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Ethylene oxide

Ethylene oxide, properly called oxirane by IUPAC, is the organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether. (A cyclic ether consists of an alkane with an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms of the alkane, forming a ring.) Ethylene oxide is a colorless flammable gas at room temperature, with a faintly sweet odor; it is the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Because of its special molecular structure, ethylene oxide easily participates in addition reactions; e.g., opening its ring and thus easily polymerizing. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas, with a misleadingly pleasant aroma. The chemical reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards has also made it a key industrial chemical. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used industrially for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. Ethylene oxide is important or critical to the production of detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers and other compounds. As a poison gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, pure ethylene oxide is a disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by direct oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. It is extremely flammable and explosive and is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.. [1]

255 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetylene, Acrylonitrile, Acyl chloride, Addition reaction, Africa, Agrochemical, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkaline earth metal, Alkoxide, Alkylation, Aluminium oxide, Aluminosilicate, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Amide, Ammonia, Anionic addition polymerization, Anprolene, Antifreeze, Antimony, Asia, Autoignition temperature, Aziridine, Barium hydroxide, Barium peroxide, BASF, Belgium, Binding energy, Bismuth, Boiling point, Bond dipole moment, Bone tumor, Borane, Borirane, Boron trifluoride, Brazil, Breast cancer, Butyllithium, Calcium chloride, Calcium cyanide, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium nitrite, Calcium oxide, Canada, Carbanion, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, ..., Carbonate, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Catalysis, Cationic polymerization, Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, Chemical formula, Chemical weapon, China, China Petrochemical Corporation, Choline, Crown ether, Cyanohydrin, Detergent, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Diethyl ether, Diethylamine, Diethylene glycol, Dimethyl ether, Dioxolane, Disinfectant, Dispersant, Distillation, Dow Chemical Company, Eastern Europe, Electrolyte, Emulsion, Enthalpy, Entropy, Epoxide, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethanolamine, Ether, Ethyl group, Ethylene, Ethylene carbonate, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene glycol dinitrate, Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, European Union, Exothermic process, Firefighting foam, Formaldehyde, Formosa Plastics Corp, Fractionating column, France, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fumigation, Fungicide, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Gas chromatography, Gas diffusion method, Georg Bredig, Germany, Gibbs free energy, Glycolic acid, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Grignard reaction, Halohydrin, Heat capacity, Heat of combustion, Heterocyclic compound, Hexachloroethane, Hot spot effect in subatomic physics, Hydride, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen iodide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroxide, India, Indonesia, Ineos, Inert gas, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intraperitoneal injection, Iodic acid, Iodine, Iran, Iron(III) chloride, Isomer, Isomerization, Japan, Ketene, Kuwait, Leukocytosis, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lloyd Hall, Lowest published toxic dose, Lubricant, Magnesium hydroxide, Malaysia, Median lethal dose, Median toxic dose, Methane, Mexico, Moment of inertia, Mucous membrane, Mutagen, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Netherlands, NFPA 704, Nickel, Nitric acid, North America, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic substitution, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oil field, Organic acid anhydride, Organic compound, Organometallic chemistry, Paint thinner, Palladium, Perchloric acid, Periodic acid, Peroxy acid, Peroxybenzoic acid, Pharmaceutical drug, Phenethyl alcohol, Phenolphthalein, Phosphonium, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus pentachloride, Phosphorus trichloride, Plasticizer, Platinum, Polyester, Polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polymerization, Polysorbate 20, Potassium hydroxide, Propane, Propene, Propylene oxide, Pulmonary edema, Pumice, Pyridine, Pyrolysis, Rectified spirit, Redox, Royal Dutch Shell, SABIC, Saudi Arabia, Scrubber, Silica gel, Silicate, Silicon carbide, Silver, Silver nitrate, Silver oxide, Singapore, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium iodide, Sodium nitrite, South Korea, Spain, Spice, Stripping (chemistry), Styrene, Subcutaneous injection, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur mustard, Sulfuric acid, Sulfuryl chloride, Surface tension, Surfactant, Taiwan, Tetrahydrofuran, Textile, Thermal conductivity, Thermal decomposition, Thermobaric weapon, Thiirane, Thiocyanate, Thiourea, Tin(IV) chloride, Titanium(II) chloride, Titanium(III) chloride, Tonne, Triethylene glycol, Triphenylphosphine, Turkey, Union Carbide, Unit operation, United Kingdom, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Venezuela, Vinyl alcohol, Viscosity, Western Europe, World War I, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,3-Propanediol, 1,4-Dioxane, 2-Butoxyethanol, 2-Chloroethanol. Expand index (205 more) »


Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.

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Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.

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Acyl chloride

In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.

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Addition reaction

An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one (the adduct).

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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various chemical products used in agriculture.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a formyl group.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in column (group) 2 of the Periodic table.

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An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

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Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.

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American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR'2 (R and R' refer to H or organic groups).

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anionic addition polymerization

Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the polymerization of vinyl monomers with strong electronegative groups.

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Anprolene is a registered trade name for ethylene oxide that belongs to Andersen Sterilizers.

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An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid.

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Aziridines are organic compounds containing the aziridine functional group, a three-membered heterocycle with one amine group (-NH-) and two methylene bridges (--). The parent compound is aziridine (or ethylene imine), with molecular formula.

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Barium hydroxide

Barium hydroxide are chemical compounds with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x.

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Barium peroxide

Barium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaO2.

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BASF SE is the largest chemical producer in the world and is headquartered in Ludwigshafen, Germany.

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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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Binding energy

Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole system into separate parts.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Bond dipole moment

The bond dipole moment uses the idea of electric dipole moment to measure the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule.

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Bone tumor

A bone tumor, (also spelled bone tumour), is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.

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Borane (also systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.

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Borirane is the organic compound with the formula.

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Boron trifluoride

Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Butyllithium may refer to one of three isomeric organolithium reagents used in chemical synthesis.

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Calcium chloride

Calcium chloride (chemical formula CaCl2) is the ionic compound of calcium and chlorine.

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Calcium cyanide

Calcium cyanide also known as black cyanide,.

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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.

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Calcium nitrite

Calcium nitrite is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Ca(NO2)2.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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A carbanion is an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge usually with three substituents for a total of eight valence electrons.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane (also recognized by the IUPAC), carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR), is the organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion,.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Cationic polymerization

Cationic polymerization is a type of chain growth polymerization in which a cationic initiator transfers charge to a monomer which then becomes reactive.

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Charles-Adolphe Wurtz

Charles Adolphe Wurtz (26 November 1817 – 10 May 1884) was an Alsatian French chemist.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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China Petrochemical Corporation

China Petrochemical Corporation or Sinopec Group is Asia's largest oil refining and petrochemical enterprise, administered by SASAC for the State Council of the People's Republic of China.

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Choline is a water-soluble nutrient.

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Crown ether

Crown ethers are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups.

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A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds.

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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, also known as ethoxyethane, ethyl ether, sulfuric ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula.

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Diethylamine is a secondary amine with the molecular structure CH3CH2NHCH2CH3 (also written as C4H11N).

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Diethylene glycol

Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O.

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Dimethyl ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.

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Dioxolane is a heterocyclic acetal with the chemical formula (CH2)2O2CH2.

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Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.

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A dispersant or a dispersing agent or a plasticizer or a superplasticizer is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface-active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping.

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Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.

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Dow Chemical Company

The Dow Chemical Co., commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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An electrolyte (Etymology: Greek lytós able to be untied or loosened) is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Enthalpy is defined as a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: Since U, p and V are all functions of the state of the thermodynamic system, enthalpy is a state function.

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In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

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An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.

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Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6.

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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

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Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.

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Ethyl group

In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Ethylene carbonate

Ethylene carbonate is the organic compound with the formula (CH2O)2CO.

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Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, and polyethylene terephthalate resins (PET) used in bottling.

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Ethylene glycol dinitrate

Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN,NGc), also known as nitroglycol, is a chemical compound a yellowish, oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating ethylene glycol. It is similar to nitroglycerin in both manufacture and properties, though it is more volatile and less viscous.

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Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez

Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (January 15, 1817 – November 24, 1878) was an Austrian-German chemist.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Firefighting foam

Firefighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression.

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Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O.

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Formosa Plastics Corp

Formosa Plastics Corporation is a Taiwanese company based in Taiwan that primarily produces polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins and other intermediate plastic products.

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Fractionating column

A fractionating column or fractionation column is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Friedel–Crafts reaction

The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.

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Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.

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Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.

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γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

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Gas chromatography

Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.

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Gas diffusion method

Gas diffusion refers to a surgical sterilization method for heat, moisture, or pressure-sensitive items, with the exception of food, drugs, or liquids.

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Georg Bredig

Georg Bredig (October 1, 1868, Glogau, Niederschlesien, Silesia Province – April 24, 1944, New York) was a German physicochemist (Physikochemist).

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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Glycolic acid

Glycolic acid (or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2COOH), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).

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Great Soviet Encyclopedia

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE) (Большая советская энциклопедия, or БСЭ Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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A halohydrin or a haloalcohol is a type of organic compound or functional group in which one carbon atom has a halogen substituent, and another carbon atom has a hydroxyl substituent.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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Heat of combustion

The heat of combustion (\Delta H_c^\circ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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Hexachloroethane, also known as perchloroethane (PCA), C2Cl6, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature with a camphor-like odor.

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Hot spot effect in subatomic physics

Hot spots in subatomic physics are regions of high energy density or temperature in hadronic or nuclear matter.

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In chemistry, a Hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrobromic acid

Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an important homogeneously catalyzed industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.

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Hydrogen cyanide

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula HCN.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HF.

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Hydrogen iodide

Hydrogen iodide (HI) is a diatomic molecule.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Ineos Group Limited (styled as INEOS) is a privately owned multinational chemicals company headquartered in Rolle, Switzerland, and with its registered office in Lyndhurst, Hampshire, UK.

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Inert gas

An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre international de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, or) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Intraperitoneal injection

Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).

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Iodic acid

Iodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white solid.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iron(III) chloride

Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.

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An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.

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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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A ketene is an organic compound of the form R'RC.

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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.

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Leukocytosis is a white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.

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Lithium aluminium hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.

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Lloyd Hall

Lloyd Augustus Hall (June 20, 1894 - January 2, 1971) was an African American chemist who contributed to the science of food preservation.

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Lowest published toxic dose

In toxicology, the Lowest published toxic dose (Toxic Dose Low, TDLo) is the lowest dosage per unit of bodyweight (typically stated in milligrams per kilogram) of a substance known to have produced signs of toxicity in a particular animal species.

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A lubricant is a substance introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.

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Magnesium hydroxide

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of hydrated Mg(OH)2.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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Median toxic dose

In toxicology, the median toxic dose (TD50) of a drug or toxin is the dose at which toxicity occurs in 50% of cases.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Moment of inertia

The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa (plural, mucosae or mucosas; Latin tunica mucosa) is a lining of mostly endodermal origin.

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In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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NFPA 704

"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Nucleophilic substitution

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a so-called leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Oil field

An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing at least one bond between a carbon atom of an organic compound and a metal.

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Paint thinner

A paint thinner is a solvent used to thin oil-based paints or clean up after their use.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Perchloric acid

Perchloric acid is an inorganic compound with the formula HClO4.

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Periodic acid

Periodic acid (pronounced per-iodic, rather than as in periodic table) is the highest oxoacid of iodine, in which the iodine exists in oxidation state VII.

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Peroxy acid

A peroxy acid (often spelled as one word, peroxyacid, and sometimes called peracid) is an acid which contains an acidic –OOH group.

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Peroxybenzoic acid

Peroxybenzoic acid is a simple peroxy acid.

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Pharmaceutical drug

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Phenethyl alcohol

Phenethyl alcohol, or 2-phenylethanol, is the organic compound that consists of a phenethyl group (C6H5CH2CH2) group attached to OH.

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Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation.

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The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.

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Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.

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Phosphorus pentachloride

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.

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Phosphorus trichloride

Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.

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Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or fluidity of a material.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fiber for engineering resins.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polysorbate 20

Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate surfactant whose stability and relative non-toxicity allows it to be used as a detergent and emulsifier in a number of domestic, scientific, and pharmacological applications.

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Potassium hydroxide

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula, a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid.

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Propene, also known as propylene or methylethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.

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Propylene oxide

Propylene oxide is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3CHCH2O.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema (American English), or oedema (British English; both words from the Greek οἴδημα), is fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs.

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Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.

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Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.

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Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen).

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Rectified spirit

Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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SABIC (Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation) (الشركة السعودية للصناعات الأساسية ، سابك) is a diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers, and metals.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Scrubber systems are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.

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Silica gel

Silica gel is a granular, vitreous, porous form of silicon dioxide made synthetically from sodium silicate.

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A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (άργυρος árguros, argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.

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Silver nitrate

Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.

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Silver oxide

Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the ''Lion City'', the ''Garden City'', and the ''Red Dot'', is a leading global city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound.

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Sodium iodide

Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is the salt of sodium and iodide.

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Sodium nitrite

Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, berry, bud or vegetable substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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Stripping (chemistry)

Stripping is a physical separation process where one or more components are removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream.

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Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.

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Subcutaneous injection

A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfur mustard

Mustard agent, or the sulphur mustards, commonly, but erroneously, known as mustard gas, is a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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Sulfuryl chloride

Sulfuryl chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula SO2Cl2.

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Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible.

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Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid.

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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.

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Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal decomposition

Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.

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Thermobaric weapon

A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that utilizes oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than a conventional condensed explosive.

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Thiirane, more commonly known as ethylene sulfide, is the cyclic chemical compound with the formula C2H4S.

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Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thiourea is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2.

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Tin(IV) chloride

Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride is a inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4.

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Titanium(II) chloride

Titanium(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula TiCl2.

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Titanium(III) chloride

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3.

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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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Triethylene glycol

Triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is a colorless odorless viscous liquid with molecular formula HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH.

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Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Union Carbide

Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.

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Unit operation

In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

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Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

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Vinyl alcohol

Vinyl alcohol, also called ethen-1-ol (IUPAC name), is an alcohol.

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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) commonly known by its old name of ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.

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1,3-Propanediol is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2OH)2.

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1,4-Dioxane, often simply called dioxane because the 1,2 and 1,3 isomers of dioxane are rare, is a heterocyclic organic compound.

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2-Butoxyethanol is an organic compound with the chemical formula BuOC2H4OH (Bu.

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2-Chloroethanol is an organochlorine compound with the formula HOCH2CH2Cl.

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Redirects here:

1,2-Epoxy ethane, 1,2-epoxyethane, Dimethylene oxide, Eo gas, Epoxyethane, Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene Oxide Residuals, Oxacyclopropane, Oxirane, Oxiranes, Oxycyclopropane.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene_oxide

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