chymotrypsinogen

Chymotrypsinogen is a proteolytic enzyme and a precursor (zymogen) of the digestive enzyme chymotrypsin.

New!!: Enzyme and Chymotrypsinogen · See more »

Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

New!!: Enzyme and Citric acid cycle · See more »

Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

New!!: Enzyme and Coenzyme A · See more »

Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity.

New!!: Enzyme and Cofactor (biochemistry) · See more »

Competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa.

New!!: Enzyme and Competitive inhibition · See more »

Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

New!!: Enzyme and Concentration · See more »

Conformational change

In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.

New!!: Enzyme and Conformational change · See more »

Conformational ensembles

Conformational ensembles, also known as structural ensembles are experimentally constrained computational models describing the structure of intrinsically unstructured proteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Conformational ensembles · See more »

Conformational proofreading

Conformational proofreading (CPR) or Conformational selection is a general mechanism of molecular recognition systems in which introducing a structural mismatch between a molecular recognizer and its target, or an energetic barrier, enhances the recognition specificity and quality.

New!!: Enzyme and Conformational proofreading · See more »

Contact lens

A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.

New!!: Enzyme and Contact lens · See more »

Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art of preparing food for consumption with the use of heat.

New!!: Enzyme and Cooking · See more »

Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

New!!: Enzyme and Covalent bond · See more »

Cyanide

A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN.

New!!: Enzyme and Cyanide · See more »

Cyclooxygenase

Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including prostaglandins such as prostacyclin and thromboxane.

New!!: Enzyme and Cyclooxygenase · See more »

Cytochrome c oxidase

The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and the mitochondrion of eukaryotes.

New!!: Enzyme and Cytochrome c oxidase · See more »

Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) belong to the superfamily of proteins containing a heme cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Cytochrome P450 · See more »

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

New!!: Enzyme and Cytoplasm · See more »

Cytoskeleton

In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid assembly or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements.

New!!: Enzyme and Cytoskeleton · See more »

Cytosol

The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Cytosol · See more »

Dairy

A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses or camels – for human consumption.

New!!: Enzyme and Dairy · See more »

Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.

Daniel Edward Koshland, Jr. (March 30, 1920 – July 23, 2007) was an American biochemist.

New!!: Enzyme and Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. · See more »

David Chilton Phillips

David Chilton Phillips, Baron Phillips of Ellesmere, KBE, FRS (7 March 1924 – 23 February 1999) was a pioneering structural biologist and an influential figure in science and government.

New!!: Enzyme and David Chilton Phillips · See more »

Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

New!!: Enzyme and Denaturation (biochemistry) · See more »

Diacetyl

Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2.

New!!: Enzyme and Diacetyl · See more »

Diastase

A diastase (from Greek διαστασις, "separation") is any one of a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.

New!!: Enzyme and Diastase · See more »

Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

New!!: Enzyme and Diffusion · See more »

Diffusion limited enzyme

A Diffusion limited enzyme is an enzyme which catalyses a reaction so efficiently that the rate limiting step is that of substrate diffusion into the active site, or product diffusion out.

New!!: Enzyme and Diffusion limited enzyme · See more »

Dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and Dihydrofolate reductase · See more »

DNA ligase

In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.

New!!: Enzyme and DNA ligase · See more »

DNA polymerase

The DNA polymerases are enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.

New!!: Enzyme and DNA polymerase · See more »

DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

New!!: Enzyme and DNA repair · See more »

Drug

A drug is, in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans or other animals.

New!!: Enzyme and Drug · See more »

Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

New!!: Enzyme and Drug interaction · See more »

Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism also known as xenobiotic metabolism is the biochemical modification of pharmaceutical substances or xenobiotics respectively by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

New!!: Enzyme and Drug metabolism · See more »

Eduard Buchner

Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded with the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

New!!: Enzyme and Eduard Buchner · See more »

Egg white

Egg white is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.

New!!: Enzyme and Egg white · See more »

Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.

New!!: Enzyme and Endoplasmic reticulum · See more »

Endothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.

New!!: Enzyme and Endothermic process · See more »

Entropy

In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

New!!: Enzyme and Entropy · See more »

Enzyme activator

Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme activator · See more »

Enzyme assay

Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme assay · See more »

Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme catalysis · See more »

Enzyme Commission number

The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme Commission number · See more »

Enzyme inducer

An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme inducer · See more »

Enzyme inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme inhibitor · See more »

Enzyme promiscuity

Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Enzyme promiscuity · See more »

Eukaryote

A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

New!!: Enzyme and Eukaryote · See more »

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas.

New!!: Enzyme and Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency · See more »

ExPASy

ExPASy is a bioinformatics resource portal operated by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) and in particular the SIB Web Team.

New!!: Enzyme and ExPASy · See more »

Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

New!!: Enzyme and Fat · See more »

Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.

New!!: Enzyme and Fatty acid · See more »

Fatty acid synthase

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.

New!!: Enzyme and Fatty acid synthase · See more »

Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

New!!: Enzyme and Feedback · See more »

Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions.

New!!: Enzyme and Fermentation in food processing · See more »

Firefly

The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

New!!: Enzyme and Firefly · See more »

Flavin group

Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.

New!!: Enzyme and Flavin group · See more »

Flour

Flour is a powder made by grinding uncooked cereal grains or other seeds or roots (like cassava).

New!!: Enzyme and Flour · See more »

Flux (metabolism)

Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway.

New!!: Enzyme and Flux (metabolism) · See more »

Folic acid

Folic acid or folate is a B vitamin.

New!!: Enzyme and Folic acid · See more »

Food processing

Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.

New!!: Enzyme and Food processing · See more »

Fumarase

Fumarase (or fumarate hydratase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration/dehydration of fumarate to malate.

New!!: Enzyme and Fumarase · See more »

Function (biology)

A biological function is the reason some object or process occurred in a system that evolved through a process of selection or natural selection.

New!!: Enzyme and Function (biology) · See more »

Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

New!!: Enzyme and Functional group · See more »

Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

New!!: Enzyme and Gene expression · See more »

Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).

New!!: Enzyme and Genetic disorder · See more »

Genome

In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.

New!!: Enzyme and Genome · See more »

George Edward Briggs

George Edward Briggs FRS (25 June 1893 – 7 February 1985) was Professor of Botany at the University of Cambridge.

New!!: Enzyme and George Edward Briggs · See more »

Germline mutation

A germline mutation is any detectable and heritable variation in the lineage of germ cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Germline mutation · See more »

Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

New!!: Enzyme and Gibbs free energy · See more »

Globular protein

Globular proteins, or spheroproteins, are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).

New!!: Enzyme and Globular protein · See more »

Glucanase

Glucanases are enzymes that break down a glucan, a polysaccharide made of several glucose sub-units.

New!!: Enzyme and Glucanase · See more »

Glucokinase

Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.

New!!: Enzyme and Glucokinase · See more »

Glucose

Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

New!!: Enzyme and Glucose · See more »

Glycogen

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi.

New!!: Enzyme and Glycogen · See more »

Glycogen synthase

Glycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase) is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen.

New!!: Enzyme and Glycogen synthase · See more »

Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

New!!: Enzyme and Glycolysis · See more »

Glycosylation

Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

New!!: Enzyme and Glycosylation · See more »

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Golgi apparatus · See more »

Guar gum

Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan.

New!!: Enzyme and Guar gum · See more »

Heme

Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

New!!: Enzyme and Heme · See more »

Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

New!!: Enzyme and Herbivore · See more »

Hermann Emil Fischer

Hermann Emil Louis Fischer (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and Hermann Emil Fischer · See more »

Hexokinase

A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.

New!!: Enzyme and Hexokinase · See more »

Hexosaminidase

Hexosaminidase (beta-acetylaminodeoxyhexosidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase, N-acetyl hexosaminidase, beta-hexosaminidase, beta-acetylhexosaminidinase, beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-D-hexosaminidase) is an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of terminal N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminides.

New!!: Enzyme and Hexosaminidase · See more »

High fructose corn syrup

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.

New!!: Enzyme and High fructose corn syrup · See more »

HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

New!!: Enzyme and HIV · See more »

Homeostasis

Homeostasis or homoeostasis (''homeo-'' + ''-stasis'') is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.

New!!: Enzyme and Homeostasis · See more »

Human gastrointestinal tract

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

New!!: Enzyme and Human gastrointestinal tract · See more »

Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is one of Berlin's oldest universities, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities.

New!!: Enzyme and Humboldt University of Berlin · See more »

Hydride

In chemistry, a Hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

New!!: Enzyme and Hydride · See more »

Hydrolase

In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond.

New!!: Enzyme and Hydrolase · See more »

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.

New!!: Enzyme and Hydrolysis · See more »

Hydrophile

A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to, and tends to be dissolved by, water.

New!!: Enzyme and Hydrophile · See more »

Hydrophobe

In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

New!!: Enzyme and Hydrophobe · See more »

Hypoallergenic

Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953.

New!!: Enzyme and Hypoallergenic · See more »

Inflammation

Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.

New!!: Enzyme and Inflammation · See more »

Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus.

New!!: Enzyme and Influenza · See more »

Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is a compound that is considered not "organic".

New!!: Enzyme and Inorganic compound · See more »

Insulin

Insulin (from the Latin, insula meaning island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas.

New!!: Enzyme and Insulin · See more »

Integrase

Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.

New!!: Enzyme and Integrase · See more »

Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

New!!: Enzyme and Intellectual disability · See more »

IntEnz

IntEnz (Integrated relational Enzyme database) contains data on enzymes organized by enzyme EC number and is the official version of the Enzyme Nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

New!!: Enzyme and IntEnz · See more »

International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.

New!!: Enzyme and International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology · See more »

Inverted sugar syrup

Inverted or invert sugar syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose; it is obtained by splitting sucrose into these two components.

New!!: Enzyme and Inverted sugar syrup · See more »

Ion

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

New!!: Enzyme and Ion · See more »

Ion transporter

In biology, an ion transporter, also called an ion pump, is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient, in contrast to ion channels, where ions go through passive transport.

New!!: Enzyme and Ion transporter · See more »

Iron-sulfur cluster

Iron-sulfur clusters are ensembles of iron and sulfide centres.

New!!: Enzyme and Iron-sulfur cluster · See more »

Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

New!!: Enzyme and Isomer · See more »

Isomerase

Isomerases are a general class of enzymes which convert a molecule from one isomer to another.

New!!: Enzyme and Isomerase · See more »

Isozyme

Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Isozyme · See more »

Β-Lactam

A β-lactam (beta-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam.

New!!: Enzyme and Β-Lactam · See more »

J. B. S. Haldane

J.

New!!: Enzyme and J. B. S. Haldane · See more »

James B. Sumner

James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist.

New!!: Enzyme and James B. Sumner · See more »

John Howard Northrop

John Howard Northrop (July 5, 1891 – May 27, 1987) was an American biochemist who won, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and John Howard Northrop · See more »

Juice

Juice is a liquid (drink) that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables.

New!!: Enzyme and Juice · See more »

KEGG

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.

New!!: Enzyme and KEGG · See more »

Kinase

In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

New!!: Enzyme and Kinase · See more »

Kraft paper

Kraft paper or kraft is paper or paperboard (cardboard) produced from chemical pulp produced in the kraft process.

New!!: Enzyme and Kraft paper · See more »

Lactase

Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Lactase · See more »

Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide sugar derived from galactose and glucose that is found in milk.

New!!: Enzyme and Lactose · See more »

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is the inability of adults to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and to a lesser extent dairy products, causing side effects.

New!!: Enzyme and Lactose intolerance · See more »

Laundry detergent

Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.

New!!: Enzyme and Laundry detergent · See more »

Law of mass action

In chemistry, the law of mass action is a mathematical model that explains and predicts behaviours of solutions in dynamic equilibrium.

New!!: Enzyme and Law of mass action · See more »

Leonor Michaelis

Leonor Michaelis (January 16, 1875 – October 8, 1949) was a German biochemist, physical chemist, and physician, known primarily for his work with Maud Menten on enzyme kinetics and Michaelis–Menten kinetics in 1913.

New!!: Enzyme and Leonor Michaelis · See more »

Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

New!!: Enzyme and Ligand (biochemistry) · See more »

Ligase

In biochemistry, ligase (from the Latin verb ligāre — "to bind" or "to glue together") is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.

New!!: Enzyme and Ligase · See more »

Lignin

Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers.

New!!: Enzyme and Lignin · See more »

Lignin peroxidase

Lignin is highly resistant to biodegradation and only higher fungi are capable of degrading the polymer via an oxidative process.

New!!: Enzyme and Lignin peroxidase · See more »

Ligninase

Ligninase is the original term encompassing many different types of oxidative, extracellular fungal enzymes which catalyze the breakdown of lignin which is commonly found in the cell walls of plants.

New!!: Enzyme and Ligninase · See more »

Lipase

A lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).

New!!: Enzyme and Lipase · See more »

List of enzymes

This article is a list of enzymes, sorted by their respective sub-categories and EC number.

New!!: Enzyme and List of enzymes · See more »

Liver

The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

New!!: Enzyme and Liver · See more »

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

New!!: Enzyme and Louis Pasteur · See more »

Luciferase

Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes used in bioluminescence and is distinct from a photoprotein.

New!!: Enzyme and Luciferase · See more »

Lung

The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

New!!: Enzyme and Lung · See more »

Lyase

In biochemistry, a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking (an "elimination" reaction) of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis (a "substitution" reaction) and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure.

New!!: Enzyme and Lyase · See more »

Lysosome

A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells).

New!!: Enzyme and Lysosome · See more »

Lysozyme

Lysozymes, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, are glycoside hydrolases.

New!!: Enzyme and Lysozyme · See more »

Macromolecular crowding

The phenomenon of macromolecular crowding alters the properties of molecules in a solution when high concentrations of macromolecules such as proteins are present.

New!!: Enzyme and Macromolecular crowding · See more »

Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

New!!: Enzyme and Macromolecule · See more »

Malt

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".

New!!: Enzyme and Malt · See more »

Maltose

Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond, formed from a condensation reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Maltose · See more »

Maud Menten

Maud Leonora Menten (March 20, 1879 – July 26, 1960) was a Canadian physician-scientist who made significant contributions to enzyme kinetics and histochemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and Maud Menten · See more »

Meat

Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

New!!: Enzyme and Meat · See more »

Meat tenderizer

A meat tenderizer is a hand-powered tool used to tenderize slabs of meat in preparation for cooking.

New!!: Enzyme and Meat tenderizer · See more »

Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

New!!: Enzyme and Metabolic pathway · See more »

Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Metabolism · See more »

MetaCyc

The MetaCyc database contains extensive information on metabolic pathways and enzymes from many organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and MetaCyc · See more »

Methotrexate

Methotrexate (INN, AAN, BAN and USAN), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug.

New!!: Enzyme and Methotrexate · See more »

Michaelis–Menten kinetics

Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.

New!!: Enzyme and Michaelis–Menten kinetics · See more »

Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Mitochondrion · See more »

Mixed inhibition

Mixed inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition in which the inhibitor may bind to the enzyme whether or not the enzyme has already bound the substrate but has a greater affinity for one state or the other.

New!!: Enzyme and Mixed inhibition · See more »

Molecular biology

Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated.

New!!: Enzyme and Molecular biology · See more »

Molecule

A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

New!!: Enzyme and Molecule · See more »

Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.

New!!: Enzyme and Monomer · See more »

Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Multicellular organism · See more »

Multiprotein complex

A multiprotein complex (or protein complex) is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.

New!!: Enzyme and Multiprotein complex · See more »

Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

New!!: Enzyme and Muscle contraction · See more »

Myosin

Myosins comprise a family of ATP-dependent motor proteins and are best known for their role in muscle contraction and their involvement in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

New!!: Enzyme and Myosin · See more »

Myristoylation

Myristoylation is a lipidation modification where a myristoyl group, derived from myristic acid, is covalently attached by an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue.

New!!: Enzyme and Myristoylation · See more »

Negative feedback

Negative feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

New!!: Enzyme and Negative feedback · See more »

Neuraminidase

Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.

New!!: Enzyme and Neuraminidase · See more »

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by random drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

New!!: Enzyme and Neutral theory of molecular evolution · See more »

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

New!!: Enzyme and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide · See more »

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

New!!: Enzyme and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate · See more »

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and Nobel Prize in Chemistry · See more »

Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

New!!: Enzyme and Nomenclature · See more »

Non-competitive inhibition

Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.

New!!: Enzyme and Non-competitive inhibition · See more »

Nuclease

A nuclease is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids.

New!!: Enzyme and Nuclease · See more »

Organ (anatomy)

In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

New!!: Enzyme and Organ (anatomy) · See more »

Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

New!!: Enzyme and Organic compound · See more »

Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase

Orotidine 5’-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

New!!: Enzyme and Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase · See more »

Oxidoreductase

In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.

New!!: Enzyme and Oxidoreductase · See more »

Oxyanion hole

An oxyanion hole is a pocket in the active site of an enzyme which stabilizes transition state negative charge on a deprotonated oxygen or alkoxide.

New!!: Enzyme and Oxyanion hole · See more »

Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

New!!: Enzyme and Pancreas · See more »

Papain

Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

New!!: Enzyme and Papain · See more »

Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

New!!: Enzyme and Paper · See more »

Pectinase

Pectinase is an enzyme that breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls.

New!!: Enzyme and Pectinase · See more »

Penicillin

Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (oral use), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

New!!: Enzyme and Penicillin · See more »

Pentose phosphate pathway

In biochemistry, the pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis that generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars).

New!!: Enzyme and Pentose phosphate pathway · See more »

Pepsin

Pepsin is an enzyme whose zymogen (pepsinogen) is released by the chief cells in the stomach and that degrades food proteins into peptides.

New!!: Enzyme and Pepsin · See more »

Periplasm

The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.

New!!: Enzyme and Periplasm · See more »

Personal care

Personal care or toiletries is the industry which manufactures consumer products used in personal hygiene and for beautification.

New!!: Enzyme and Personal care · See more »

PH

In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.

New!!: Enzyme and PH · See more »

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH.

New!!: Enzyme and Phenylalanine · See more »

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheOH, alternatively PheH or PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.

New!!: Enzyme and Phenylalanine hydroxylase · See more »

Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) (phenyl + ketone + -uria) is an inborn error of metabolism involving impaired metabolism of phenylalanine, one of the amino acids.

New!!: Enzyme and Phenylketonuria · See more »

Phosphatase

A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group (see dephosphorylation).

New!!: Enzyme and Phosphatase · See more »

Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43−) group to a protein or other organic molecule.

New!!: Enzyme and Phosphorylation · See more »

Poison

In biology, poisons are substances which cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.

New!!: Enzyme and Poison · See more »

Polymerase

A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids.

New!!: Enzyme and Polymerase · See more »

Polymerase chain reaction

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technology in molecular biology used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

New!!: Enzyme and Polymerase chain reaction · See more »

Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins during or after protein biosynthesis.

New!!: Enzyme and Post-translational modification · See more »

Product (chemistry)

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.

New!!: Enzyme and Product (chemistry) · See more »

Proofreading (biology)

The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.

New!!: Enzyme and Proofreading (biology) · See more »

Prostaglandin

The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

New!!: Enzyme and Prostaglandin · See more »

Protease

A protease (also called peptidase or proteinase) is any enzyme that performs proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in a polypeptide chain.

New!!: Enzyme and Protease · See more »

Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis caused by hepatitis C virus.

New!!: Enzyme and Protease inhibitor (pharmacology) · See more »

Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein · See more »

Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein domain · See more »

Protein engineering

Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein engineering · See more »

Protein folding

Protein folding is the process by which a protein structure assumes its functional shape or conformation.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein folding · See more »

Protein secondary structure

In biochemistry and structural biology, protein secondary structure is the general three-dimensional form of local segments of proteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein secondary structure · See more »

Protein targeting

Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside of it.

New!!: Enzyme and Protein targeting · See more »

Protonation

In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.

New!!: Enzyme and Protonation · See more »

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the body's production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired.

New!!: Enzyme and Pseudocholinesterase deficiency · See more »

Pullulanase

Pullulanase (limit dextrinase, amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase, bacterial debranching enzyme, debranching enzyme, alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, R-enzyme, pullulan alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase) is a specific kind of glucanase, an amylolytic exoenzyme, that degrades pullulan.

New!!: Enzyme and Pullulanase · See more »

Pyruvate carboxylase

Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an enzyme of the ligase class that catalyzes the (depending on the species) irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate (OAA).

New!!: Enzyme and Pyruvate carboxylase · See more »

Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

New!!: Enzyme and Pyruvic acid · See more »

Reaction mechanism

In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

New!!: Enzyme and Reaction mechanism · See more »

Reaction rate

The reaction rate (rate of reaction) or speed of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place.

New!!: Enzyme and Reaction rate · See more »

Reaction rate constant

In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.

New!!: Enzyme and Reaction rate constant · See more »

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

New!!: Enzyme and Recombinant DNA · See more »

Redox

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

New!!: Enzyme and Redox · See more »

Regioselectivity

In chemistry, regioselectivity is the preference of one direction of chemical bond making or breaking over all other possible directions.

New!!: Enzyme and Regioselectivity · See more »

Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

New!!: Enzyme and Regulation of gene expression · See more »

Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.

New!!: Enzyme and Restriction enzyme · See more »

Retrovirus

Retroviridae is a family of enveloped viruses that replicate in a host cell through the process of reverse transcription.

New!!: Enzyme and Retrovirus · See more »

Reverse transcriptase

A Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.

New!!: Enzyme and Reverse transcriptase · See more »

Ribbon diagram

Ribbon diagrams, also known as Richardson Diagrams, are 3D schematic representations of protein structure and are one of the most common methods of protein depiction used today.

New!!: Enzyme and Ribbon diagram · See more »

Riboflavin

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is part of the vitamin B group.

New!!: Enzyme and Riboflavin · See more »

Ribosome

The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

New!!: Enzyme and Ribosome · See more »

Ribozyme

Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes), also termed catalytic RNA or RNAzyme, are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

New!!: Enzyme and Ribozyme · See more »

Richard Willstätter

Richard Martin Willstätter, (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

New!!: Enzyme and Richard Willstätter · See more »

RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

New!!: Enzyme and RNA · See more »

RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol), also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA.

New!!: Enzyme and RNA polymerase · See more »

Roquefort

Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk blue cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.

New!!: Enzyme and Roquefort · See more »

Ruminant

Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through bacterial actions.

New!!: Enzyme and Ruminant · See more »

S-Adenosyl methionine

S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.

New!!: Enzyme and S-Adenosyl methionine · See more »

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (also known as methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT)) is an enzyme that creates S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) by reacting methionine (a non-polar amino acid) and ATP (the basic currency of energy).

New!!: Enzyme and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme · See more »

Saliva

Saliva is a watery substance located in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

New!!: Enzyme and Saliva · See more »

Side chain

In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.

New!!: Enzyme and Side chain · See more »

Signal transduction

Signal transduction occurs when an extracellular signaling molecule activates a specific receptor located on the cell surface or inside the cell.

New!!: Enzyme and Signal transduction · See more »

Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

New!!: Enzyme and Skin cancer · See more »

Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase.

New!!: Enzyme and Solution · See more »

Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

New!!: Enzyme and Solvent · See more »

Starch

Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

New!!: Enzyme and Starch · See more »

Statin

Statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are a class of cholesterol lowering drugs that inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol.

New!!: Enzyme and Statin · See more »

Stereospecificity

In chemistry, stereospecificity is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products from different stereoisomeric reactants, or which operates on only one (or a subset) of the stereoisomers.

New!!: Enzyme and Stereospecificity · See more »

Stomach

The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in many animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs.

New!!: Enzyme and Stomach · See more »

Structural biology

Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules, especially proteins and nucleic acids, how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.

New!!: Enzyme and Structural biology · See more »

Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product.

New!!: Enzyme and Substrate (chemistry) · See more »

Sugar

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

New!!: Enzyme and Sugar · See more »

Superoxide dismutase

Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are enzymes that alternately catalyze the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

New!!: Enzyme and Superoxide dismutase · See more »

Tay–Sachs disease

Tay–Sachs disease (also known as GM2 gangliosidosis or hexosaminidase A deficiency) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder.

New!!: Enzyme and Tay–Sachs disease · See more »

Temperature

A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

New!!: Enzyme and Temperature · See more »

Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of classical thermodynamics.

New!!: Enzyme and Thermodynamic equilibrium · See more »

Thiamine

Thiamine, thiamin or vitamin B1, named as the "thio-vitamine" ("sulfur-containing vitamin") is a vitamin of the B complex.

New!!: Enzyme and Thiamine · See more »

Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.

New!!: Enzyme and Tissue (biology) · See more »

Transcription (genetics)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

New!!: Enzyme and Transcription (genetics) · See more »

Transferase

In biochemistry, transferase is the general name for the class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor).

New!!: Enzyme and Transferase · See more »

Transition state

The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.

New!!: Enzyme and Transition state · See more »

Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Translation (biology) · See more »

Triosephosphate isomerase

Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI or TIM) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of the triose phosphate isomers dihydroxyacetone phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

New!!: Enzyme and Triosephosphate isomerase · See more »

Trypsin

Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins.

New!!: Enzyme and Trypsin · See more »

Turn (biochemistry)

A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.

New!!: Enzyme and Turn (biochemistry) · See more »

Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

New!!: Enzyme and Ultraviolet · See more »

Uncompetitive inhibitor

Uncompetitive inhibition, also known as anti-competitive inhibition, takes place when an enzyme inhibitor binds only to the complex formed between the enzyme and the substrate (the E-S complex).

New!!: Enzyme and Uncompetitive inhibitor · See more »

Urease

Ureases, functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.

New!!: Enzyme and Urease · See more »

Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

New!!: Enzyme and Virus · See more »

Vitalism

Vitalism is an obsolete scientific doctrine that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

New!!: Enzyme and Vitalism · See more »

Vitamin

A vitamin (and) is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts.

New!!: Enzyme and Vitamin · See more »

Wendell Meredith Stanley

Wendell Meredith Stanley (16 August 1904 – 15 June 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel laureate.

New!!: Enzyme and Wendell Meredith Stanley · See more »

Wilhelm Kühne

Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne (28 March 1837 – 10 June 1900) was a German physiologist.

New!!: Enzyme and Wilhelm Kühne · See more »

Wort

Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.

New!!: Enzyme and Wort · See more »

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

New!!: Enzyme and X-ray crystallography · See more »

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum, or XP, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light is deficient.

New!!: Enzyme and Xeroderma pigmentosum · See more »

Xylanase

Xylanase (endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.

New!!: Enzyme and Xylanase · See more »

Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom with 1,500 species currently identified and are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

New!!: Enzyme and Yeast · See more »

Zymase

Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

New!!: Enzyme and Zymase · See more »

Zymogen

A zymogen (or proenzyme) is an inactive enzyme precursor.

New!!: Enzyme and Zymogen · See more »

4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase

4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (EC 5.3.2.-4-OT) is an enzyme that converts 2-hydroxymuconate to the αβ-unsaturated ketone, 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate.

New!!: Enzyme and 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase · See more »

Redirects here:

Apoenzyme, Apoenzymes, Biocatalyst, Biocatalysts, Coenzymes and cofactors, Cofactors and coenzymes, ENZ, ENZYME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, Encyme, Ensyme, Enyme characteristics, Enyzme, Enzime, Enzymatic, Enzymatically, Enzyme action, Enzyme preparations, Enzyme specificity, Enzyme type, Enzyme-substrate complex, Enzymes, Enzymic, Enzymology, Haloenzyme, Holoenzyme, Holoenzymes, Induced fit model, Lock and Key Theory, Lock and key model, Lock and key theory, Lock-and-key model, Lock-and-key model (enzyme), Mechanisms of enzyme action, Specificity (biochemistry).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »