119 relations: Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, Arthur Jensen, Assortative mating, Big Five personality traits, Brain size, Candidate gene, Cattell Culture Fair III, Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, Central limit theorem, Central nervous system, Charles Spearman, Coefficient of determination, Cognition, Cognitive epidemiology, Cognitive psychology, Common-method variance, Confirmatory factor analysis, Congruence coefficient, Conservation (psychology), Correction for attenuation, Correlation and dependence, Creativity, Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system, David Wechsler, Deductive reasoning, Distillation, Dominance (genetics), East Germany, Educational Psychology Review, Edward Thorndike, Electroencephalography, Event-related potential, Evolution of human intelligence, Factor analysis, Falsifiability, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Flynn effect, Francis Galton, Frontal lobe, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, General Certificate of Secondary Education, Genetic correlation, Genetic disorder, Genetic load, Genetics, Godfrey Thomson, Grey matter, Habit, Height and intelligence, Herbert Spencer, ..., Heritability of IQ, Heterosis, Hippocampus, House mouse, Howard Gardner, Inbreeding depression, India, Inductive reasoning, Innovation, Intellectual disability, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, J. P. Guilford, Japan, Jean Piaget, John Bissell Carroll, John L. Horn, Lesion, Level of measurement, Louis Leon Thurstone, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malleability of intelligence, Mental chronometry, Molecular genetics, Moscow, Mutation–selection balance, Myopia, Nathan Brody, Nerve conduction velocity, Neurology, Normal distribution, Normalization (statistics), Novelty, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Parietal lobe, Personality, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Primate, Principal component analysis, Psychometrics, Quantitative genetics, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Raymond Cattell, Reification (fallacy), Robert L. Thorndike, Robert Sternberg, Rote learning, Russia, Sampling error, SAT, Self-efficacy, Social learning, Spearman's hypothesis, Statistical dispersion, Stephen Jay Gould, Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth, Tautology (logic), Temporal lobe, The Mismeasure of Man, Theory of multiple intelligences, Three-stratum theory, Time, United States, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Western Europe, White matter, Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Working memory. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is a multiple choice test, administered by the United States Military Entrance Processing Command, used to determine qualification for enlistment in the United States Armed Forces.
Arthur Robert Jensen (August 24, 1923 – October 22, 2012) was a professor of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality, otherwise described as the five-factor model (FFM).
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
The candidate gene approach to conducting genetic association studies focuses on associations between genetic variation within pre-specified genes of interest and phenotypes or disease states.
The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) was constructed by Raymond B. Cattell, PhD, DSc in an attempt to produce a measure of cognitive abilities that accurately estimated intelligence devoid of sociocultural and environmental influences.
The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, or CHC theory, is a psychological theory of human cognitive abilities that takes its name from Raymond Cattell, John L. Horn and John Bissell Carroll.
In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) states that, given certain conditions, the arithmetic mean of a sufficiently large number of iterates of independent random variables, each with a well-defined expected value and well-defined variance, will be approximately normally distributed, regardless of the underlying distribution.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Edward Spearman, FRS (10 September 1863 – 17 September 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.
In statistics, the coefficient of determination, denoted R2 or r2 and pronounced R squared, is a number that indicates how well data fit a statistical model – sometimes simply a line or a curve.
Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.
Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted ''g''-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking." Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.
In applied statistics, (e.g., applied to the social sciences and psychometrics), common-method variance (CMV) is the spurious "variance that is attributable to the measurement method rather than to the constructs the measures are assumed to represent" or equivalently as "systematic error variance shared among variables measured with and introduced as a function of the same method and/or source".
In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis, most commonly used in social research.
In multivariate statistics, the congruence coefficient is an index of the similarity between factors that have been derived in a factor analysis.
Conservation refers to a logical thinking ability which, according to the psychologist Jean Piaget, is present in children during the preoperational stage of their development at ages 4–5, but develops in the concrete operational stage at ages 7–11.
Correction for attenuation is a statistical procedure, due to Spearman (1904), to "rid a correlation coefficient from the weakening effect of measurement error" (Jensen, 1998), a phenomenon also known as regression dilution.
In statistics, dependence is any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
The Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system (CAS) test is an individually administered test of cognitive functioning for children and adolescents ranging from 5 through 17 years of age that was designed to assess the planning, attention, simultaneous and successive cognitive processes as described in the.
David "Wex" Wechsler (January 12, 1896 – May 2, 1981) was a leading American psychologist.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Educational Psychology Review is a peer reviewed academic journal on the topic of educational psychology started in 1989, published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically a non-invasive (however invasive electrodes are often used in specific applications) method to record electrical activity of the brain along the scalp.
An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.
The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
Falsifiability or refutability of a statement, hypothesis, or theory is an inherent possibility to prove it to be false.
In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (respectively abbreviated Gf and Gc) are factors of general intelligence, originally identified by Raymond Cattell.
The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day.
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist and psychometrician.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academically rigorous, internationally recognised qualification awarded in a specified subject, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over two years (three years in certain schools).
Genetic correlation is the proportion of variance that two traits share due to genetic causes.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).
Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of the theoretically optimal genotype and the fitness of the observed average genotype in a population.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.
Sir Godfrey Hilton Thomson (1881–1955) was an English educational psychologist known as a critical pioneer in intelligence research.
Grey matter or gray matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously.
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Several epidemiological studies have shown a weak but statistically significant positive correlation between height and intelligence in human populations.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Research on heritability of IQ infers from the similarity of IQ in closely related persons the proportion of variance of IQ among individuals in a study population that is associated with genetic variation within that population.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion.
Innovation is a new idea, more effective device or process.
Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Joy Paul Guilford (March 7, 1897 in Marquette, Nebraska – November 26, 1987 in Los Angeles) was a United States psychologist, best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production.
Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children.
John Bissell Carroll (June 5, 1916 – July 1, 2003) was an American psychologist known for his contributions to psychology, educational linguistics and psychometrics.
John L. Horn (1929–2006) was a scholar, cognitive psychologist and a pioneer in developing theories of multiple intelligence.
A lesion is any abnormality in the tissue of an organism (in layman's terms, "damage"), usually caused by disease or trauma.
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Level of measurement (or scale of measure) is a classification that describes the nature of information within the numbers assigned to variables.
Louis Leon Thurstone (29 May 1887 – 30 September 1955) was a U.S. pioneer in the fields of psychometrics and psychophysics.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.
Malleability of intelligence describes the processes by which human intelligence may be augmented through changes in neuroplasticity.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology and genetics that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level.
Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.
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Mutation–selection balance is an equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that occurs when the rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutation equals the rate at which deleterious alleles are eliminated by selection.
Myopia, also known as near-sightedness and short-sightedness, is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it, causing the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when looking at a close object.
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Nathan Brody is an American psychology professor Emeritus known for his work on intelligence and personality.
Nerve conduction velocity is an important aspect of nerve conduction studies.
Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
In statistics and applications of statistics, normalization can have a range of meanings.
Novelty (derived from Latin word novus for "new") is the quality of being new, or following from that, of being striking, original or unusual.
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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Personality has to do with individual differences among people in behaviour patterns, cognition and emotion.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings.
Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure and his exploration of many areas within empirical psychology.
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete, real event, or physical entity.
Robert Ladd Thorndike (1910–1990) was a psychometrician and educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the analysis of reliability, the interpretation of error, cognitive pen pene of students in various countries.
Robert Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist and psychometrician.
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.
Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population.
The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
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Self-efficacy is the extent or strength of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals.
Social learning may refer to.
Spearman's hypothesis has two formulations.
In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) denotes how stretched or squeezed a distribution (theoretical or that underlying a statistical sample) is.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science.
The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) is a prospective longitudinal survey study of persons (mostly in the United States) identified by scores of 700 or higher on a section of the SAT Reasoning Test before age 13 years.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula that is true in every possible interpretation.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The Mismeasure of Man is a 1981 book by evolutionary biologist, paleontologist, and historian of science Stephen Jay Gould,Gould, S. J. (1981).
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
The three-stratum theory is a theory of cognitive ability proposed by the American psychologist John Carroll in 1993.
Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
White matter is a component of the central nervous system, in the brain and superficial spinal cord, and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.
The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests first developed in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson.
Working memory is the system responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already-stored information, and is an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating.
G (psychology), G intelligence, G loaded, G loading, G-loaded, General Mental Ability, General ability, General cognitive ability, General factor, General intellectual ability, General intelligence, General intelligence (factor), General intelligence factor, General mental ability, Psychometric g, Psychometric intelligence, Spearman's G, Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, Spearman's law of diminishing returns.