Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Download
Faster access than browser!
And Ads-free!

G2 phase

G2 phase, or pre-mitotic phase, is the third and final subphase of Interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding Mitosis. [1]

63 relations: African clawed frog, AP-1 transcription factor, Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated, Biochemical switches in the cell cycle, C-terminus, Cancer, Cdc25, Cdc6, Cdr2 (S. pombe), Cell cycle, Cell nucleus, Centrosome, CHEK1, CHEK2, Chromatin, Chromosome, Consensus sequence, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, Cyclin B2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cytoplasm, DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, Drosophila, ETS transcription factor family, Extracellular signal-regulated kinases, G1 phase, Gadd45, Gene regulatory network, Histone H1, Homology (biology), Hysteresis, Interphase, Kinase, Lamin, Maturation promoting factor, Microtubule-associated protein, Mitosis, Myc, Nuclear export signal, P21, P53, Phosphatase, PLK1, Positive feedback, Promoter (genetics), ..., Prophase, Protein, Protein domain, Protein isoform, S phase, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Serine, Stratifin, TFE3, Transcription factor, Vertebrate, Wee1, Xenopus. Expand index (13 more) »

African clawed frog

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the Pipidae family.

New!!: G2 phase and African clawed frog · See more »

AP-1 transcription factor

In the field of molecular biology, the activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor which is a heterodimeric protein composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families.

New!!: G2 phase and AP-1 transcription factor · See more »

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related

Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR also known as ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) or FRAP-related protein 1 (FRP1) is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the ATR gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related · See more »

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.

New!!: G2 phase and Ataxia telangiectasia mutated · See more »

Biochemical switches in the cell cycle

A series of biochemical switches control transitions between and within the various phases of the cell cycle.

New!!: G2 phase and Biochemical switches in the cell cycle · See more »

C-terminus

The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

New!!: G2 phase and C-terminus · See more »

Cancer

Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

New!!: G2 phase and Cancer · See more »

Cdc25

Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant.

New!!: G2 phase and Cdc25 · See more »

Cdc6

Cdc6, or cell division cycle 6, is a protein in eukaryotic cells that is studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

New!!: G2 phase and Cdc6 · See more »

Cdr2 (S. pombe)

Cdr2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase mitotic regulator in the fission yeast S. pombe.

New!!: G2 phase and Cdr2 (S. pombe) · See more »

Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.

New!!: G2 phase and Cell cycle · See more »

Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

New!!: G2 phase and Cell nucleus · See more »

Centrosome

In cell biology, the centrosome (Latin centrum 'center' + Greek sōma 'body') is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression.

New!!: G2 phase and Centrosome · See more »

CHEK1

Checkpoint kinase 1, commonly referred to as Chk1 is an Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that in humans, is encoded by the CHEK1 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and CHEK1 · See more »

CHEK2

CHEK2 is the official symbol for the human gene Checkpoint kinase 2.

New!!: G2 phase and CHEK2 · See more »

Chromatin

Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein and RNA.

New!!: G2 phase and Chromatin · See more »

Chromosome

A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

New!!: G2 phase and Chromosome · See more »

Consensus sequence

In molecular biology and bioinformatics, the consensus sequence is the calculated order of most frequent residues, either nucleotide or amino acid, found at each position in a sequence alignment.

New!!: G2 phase and Consensus sequence · See more »

Cyclin A2

Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Cyclin A2 · See more »

Cyclin B1

G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB1 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Cyclin B1 · See more »

Cyclin B2

G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNB2 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Cyclin B2 · See more »

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation.

New!!: G2 phase and Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 · See more »

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 · See more »

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

New!!: G2 phase and Cytoplasm · See more »

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

New!!: G2 phase and DNA · See more »

DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

New!!: G2 phase and DNA repair · See more »

DNA replication

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

New!!: G2 phase and DNA replication · See more »

Drosophila

Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

New!!: G2 phase and Drosophila · See more »

ETS transcription factor family

In the field of molecular biology, the ETS (E26 transformation-specific or E-twenty-six) family is one of the largest families of transcription factors and is unique to metazoans.

New!!: G2 phase and ETS transcription factor family · See more »

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases

In molecular biology, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.

New!!: G2 phase and Extracellular signal-regulated kinases · See more »

G1 phase

The G1 phase, or Growth 1/Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division.

New!!: G2 phase and G1 phase · See more »

Gadd45

The Growth Arrest and DNA Damage or gadd45 genes, including GADD45A (originally termed gadd45) GADD45B (originally termed MyD118), and GADD45G (originally termed CR6), are implicated as stress sensors that modulate the response of mammalian cells to genotoxic/physiological stress, and modulate tumor formation.

New!!: G2 phase and Gadd45 · See more »

Gene regulatory network

A gene regulatory network or genetic regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.

New!!: G2 phase and Gene regulatory network · See more »

Histone H1

Histone H1 is one of the five main histone protein families which are components of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.

New!!: G2 phase and Histone H1 · See more »

Homology (biology)

In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species.

New!!: G2 phase and Homology (biology) · See more »

Hysteresis

Hysteresis is the time-based dependence of a system's output on present and past inputs.

New!!: G2 phase and Hysteresis · See more »

Interphase

Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.

New!!: G2 phase and Interphase · See more »

Kinase

In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

New!!: G2 phase and Kinase · See more »

Lamin

Nuclear lamins (not to be confused with laminins), also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus.

New!!: G2 phase and Lamin · See more »

Maturation promoting factor

Maturation-promoting factor (abbreviated MPF, also called mitosis-promoting factor or M-Phase-promoting factor) is the cyclin-Cdk complex that was discovered first in frog eggs.

New!!: G2 phase and Maturation promoting factor · See more »

Microtubule-associated protein

In cell biology, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with the microtubules of the cellular cytoskeleton.

New!!: G2 phase and Microtubule-associated protein · See more »

Mitosis

Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus.

New!!: G2 phase and Mitosis · See more »

Myc

Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor.

New!!: G2 phase and Myc · See more »

Nuclear export signal

A nuclear export signal (NES) is a short amino acid sequence of 4 hydrophobic residues in a protein that targets it for export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex using nuclear transport.

New!!: G2 phase and Nuclear export signal · See more »

P21

p21Cip1 (alternatively p21Waf1), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that inhibits the complexes of CDK2 and CDK1.

New!!: G2 phase and P21 · See more »

P53

Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

New!!: G2 phase and P53 · See more »

Phosphatase

A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group (see dephosphorylation).

New!!: G2 phase and Phosphatase · See more »

PLK1

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1, also known as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) or serine/threonine-protein kinase 13 (STPK13), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) gene.

New!!: G2 phase and PLK1 · See more »

Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

New!!: G2 phase and Positive feedback · See more »

Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Promoter (genetics) · See more »

Prophase

Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage"), is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rod-shaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible.

New!!: G2 phase and Prophase · See more »

Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

New!!: G2 phase and Protein · See more »

Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

New!!: G2 phase and Protein domain · See more »

Protein isoform

A protein isoform is any of several different forms of the same protein.

New!!: G2 phase and Protein isoform · See more »

S phase

S-phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.

New!!: G2 phase and S phase · See more »

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.

New!!: G2 phase and Schizosaccharomyces pombe · See more »

Serine

Serine (abbreviated as Ser or S) is an amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OH.

New!!: G2 phase and Serine · See more »

Stratifin

14-3-3 protein sigma, or 14-3-3σ protein is a protein that is in humans and is encoded by the SFN gene.

New!!: G2 phase and Stratifin · See more »

TFE3

Transcription factor E3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFE3 gene.

New!!: G2 phase and TFE3 · See more »

Transcription factor

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA.

New!!: G2 phase and Transcription factor · See more »

Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

New!!: G2 phase and Vertebrate · See more »

Wee1

Wee1 is a nuclear kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe).

New!!: G2 phase and Wee1 · See more »

Xenopus

Xenopus (Gk., ξενος, xenos.

New!!: G2 phase and Xenopus · See more »

Redirects here:

G2 (growth), G2 phase of the cell cycle, G2 stage, Pre-mitotic phase, Second gap, Second gap phase.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G2_phase

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »