283 relations: Abidjan, Académie française, Acadian French, Acadiana, Acute accent, Advertising, African French, Afroasiatic languages, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Algeria, Alliance Française, Amnesty International, Ancient Greek, Andorra, Aosta Valley, Aostan French, Arabic, Article (grammar), AZERTY, Baltic languages, Basque language, BBC News, Belgae, Belgian French, Belgium, Benin, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg News, Brady Haran, Breton language, Brussels, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cajun French, Caldoche, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Canadian French, Cantons of Switzerland, Catalan language, Cedilla, Celtic languages, Celts, Central African Republic, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chad, Channel Islands, Chinese language, Circumflex, ..., Classical Latin, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Comoros, Constitution of France, Contract, Council of Europe, De Morgen, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Demonstrative, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dictionary, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Djibouti, Dutch language, Eastern Ontario, Education, Elision (French), English language, Equatorial Guinea, Eupen-Malmedy, Eurobarometer, Europa (web portal), European Commission, European Space Agency, European Union, Eurovision Song Contest, Fall of Saigon, First language, Forbes, Français fondamental, France, Francien language, Francization, Francophile, Francophobia, Frankish language, Franks, French Braille, French Guiana, French Indochina, French language in Cambodia, French language in Laos, French language in the United States, French language in Vietnam, French Language Services Act, French orthography, French Polynesia, French proverbs, French Revolution, French West Indies, French-based creole languages, Gabon, Gallia Belgica, Gallo-Romance languages, Gaul, Gemination, Geneva, Geographical distribution of French speakers, German language, Germanic languages, Government of France, Grammatical gender, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Guadeloupe, Guinea, Haiti, Haitian Creole, Haitian French, Harvard University, Hiatus (linguistics), Illinois, Illinois Country, Imprimerie nationale, Indian French, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Court of Justice, International English, International New York Times, International Olympic Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Inversion (linguistics), Israel, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jersey, Jersey Legal French, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Language education, Languages of Africa, Languages of Asia, Langues d'oïl, Laos, Latin, Latin declension, Latin script, Laval University, Lebanon, Lesser Antilles, Liaison (French), Libreville, Lingua franca, List of English words of French origin, List of French expressions in English, List of French loanwords in Persian, List of international organisations which have French as an official language, List of territorial entities where French is an official language, Los Angeles Times, Louisiana, Louisiana Creole French, Louisiana French, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Maghrebi Jews, Maine, Mali, Manitoba, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, Meridional French, Metropolitan France, Middle Ages, Middle French, Minimal pair, Missouri, Missouri French, Monaco, Montreal, Morocco, N, Nasal vowel, NATO, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New England, New England French, New Hampshire, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland French, Niger, Nonprofit organization, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northern Ontario, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Octal, Official bilingualism in Canada, Official language, Old French, Ontario, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization of American States, Pacific Islands, Paris, Persian language, Petit Larousse, Philippe Van Parijs, Port au Port Peninsula, Portuguese language, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Quart, Aosta Valley, Quebec, Quebec French, Réunion, Register (sociolinguistics), Republic of the Congo, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romandy, Romanian language, Romansh language, Rwanda, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sanskrit, Schwa, Second language, Senegal, Set phrase, Seychelles, Signed French, Slavic languages, South Vietnam, Spanish language, Stratum (linguistics), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subject–verb–object, Swiss French, Switzerland, Syria, Tây Bồi Pidgin French, Togo, Trésor de la langue française, Treaty of Versailles, Tunisia, Typographic ligature, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Secretariat, United States, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Texas at Austin, Vanuatu, Vermont, Vietnam, Vigesimal, Voiced uvular fricative, Vulgar Latin, Wallis and Futuna, Wallonia, Welsh language, Western Romance languages, World language, World Trade Organization, World War II, Yukon, 20 (number). 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Abidjan is the economic capital of Ivory Coast and is the most populated West African French-speaking city.
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The Académie française, known in English as the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
Acadian French (français acadien) is a dialect of Canadian French.
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Acadiana, or The Heart of Acadiana (L'Acadiane), is the official name given to the French Louisiana region that is home to a large Francophone population.
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The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
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Advertising (or advertizing) is a form of marketing communication used to promote or sell something, usually a business's product or service.
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African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of French spoken by an estimated 120 million (2010) people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.
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Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).
The Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF) (Francophone University Association) is a global network of French-speaking higher-education and research institutions.
Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
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The Alliance Française (French Alliance), or AF, is an international organization that aims to promote French language and culture around the world.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.
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The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste / (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa) is a mountainous semi-autonomous region in northwestern Italy.
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Aostan French (français valdôtain) is the variety of French spoken in the Aosta Valley, Italy.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.
AZERTY is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards.
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The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family, and are spoken by the Balts.
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Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The Belgae were a large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel and the west bank of the Rhine, from at least the third century BC.
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Belgian French (français de Belgique) is the variety of French spoken mainly in the French Community of Belgium, alongside related minority regional languages such as Walloon, Picard, Champenois and Lorrain (Gaumais), as well as in the capital city of Brussels.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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Benin (or; Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
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Bloomberg Businessweek, known until 2010 as BusinessWeek, is a weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929, the magazine was created to provide information and interpretation about what was happening in the business world.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through the Bloomberg terminal, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
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Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian independent film-maker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and for his YouTube channels, such as Numberphile and Periodic Videos.
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Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.
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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the city of Brussels which de jure is the capital of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, and the Flemish Community.
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Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa around in size.
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Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
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Cajun French (français cadien/français cadjin) (commonly called Louisiana Regional French, and related to but distinct from the historical Colonial, or Plantation Society, French), Tulane University.
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Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French overseas collectivity of New Caledonia, mostly native-born French settlers.
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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Canadian French (français canadien) is the various varieties of French spoken in Canada.
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The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
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A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
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The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The French National Centre for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
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The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (French: Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France located in the Caribbean.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
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The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
In law, a contract (or informally known as an agreement in some jurisdictions) is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them.
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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.
De Morgen (Dutch for The Morning) is a Flemish newspaper with a circulation of 53,860.
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The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, RDC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply Congo is a country located in Central Africa.
Demonstratives are words like this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
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The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the trema or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.
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A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), with usage of information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, translation, and other information;Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 2002 or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.
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A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
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Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
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Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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Eastern Ontario (census population 1,603,625 in 2006) is a subregion of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River.
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Education is the process of facilitating learning.
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In French, elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel (usually) immediately before another word beginning with a vowel.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Eupen-Malmedy or Eupen-Malmédy, also known as the East Cantons (Ostkantone; Cantons de l'Est; Oostkantons) within Belgium, is a geographical area and group of cantons in eastern Belgium.
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Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
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Europa (sometimes capitalised EUROPA) is the official web portal of the European Union (EU).
The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often shortened to ESC or Eurovision, is the longest running annual TV song competition held, primarily, among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) since 1956.
The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People’s Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on April 30, 1975.
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A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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Forbes is an American business magazine owned by Forbes, Inc.
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Français fondamental ("Fundamental French") is a simplified version of the French language used for teaching the language to non-native speakers.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Francien is a nineteenth-century linguist term applied to the particular langue d'oïl that was spoken in the Île-de-France region (with Paris at its centre) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced or desired by the concerned population.
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A Francophile (gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards the French language, French history, French culture or french people.
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Anti-French sentiment or Francophobia refers to a dislike or hatred toward France, the People of France, the Government of France, or the Francophonie (set of political entities that use French as an official language or whose French-speaking population is numerically or proportionally large).
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Frankish (also Old Franconian or Old Frankish) was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others.
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French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane française), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America.
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French Indo-China (now commonly known as French Indochina) (Indochine française; សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន.; Đông Dương thuộc Pháp,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Lao: ຝຣັ່ງແຫຼັມອິນດູຈີນ), officially known as the Indo-Chinese Union (Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indo-Chinese Federation (Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
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Cambodia is the smallest of the three Francophone communities in Southeast Asia, the others being found in Vietnam and Laos.
French is spoken by a significant minority in Laos.
The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.
French was the official language of Vietnam from the beginning of French colonial rule in the mid-19th century until independence under the Geneva Accords of 1954, and maintained de facto official status in South Vietnam until its collapse in 1975.
The French Language Services Act (Loi sur les services en français) is a law in the province of Ontario, Canada which is intended to protect the rights of Franco-Ontarians, or French-speaking people, in the province.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
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Category:Temporary maintenance holdings.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
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Gallia Belgica (Belgic Gaul) was a province of the Roman empire located in Belgium, present-day northern France, Luxembourg, part of the present-day Netherlands below the Rhine, and the German Rhineland.
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The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes French and the languages of northern Italy.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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In phonetics, gemination or consonant elongation happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.
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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
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This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in the French Republic.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark used in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, French, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Macedonian, Mohawk, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh and Yoruba.
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Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department, located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
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Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country in West Africa.
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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti, is a country in the western hemisphere, and is located on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean.
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Haitian Creole (kreyòl,; créole haïtien; often called simply Creole or Kreyòl) is a French-based creole and is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French.
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Haitian French (français haïtien, Haitian Creole: fransè ayisyen) is the variety of French spoken in Haiti.
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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.
In phonology, hiatus ("gaping") or diaeresis (or, from Ancient Greek διαίρεσις diaíresis "division") refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern United States.
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The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois)—sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (Haute-Louisiane)—was a region in what is now the Midwestern United States.
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The Imprimerie nationale is the official printing works of the French government, in succession to the Manufacture royale d'imprimerie founded by Cardinal Richelieu.
Indian French (français indien) is a dialect of French spoken by Indians in the former colonies of Puducherry and Chandannagar.
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Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE), pronounced is in France the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language.
The International New York Times is an English language international newspaper.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
In linguistics, inversion is any of several grammatical constructions where two expressions switch their canonical order of appearance, that is, they invert.
Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family originally spoken by Italic peoples.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (République de Côte d'Ivoire), is a country in West Africa.
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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a possession of the Crown in right of Jersey, off the coast of Normandy, France.
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Jersey Legal French, also known as Jersey French (français de jersey), is the official dialect of French used administratively in Jersey.
The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Dutch for Catholic University of Leuven, but usually not translated into English), also known as KU Leuven or University of Leuven, is a Dutch-speaking university in Leuven, Flanders, Belgium.
Language education is the teaching and learning of a foreign or second language.
There are 1,250 to 2,100 and by some counts over 3,000 languages spoken natively in Africa, in several major language families.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and some unrelated isolates.
The langues d'oïl (French), or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui), are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken today in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
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Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined (i.e. their endings alter to show grammatical case).
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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Laval University (Université Laval) is the oldest centre of education in Canada (2nd oldest in North America), and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French.
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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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The Lesser Antilles (also known as the Caribbees) is the name given to a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
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Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
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Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in west central Africa.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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A great number of words of French origin have entered the English language to the extent that many Latin words have come to the English language.
English contains many words of French origin, such as art, competition, force, machine, money, police, publicity, role, routine, table, and many other anglicized French words.
French and Persian are both Indo-European languages and share many common words between them.
List of international organizations which have French as an official, administrative or working language.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881.
Louisiana (or; État de Louisiane,; Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States.
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Louisiana Creole (kréyol la lwizyàn; French: créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by some of the Creole people of the state of Louisiana.
Louisiana French (français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn) refers to the group of French dialects spoken in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and formerly elsewhere in colonial Lower Louisiana.
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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Madagascar (or; Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa.
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Maghrebi Jews (in Hebrew Maghrebim or) are Jews, who traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa (al-Maghrib, Arabic for "the west") during the Middle Ages.
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Maine (État du Maine) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south; New Hampshire to the west; and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast.
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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa.
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Manitoba is a province located at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
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Martinique is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 386,486 inhabitants (as of January 2013).
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Mauritania (موريتانيا; Berber: Muritanya or Agawej; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa.
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Mauritius (Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
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Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an overseas department and region of France officially named Département de Mayotte.
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Médecins du Monde (MdM) or Doctors of the World, is an international humanitarian non-profit organization that provides emergency and long-term medical care to vulnerable populations while advocating for equal access to healthcare worldwide.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (pronounced), or Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic diseases.
Meridional French (français méridional), is a regional variant of the French language.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe.
In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle French (moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611.
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In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
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Missouri (see pronunciations) is a state located in the Midwestern United States.
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Missouri French (français du Missouri), also known as Illinois Country French and is nicknamed "Paw-Paw French" or as said in the dialect, la française assimine, is a nearly extinct variety of the French language formerly spoken in the upper Mississippi River Valley in the Midwestern United States, particularly in eastern Missouri.
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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
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Montreal (Montréal) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec.
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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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N (named en) is the 14th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick;, Quebec French pronunciation) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province constitutionally bilingual (English–French).
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New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
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New England is a region which comprises six states of the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
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New England French (français de nouvelle-angleterre) is a variety of Canadian French spoken in the New England region of the United States.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
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Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River.
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A nonprofit organization (NPO, also known as a non-business entity) is an organization that uses its surplus revenues to further achieve its purpose or mission, rather than distributing its surplus income to the organization's directors (or equivalents) as profit or dividends.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Northern Ontario is a geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario.
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The Northwest Territories (NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO) is a territory of Canada.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland", pronounced in English as) (French: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and constitutes one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces.
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Nunavut (from Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the largest, northernmost, newest, and least populous territory of Canada.
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The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
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The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.
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Ontario is one of the ten provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada.
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The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers); and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Pacific Islands comprise 20,000 to 30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.
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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Le Petit Larousse Illustré, commonly known simply as Le Petit Larousse, is a French-language encyclopedic dictionary published by Éditions Larousse.
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Philippe Van Parijs (born 23 May 1951) is a left-libertarian Belgian philosopher and political economist, mainly known as a proponent and main defender of the basic income concept and for the first systematic treatment of linguistic justice.
The Port au Port Peninsula (Péninsule de Port-au-Port) is a peninsula in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
In sociolinguistics, prestige is the level of respect normally accorded to a specific language or dialect within a particular speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Quart is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy.
Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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Quebec French (Livres.) or Québécois French is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.
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Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is a French island located in the Indian Ocean.
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In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as Congo Republic, West Congo, or Congo-Brazzaville, is a country located in Central Africa.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romandy (Romandie)Before the First World War, the term French Switzerland (Suisse française) was. is the French-speaking parts of western Switzerland. In 2010 about 1.9 million people, or 24.4% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.
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Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction of schools in Romansh-speaking areas.
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Rwanda (or; U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in central and east Africa.
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Saint-Barthélemy (Saint-Barthélemy), officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), is an overseas collectivity of France.
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Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon) is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near Canada.
Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (sometimes spelled shwa) refers to the mid-central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
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A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
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Senegal (le Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
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A set phrase or fixed phrase is a phrase whose parts are fixed in a certain order, even if the phrase could be changed without harming the literal meaning.
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Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago in the Indian Ocean.
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Signed French (Français Signé), is any of at least three manually coded forms of French that apply the words (signs) of a national sign language to French word order or grammar.
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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.
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South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), governed the southern half of Vietnam until 1975.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Swiss French (suisse romand.) is the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandie.
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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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Tây Bồi, or Vietnamese Pidgin French, was a pidgin spoken by non-French-educated Vietnamese, typically those who worked as servants in French households or milieux during the colonial era.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
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Le trésor de la langue française: dictionnaire de la langue du XIXe et du XXe siècle (1789–1960) (TLF) is a 16-volume dictionary of 19th- and 20th-century French published by the Centre de Recherche pour un Trésor de la Langue Française from 1971 to 1994.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
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In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United Nations Secretariat (French: le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The Université catholique de Louvain (UCL, French for Catholic University of Louvain, but usually not translated into English) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.
The University of Texas at Austin, informally UT Austin, UT, University of Texas, or Texas in sports contexts, is a public research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is an Oceanian island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
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Vermont (locally) is a New England state in the northeastern United States.
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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten).
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The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.
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Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (and; Wallis et Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Rotuma of Fiji to the west, the main part of Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, the New Zealand territory of Tokelau to the northeast and to a more distant north the Phoenix Islands (Kiribati).
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Dutch: Wallonië, Walonreye; Wallounesch) is the predominantly French-speaking southern region of Belgium.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
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The Western Romance languages are one of the primary subdivisions of the Romance languages.
A world language is a language spoken internationally and that is learned by many people as a second language.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three federal territories.
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20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21.
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Franca lingvo, France language, Francese, Francophone, Franska, Français (language), French (langauge), French (language), French Language, French Language in India, French Words and Phrases, French gaelic, French l, French languge, French speaking, French vocabulary, French word, French words, French words and phrases, French-language, French-speaking, FrenchLanguage, ISO 639:fr, ISO 639:fra, Idioma francés, La langue française, Langue francaise, Langue française, LangueFrancaise, Modern French.