41 relations: Amygdala, Anatomical terms of location, Anterograde amnesia, Anticonvulsant, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Biological half-life, Brotizolam, Cerebral cortex, Comorbidity, Derivative (chemistry), Dizziness, Drug tolerance, Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use, Electroencephalography, Ethanol, Hippocampus, Hypnotic, Hypokinesia, Hypothalamus, Insomnia, Kidney, Liver, Mental disorder, Midazolam, Motor coordination, Muscle relaxant, Nonbenzodiazepine, Rebound effect, Ritonavir, Sedative, Somnolence, Sound, Substance dependence, Thalamus, Triazolam, United States, Visual cortex.
The amygdalae (singular: amygdala;; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil'), are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
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Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.
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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
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Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
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Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
The biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug, signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity, as per the MeSH definition.
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Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a sedative-hypnotic thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.
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The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals.
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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases.
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In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by some chemical or physical process.
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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
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Drug tolerance is a pharmacology concept where a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is reduced followed repeated use, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect.
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The effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include drug dependence as well as the possibility of adverse effects on cognitive function, physical health, and mental health.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically a non-invasive (however invasive electrodes are often used in specific applications) method to record electrical activity of the brain along the scalp.
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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.
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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
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Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.
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The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, "room, chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
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Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.
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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness, psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder, is mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life.
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Midazolam, marketed under the trade names Versed among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.
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Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
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A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
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Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
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The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.
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Ritonavir, with trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral drug from the protease inhibitor class used to treat HIV/AIDS.
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A sedative or tranquilizer (or tranquilliser, see American and British English spelling differences) is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia).
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In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water.
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Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain.
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Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The visual cortex of the brain is the part of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing visual information.
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