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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. [1]

1175 relations: A. R. Penck, Aachen Cathedral, Abdication, Abitur, Academic Ranking of World Universities, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Academy Awards, Action T4, ADAC, Adidas, Administrative law, Adolf Hitler, Advent wreath, Aerospace engineering, Afghanistan, Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Ahmadiyya, Air Berlin, Albert Einstein, Albrecht Dürer, Alemanni, Alevism, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Alliance '90/The Greens, Allianz, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Alphaville (band), Alps, Altstadt, Analytic philosophy, Ancestor, Ancient Germanic law, Andreas Gursky, Angela Merkel, Animals United, Anno (series), Anschluss, Anselm Kiefer, Arable land, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, ARD (broadcaster), Aris Kalaizis, Arminius, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Art Cologne, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Art of Europe, ..., Arthur Schopenhauer, Article 48 (Weimar Constitution), Asam brothers, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Atheism, Atlanticism, Audi, Augustus, Austrasia, Austria-Hungary, Austria–Prussia rivalry, Austrian Empire, Austro-Prussian War, Autobahn, Automotive industry in Germany, Axel Springer SE, Axis powers, Babelsberg Studio, Baden-Württemberg, Balthasar Neumann, Baltic Sea, Balts, Bamberg, Baroque, Baroque architecture, Baroque music, BASF, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basketball Bundesliga, Battle of Belgium, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Britain, Battle of France, Battle of Greece, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Netherlands, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Bauhaus, Bavaria, Bavarian Council Republic, Bavarian cuisine, Bavarian Forest National Park, Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, BBC, Beatsteaks, Beer in Germany, Behnisch Architekten, Benevolent neutrality, Berchtesgaden National Park, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Berlin, Berlin Biennale, Berlin Conference, Berlin Fashion Week, Berlin International Film Festival, Berlin Schönefeld Airport, Berlin Tegel 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Christa Wolf, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christianity, Christmas tree, Christoph Kohl (architect), Cinema of Germany, City (band), City-state, Civil and political rights, Civil law (legal system), Classical antiquity, Classical period (music), Classicism, Claudia Schiffer, Cloud Atlas (film), Cold War, Cologne, Cologne Bonn Airport, Cologne Cathedral, Cologne War, Comecon, Commercial broadcasting, Communism, Communist propaganda, Comprehensive school, Compulsory education, Conceptual art, Concert of Europe, Confederation of the Rhine, Congress of Vienna, Conscription in Germany, Conurbation, Crysis, Crytek, Cuius regio, eius religio, Culture of Germany, Currywurst, Czech Republic, Dachau concentration camp, Daimler AG, Danes, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, Danish language, Danube, Das Boot, David Hilbert, Dawes Plan, DAX, Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Airport, Death of Adolf Hitler, Deep Silver, Democratization of knowledge, Denglisch, Denmark, Der Blaue Reiter, Der Spiegel, Der Untertan (film), Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Post, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Deutsche Telekom, Deutsche Welle, Deutscher Filmpreis, Deutscher Werkbund, Deutsches Wörterbuch, Deutschlandlied, Deutschlandradio, Developed country, DHL Express, Diane Kruger, Die Ärzte, Die Brücke, Die Toten Hosen, Die Welt, Die Wende, Die Zeit, Dieter Rams, Dieterich Buxtehude, Direct election, Districts of Germany, Divided Heaven (film), Documenta, Dominikus Böhm, Dominikus Zimmermann, Doner kebab, Dortmund, Dresden, Dresden Frauenkirche, Dual Alliance (1879), Dual education system, Duisburg, Dutch language, E.ON, East Francia, East Germanic languages, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Economic miracle, Economy of Germany, Ecoregion, Eider (river), Elbe, Electorate of Cologne, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronic music, Enabling Act of 1933, Energy conservation, Energy transition in Germany, Environmental technology, Equestrianism, Erfurt, Erich Mendelsohn, Escada, Essen, 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W. Murnau, Far Cry, Fashion, Federal Administrative Court of Germany, Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, Federal Convention (Germany), Federal Court of Justice of Germany, Federal Finance Court of Germany, Federal Labour Court of Germany, Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany), Federal republic, Federal Research Division, Federal Social Court of Germany, Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Federalism, Federation, Felix Klein, Felix Mendelssohn, Ferdinand Cohn, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Fernsehturm Berlin, Feuchtmayer, FIFA Manager, FIFA World Cup, Film festival, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Floral emblem, Focus (German magazine), Football in Germany, Foreign Office (Germany), Former eastern territories of Germany, Fortune Global 500, France–Germany relations, Francia, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Franco-Prussian War, Frank Beyer, Frankfurt, Frankfurt Airport, Frankfurt Book Fair, Frankfurt School, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Franks, Franz Iffland, Franz Marc, Fraunhofer Society, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free imperial city, Frei Otto, Freiburg im Breisgau, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Revolutionary Wars, French Third Republic, Friedrich Ebert, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Frisian languages, Frisians, Frisii, Fritz Lang, Fritz Schumacher (architect), Fusion power, G-20 major economies, G8 (forum), Gameforge, Gamescom, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gastarbeiter, Gaul, Günter Grass, Geiger counter, Georg Baselitz, Georg Hermann Nicolai, Georg Hirth, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Frideric Handel, Gerhard Richter, Gerhard Schröder, Gerhart Hauptmann, Gerkan, Marg and Partners, German Aerospace Center, German Air Force, German American, German Argentine, German Army, German art, German Avenue Road, German Brazilian, German casualties in World War II, German Confederation, German cuisine, German dialects, German East Africa, German Empire, German Expressionism, German federal election, 1930, German federal election, 1998, German federal election, 2005, German federal election, July 1932, German folklore, German Football Association, German idealism, German Instrument of Surrender, German language, German literature, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German Navy, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, German Open Tennis Championships, German order of precedence, German philosophy, German punk, German Question, German Red Cross, German referendum, 1933, German Rentenmark, German reunification, German Revolution of 1918–19, German revolutions of 1848–49, German rock, German South-West Africa, German Timber-Frame Road, German Unity Day, German wine, German Wine Route, German-occupied Europe, Germania, Germania (book), Germanic peoples, Germans, Germany at the Olympics, Germany men's national volleyball team, Germany national football team, GfK, Golden Bear, Golden Bull of 1356, Golden Twenties, Good Bye, Lenin!, Goodgame Studios, Gothic (series), Gottfried Böhm, Gottfried Semper, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Gottlieb Daimler, Gottlob Frege, Grand coalition (Germany), Gründerzeit, Great Depression, Great Famine of 1315–17, Great power, Greek cuisine, Greifswald, Gulf Stream, Gymnasium (school), HA Schult, Habsburg Monarchy, Hainich National Park, Hajo Holborn, Hambach Festival, Hamburg, Hamburg Airport, Handball-Bundesliga, Hanne Darboven, Hanover, Hanover school of architecture, Hans Geiger, Hans Haacke, Hans Holbein the Elder, Hans Holbein the Younger, Hans Kollhoff, Hans Zimmer, Hans-Peter Feldmann, Hanseatic League, Harz National Park, Hauptschule, Head of government, Head of state, Head-On (film), Health system, Healthcare in Germany, Heavy metal music, Heidelberg Castle, Heidelberg University, Heidi Klum, Heimatfilm, Heinrich Böll, Heinrich Brüning, Heinrich Hertz, Helene Fischer, Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Helmut Jahn, Herbert Marcuse, Heresy, Hermann Hesse, Hermann Muthesius, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermann Weyl, Hesse, Hidden champions, High-speed rail, Hildegard Knef, Hinduism, Historicism (art), History of Burgundy, History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe, History of Germany, History of the Jews in Germany, HIV/AIDS, Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House music, House of Habsburg, House of Hohenzollern, Hugo Boss, Hugo Junkers, Huns, Hydroelectricity, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Ice hockey in Germany, Ich bin ein Berliner, Immanuel Kant, Immigration to Germany, Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Reform, Imperial State, Impressionism, Index of Germany-related articles, Indian cuisine, Indie rock, Industry 4.0, Infant mortality, Information technology, Informatization, Inquisitorial system, Intercity-Express, International Monetary Fund, International Security Assistance Force, International Transport Forum, Invasion of Luxembourg, Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Investiture Controversy, Iranian peoples, Iron Curtain, Irreligion, Irreligion in Germany, Islam in Germany, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian city-states, Jack Wolfskin, Jacob the Liar (1975 film), Jasmund National Park, Jörg Immendorff, Jürgen Habermas, Jürgen Mayer-Hermann, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Jil Sander, Joachim Gauck, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Friedrich Höger, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Michael Feuchtmayer, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Brahms, Johannes Gutenberg, John F. Kennedy, Joint Medical Service (Germany), Joint Support Service (Germany), Josef von Sternberg, Joseph Beuys, Joseph Stalin, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Judaism, Judicial review, Julia Stegner, Julius Caesar, Jurek Becker, Kalypso Media, Kapp Putsch, Karl Benz, Karl Lagerfeld, Karl Marx, Karl Weierstrass, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Katja Ebstein, Köppen climate classification, Keimzeit, Kiel, Kindergarten, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Prussia, Kjell Espmark, Klemens von Metternich, Knowledge economy, Kommando Spezialkräfte, Konrad Adenauer, Konrad Wolf, Konrad Zuse, Kosovo, Kosovo War, Kraftwerk, Kurdish languages, Kyoto Protocol, Lake Constance, Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, Languages of the Balkans, Latin, Lay judge, Lübeck, Lüneburg Heath, Legislature, Leipzig Book Fair, Leipzig University, Leipzig/Halle Airport, Leni Riefenstahl, Leopold Mozart, Lexicon, Liberalism in Germany, Library of Congress, Lignite, Limes Germanicus, Lion-man, List of attendance figures at domestic professional sports leagues, List of cities and towns in Germany, List of cities in Germany by population, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by beer consumption per capita, List of countries by exports, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions, List of countries by Human Development Index, List of countries by immigrant population, List of countries by imports, List of countries by life expectancy, List of countries by motor vehicle production, List of districts of Germany, List of former German colonies, List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, List of German architects, List of German cheeses, List of German inventors and discoverers, List of German wine regions, List of magazines in Germany, List of national parks of Germany, List of nature parks in Germany, List of newspapers in Germany, List of oldest universities in continuous operation, List of radio stations in Germany, List of seaside resorts in Germany, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rate, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density, List of spa towns in Germany, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of universities in Germany, List of water sports, List of World Heritage Sites in Germany, List of world's busiest container ports, Live birth (human), Lorelei, Low German, Lower Saxony, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Ludwig Erhard, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ludwigshafen, Lufthansa, Lusatia, Lutheranism, Luxembourg, Maastricht Treaty, Magdeburg, Mainz, Maria Theresa, Markus Lüpertz, Marlene Dietrich, Marshall Plan, Martin Heidegger, Martin Kippenberger, Martin Luther, Mass media, Mathematician, Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, Matthias Grünewald, Mauer 1, Max Born, Max Ernst, Max Horkheimer, Max Liebermann, Max Planck, Max Planck Society, 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Shirer, Willy Brandt, Wilstermarsch, Wim Wenders, Wirtschaftswunder, Wismar, Wittenberg, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wolfgang Joop, Wolfgang Staudte, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Wolfsburg, Woodland, Wooga, Workforce, Workforce productivity, Working language, World Bank, World Health Organization, World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Europe and North America, World Tourism Organization, World War I, World War I casualties, World War II, World War II casualties, X-ray, Yager Development, York University, Youth unemployment, Zillierbach Dam, Zivildienst, Zollverein, Zugspitze, Zwickau Hauptbahnhof, Zwinger (Dresden), .de, .eu, 16th meridian east, 1936 Summer Olympics, 1936 Winter Olympics, 1972 Summer Olympics, 1974 FIFA World Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2011 German Census, 20th-century classical music, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 47th parallel north, 55th parallel north, 5th meridian east. Expand index (1125 more) »

A. R. Penck

Ralf Winkler, alias A.R. Penck (born 5 October 1939) is a German painter, printmaker, sculptor, and jazz drummer.

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Aachen Cathedral

Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the "Imperial Cathedral" (in German: Kaiserdom), is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany.

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Abdication

Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.

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Abitur

Abitur (from Latin abire "leave, go off") is a designation used in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after twelve or thirteen years of schooling (see also for Germany ''Abitur'' after twelve years).

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Academic Ranking of World Universities

Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is an annual publication of university rankings by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.

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Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards of Merit, or Oscars, handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.

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Action T4

Action T4 (Aktion T4) was the postwar designation for a programme of forced euthanasia in wartime Nazi Germany.

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ADAC

The ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club e.V.) (General German Automobile Club) is an automobile club in Germany, founded on May 24, 1903 as German Motorbiker Association ("Deutsche Motorradfahrer-Vereinigung"), and was renamed to its present name in 1911.

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Adidas

Adidas AG is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports shoes, clothing and accessories.

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Administrative law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Advent wreath

The Advent wreath, or Advent crown, is a Christian tradition that symbolizes the passage of the four weeks of Advent in the liturgical calendar of the Western church.

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Aerospace engineering

Aerospace Engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.

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Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.

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Air Berlin

Air Berlin (stylized as airberlin or airberlin.com) is Germany's second largest airline, after Lufthansa, and Europe's eighth largest airline in terms of passengers carried.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.

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Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.

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Alemanni

The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river.

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Alevism

Alevism or Alevi (/'ælɛvij/, also /æˈlɛviː/ or /əˈleɪviː/, Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, Spiritual Shiism or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah) is a mystical branch of Islam whose adherents are followers of Ali, the Twelve Imams (other than Sunni Muslims who believe in the four Rashidun caliphs) and their descendant, the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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All-time Olympic Games medal table

An all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2014, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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Alliance '90/The Greens

Alliance '90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.

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Allianz

Allianz SE is a European financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alphaville (band)

Alphaville is a German group which gained popularity in the 1980s.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

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Altstadt

Altstadt is the German language word for "old town", meaning "historical city centre within the city wall", in contrast to younger suburbs outside.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries during the 20th century.

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Ancestor

An ancestor or forebear is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).

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Ancient Germanic law

Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.

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Andreas Gursky

Andreas Gursky (born January 15, 1955) is a German photographer and Professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, Germany.

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Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and former research scientist who has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and the Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.

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Animals United

Animals United (Konferenz der Tiere) is a 2010 German 3D computer animated comedy adventure film directed and produced by Reinhard Klooss and Holger Tappe.

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Anno (series)

Anno is a real-time strategy video game series with business simulation and city building elements.

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Anschluss

The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.

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Anselm Kiefer

Anselm Kiefer (born March 8, 1945) is a German painter and sculptor.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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ARD (broadcaster)

ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany, details below at name) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters.

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Aris Kalaizis

Aris Kalaizis (born 1966 in Leipzig) is a German-Greek painter.

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Arminius

Arminius (18/17 BC – AD 21) was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD.

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Armistice of 11 November 1918

The armistice between the Allies and Germany – known as the Armistice of Compiègne after the location in which it was signed – was the agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War.

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Art Cologne

Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany and was established in 1967 as Kölner Kunstmarkt.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, or Deco, is an influential visual arts design style that first appeared in France just before World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.

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Art of Europe

The art of Europe encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Article 48 (Weimar Constitution)

Article 48 of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) allowed the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.

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Asam brothers

The Asam Brothers (Cosmas Damian Asam and Egid Quirin Asam) were sculptors, workers in stucco, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany.

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Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins (five Serbs and one Bosniak) coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Atlanticism

Atlanticism is a belief in the importance of cooperation between Europe and the United States and Canada regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose of maintaining the security and prosperity of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them.

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Audi

Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury automobiles.

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Augustus

Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.

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Austrasia

Austrasia formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.

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Austria–Prussia rivalry

Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, Prussian–German War, German Civil War, or Fraternal War and in Germany as German War) was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other, that resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states.

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Autobahn

The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.

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Automotive industry in Germany

The automotive industry in Germany is one of the largest employers in the country, with a labour force of over 747,000 (2009) working in the industry.

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Axel Springer SE

Axel Springer SE is one of the largest digital publishing houses in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as BILD, WELT, and FAKT and nearly 14,000 employees.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.

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Babelsberg Studio

The Babelsberg Film Studio (Filmstudio Babelsberg), located in Potsdam-Babelsberg outside Berlin, Germany, is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world, producing films since 1912.

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Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg is a state of Germany located in the southwest, east of the Upper Rhine.

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Balthasar Neumann

Johann Balthasar Neumann (27 January 1687 – 19 August 1753), usually known as Balthasar Neumann, was a German architect and military artillery engineer who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, called Vierzehnheiligen in German.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.

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Balts

The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.

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Bamberg

Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany, located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.

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Baroque

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.

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Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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BASF

BASF SE is the largest chemical producer in the world and is headquartered in Ludwigshafen, Germany.

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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Basketball Bundesliga

The Basketball Bundesliga (English language: Federal Basketballe) — commonly abbreviated BBL — is the highest level league of professional club basketball in Germany.

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Battle of Belgium

The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, literally "Air battle for England") is the name given to the Second World War air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.

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Battle of Greece

The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Greece by Germany in April 1941.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.

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Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.

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Battle of the Netherlands

The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.

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Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald, Hermannsschlacht or Varusschlacht), described as clades Variana (the Varian disaster) by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus.

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Bauhaus

, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was an art school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught.

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Bavaria

The Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern,, Freistaat Bayern, Freistood Boajan/Baijaan, Main-Franconian: Freischdood Bayan; Bavorsko) is a federal state of Germany.

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Bavarian Council Republic

The Bavarian Council Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik or Münchner Räterepublik) was the short-lived attempt to establish a socialist state in the Free State of Bavaria during the German Revolution of 1918–1919 led mainly by a team of Jewish revolutionaries.

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Bavarian cuisine

Bavarian cuisine is a style of cooking derived from Bavaria.

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Bavarian Forest National Park

The Bavarian Forest National Park (Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald) is a national park in the Eastern Bavarian Forest immediately on Germany's border with the Czech Republic.

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Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch

The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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Beatsteaks

Beatsteaks is a punk rock band from Berlin, Germany, formed in 1995.

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Beer in Germany

Beer is a major part of German culture.

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Behnisch Architekten

Behnisch Architekten is an architectural practice based in Stuttgart, Germany, with branches in Munich, Germany and Boston, Massachusetts.

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Benevolent neutrality

"Benevolent neutrality" is a term used by Ernest May to describe United States foreign policy regarding involvement in World War I. Examples of it were seen shortly before World War I though due to the League of the Three Emperors, an agreement between the powers of Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary.

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Berchtesgaden National Park

Berchtesgaden National Park is in the south of Germany, on its border with Austria, in the municipalities of Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden and Schönau am Königsee, Berchtesgadener Land, Free State of Bavaria.

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Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs

The Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs is an academic research center at Georgetown University in Washington, DC dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of religion, ethics, and politics.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.

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Berlin Biennale

The Berlin Biennale (full name: Berlin Biennale für zeitgenössische Kunst, Berlin Biennale for Contemporary Art) is a contemporary art exhibition which has been held at various locations in Berlin, Germany, every two to three years since 1998.

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Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.

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Berlin Fashion Week

Berlin Fashion Week (Berliner Modewoche) is a fashion week held twice annually (in January and July) in Berlin, Germany.

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Berlin International Film Festival

The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), also called the Berlinale, is one of the most reputable media events and one of the world's "Big Three" film festivals (along with Venice and Cannes).

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Berlin Schönefeld Airport

Berlin Schönefeld Airport is an international airport located directly at the southern border of Berlin, the capital of Germany, and southeast of its city centre near the town of Schönefeld.

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Berlin Tegel Airport

Berlin Tegel Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Tegel "Otto Lilienthal") is the main international airport of Berlin, the federal capital of Germany, ahead of the smaller Berlin Schönefeld Airport.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Berlin Zoological Garden

The Berlin Zoological Garden (Zoologischer Garten Berlin) is the oldest and best known zoo in Germany.

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Berlin-Bonn Act

The Berlin/Bonn Act (Berlin/Bonn-Gesetz) regulated the move of the German Bundestag and parts of the government from Bonn to Berlin.

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Bernd and Hilla Becher

Bernhard "Bernd" Becher (August 20, 1931 – June 22, 2007), and Hilla Becher, née Wobeser (born September 2, 1934), were German conceptual artists and photographers working as a collaborative duo.

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Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (September 17, 1826 – July 20, 1866) was an influential German mathematician who made lasting and revolutionary contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.

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Bernkastel-Kues

Bernkastel-Kues is a well-known winegrowing centre on the Middle Moselle in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Bertelsmann

Bertelsmann SE & Co.

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Bigpoint Games

Bigpoint GmbH is a German video game developer.

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Bild

The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture Newspaper; pronounced) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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Black Death

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.

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Black Forest National Park

The Black Forest National Park (Nationalpark Schwarzwald) was created on 1 January 2014 and is the first national park in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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BMW

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works), commonly known as BMW or BMW AG, is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.

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Bochum

Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.

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Boney M.

Boney M. is a vocal group created by German record producer Frank Farian.

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Bonn

Bonn, officially the Federal City of Bonn, is a city on the banks of the Rhine and northwest of the Siebengebirge (Seven Mountains) in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287 within its administrative limits.

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Brandenburg

Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska; Brandenburgia) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.

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Bratwurst

A bratwurst, also known as a brat in American English, is a sausage usually composed of veal, pork or beef.

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Braun (company)

(commonly pronounced as "braun" in English), formerly Braun AG, is a German consumer products company based in Kronberg.

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Bread and Butter tradeshow

Bread and Butter (shortened to B&B) is a trade and fashion show for everyday clothing and streetwear.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany.

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Bremen (state)

The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germany's 16 states.

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Brick Gothic

Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe, especially in Northern Germany and the regions around the Baltic Sea, which do not have natural stone resources.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age Europe

The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.

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Brothers Grimm

The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together specialized in collecting and publishing folklore during the 19th century.

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Bruno Möhring

Bruno Möhring (11 December 1863 – 25/26 March 1929) was a German architect, urban planner, designer and a professor in Berlin.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Bundesliga

The Bundesliga (Federal League), sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga or 1.

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Bundesrat of Germany

The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federal states) of Germany at the national level.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is a constitutional and legislative body at the federal level in Germany.

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Bundeswehr

No description.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Canadians of German ethnicity

German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß,; Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

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Carl Spitzweg

Carl Spitzweg (February 5, 1808 – September 23, 1885) was a German romanticist painter, especially of genre subjects.

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Carolingian architecture

Carolingian architecture is the style of north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian family dominated west European politics.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–924) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty.

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Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.

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Castle Road

The Castle Road (Burgenstraße) is a theme route in southern Germany (in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg) and a small portion in the Czech Republic, between Mannheim and Prague.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Celts

The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Centaurea cyanus

Centaurea cyanus, commonly known as cornflower, bachelor's button, bluebottle, boutonniere flower, hurtsickle or cyani flower, is an annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe.

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Central Europe

Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.

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Central European boar

The Central European boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) is a subspecies of wild boar native to northern Spain, northern Italy, France, Germany, Benelux, Denmark, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and possibly Albania.

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Central European red deer

The Central European red deer or Common red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) is a subspecies of red deer native to central Europe.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chalk Cliffs on Rügen

Chalk Cliffs on Rügen (Kreidefelsen auf Rügen) is an oil painting of circa 1818 by German Romantic artist Caspar David Friedrich.

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Chancellor of Germany

The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany.

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Chancellor of Germany (1949–)

The Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), literally "Federal Chancellor", or Kanzler for short) is, under the German 1949 constitution, the head of government of Germany.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was the second King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first King of Bohemia also to become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711.

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Chatti

The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.

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Cherusci

The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the 1st century BC and 1st century AD.

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Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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Christa Wolf

Christa Wolf (née Ihlenfeld; 18 March 1929, Landsberg an der Warthe – 1 December 2011, Berlin) was a German literary critic, novelist, and essayist.

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Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Christoph Kohl (architect)

Christoph Kohl (born 1961, in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy) is an architect and urban planner.

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Cinema of Germany

The Cinema of Germany refers to the film industry based in Germany and can be traced back to the late 19th century.

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City (band)

City is a German rock band, formed in East Berlin in 1972, best known for the song "Am Fenster" (At The Window or by the window) from its 1978 debut album.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state consisting of a city and its dependent territories.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical period (music)

The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820.

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Classicism

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Claudia Schiffer

Claudia Schiffer (born 25 August 1970) is a German model and creative director of her own clothing label.

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Cloud Atlas (film)

Cloud Atlas is a 2012 independent German-American science fiction film written and directed by Lana Wachowski, Tom Tykwer and Andy Wachowski.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Cologne

Cologne (German Köln, Kölle), Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.

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Cologne Bonn Airport

Cologne Bonn Airport (German: Flughafen Köln/Bonn, also known as Flughafen Köln-Wahn) is the international airport of Germany's fourth largest city, Cologne and also serves the former German capital, Bonn.

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Cologne Cathedral

Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) (Ecclesia Cathedralis Sanctorum Petri et Mariae, officially Hohe Domkirche St., English: High Cathedral of Saints Peter and Mary) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cologne, Germany.

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Cologne War

The Cologne War (1583–88) devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North-Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany.

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Comecon

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Совет Экономической Взаимопомощи, Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi, СЭВ, SEV; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world.

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Commercial broadcasting

Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

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Communist propaganda

Communist propaganda is the scientific, artistic, and social promotion of the ideology of communism, communist worldview and interests of the communist movement.

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Comprehensive school

A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.

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Conceptual art

Conceptual art, sometimes simply called Conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.

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Concert of Europe

The Concert of Europe (also Vienna system of international relations), also known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, represented the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I (1914).

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Confederation of the Rhine

The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; Confédération du Rhin, officially "Confederated States of the Rhine", but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.

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Conscription in Germany

Germany had conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens between 1956 and 2011.

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Conurbation

A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area.

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Crysis

Crysis is a first-person shooter video game developed by Crytek and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows and released in November 2007.

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Crytek

Crytek is a German video game company, founded in 1999 by brothers Cevat, Avni, and Faruk Yerli, that is headquartered in Frankfurt.

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Cuius regio, eius religio

Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.

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Culture of Germany

German culture as a nation-state and spanned the entire German-speaking world.

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Currywurst

Currywurst is a fast food dish of German origin consisting of steamed, then fried pork sausage (Bratwurst) whole or less often cut into slices and seasoned with curry ketchup, a sauce based on spiced ketchup or tomato paste, itself topped with curry powder, or a ready-made ketchup seasoned with curry and other spices.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dachau concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.

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Daimler AG

() is a German multinational automotive corporation.

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Danes

Danes (danskere) are the citizens of Denmark, most of whom speak Danish and consider themselves to be of Danish ethnicity.

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Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a German physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the mercury-in-glass thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Danube

The Danube (also known by other names) is Europe's second-longest river, located in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Das Boot

Das Boot (German meaning "The Boat") is a 1981 German epic war film written and directed by Wolfgang Petersen, produced by Günter Rohrbach, and starring Jürgen Prochnow, Herbert Grönemeyer and Klaus Wennemann.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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Dawes Plan

The Dawes Plan was an attempt following World War I for the Triple Entente to compromise and collect war reparations debt from Germany.

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DAX

The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

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Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf (Düsseldörp) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and center of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region with a population of 11 million people.

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Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport (Flughafen Düsseldorf; until March 2013 Düsseldorf International Airport) is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Death of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin.

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Deep Silver

Deep Silver is a German video game publisher based in Planegg, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of German multinational corporation Koch Media.

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Democratization of knowledge

The democratization of knowledge is the acquisition and spread of knowledge amongst the common people, not just privileged elites such as clergy and academics.

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Denglisch

Denglisch (German spelling) or Denglish (English spelling) is a portmanteau of the German words Deutsch and Englisch (English).

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.

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Der Blaue Reiter

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Der Untertan (film)

The Kaiser's Lackey.

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Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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Deutsche Bank

Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank") is a German global banking and financial services company with its headquarters in the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers in Frankfurt.

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Deutsche Post

Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL, is the world's largest courier company.

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Deutsche Presse-Agentur

Deutsche Presse-Agentur GmbH (DPA; German Press Agency) is a German news agency founded in 1949.

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Deutsche Telekom

Deutsche Telekom AG (abbreviated DT, German Telecom) is a German telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German Wave" in German) or DW is Germany's international broadcaster.

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Deutscher Filmpreis

The Deutscher Filmpreis (German Film Awards, also rarely called Lola Awards) is the highest German movie award.

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Deutscher Werkbund

The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) was a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists.

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Deutsches Wörterbuch

The Deutsches Wörterbuch (The German Dictionary), abbreviated DWB, is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language in existence.

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Deutschlandlied

The "Deutschlandlied" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "Das Lied der Deutschen" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.

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Deutschlandradio

Deutschlandradio is a national German public broadcasting radio broadcaster.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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DHL Express

DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL providing international express mail services.

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Diane Kruger

Diane Kruger (born Diane Heidkrüger; 15 July 1976) is a German actress and former fashion model.

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Die Ärzte

Die Ärzte ("The Doctors") is a punk band from Berlin.

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Die Brücke

Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905, after which the Brücke Museum in Berlin was named.

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Die Toten Hosen

Die Toten Hosen is a German punk band from Düsseldorf.

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Die Welt

Die Welt (The World) is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer AG company.

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Die Wende

Die Wende ("The Change" or "The Turn") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around the years 1989 and 1990.

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Die Zeit

Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper.

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Dieter Rams

Dieter Rams (born 20 May 1932 in Wiesbaden, Hessen) is a German industrial designer closely associated with the consumer products company Braun and the Functionalist school of industrial design.

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Dieterich Buxtehude

Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich,; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.

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Direct election

Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.

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Districts of Germany

A German district is an administrative subdivision known as Landkreis ("rural district"), except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where it is known simply as Kreis.

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Divided Heaven (film)

Divided Heaven (German: Der geteilte Himmel) is an East German drama film directed by Konrad Wolf.

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Documenta

documenta is an exhibition of modern and contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany.

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Dominikus Böhm

Dominikus Böhm (October 23, 1880 – August 6, 1955) was a German architect specializing in churches.

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Dominikus Zimmermann

Dominikus Zimmermann (30 June 1685, Gaispoint–16 November 1766, Wies) was a German Rococo architect and stuccoist.

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Doner kebab

Döner kebab (Turkish: döner or döner kebap) is a Turkish dish made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie, normally lamb but sometimes beef, or chicken.

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Dortmund

Dortmund (Düörpm; Latin: Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dresden

Dresden (Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Dresden Frauenkirche

The Dresden Frauenkirche (Dresdner Frauenkirche,, Church of Our Lady) is a Lutheran church in Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.

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Dual Alliance (1879)

The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on 7 October 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent/limit war.

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Dual education system

A dual education system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.

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Duisburg

Duisburg is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.

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E.ON

E.ON SE marketed with an interpunct as E·ON, is a European holding company based in Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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East Francia

In medieval historiography, East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of Germany, lasting from about 840 until about 962.

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East Germanic languages

The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.

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East Germany

East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Economic miracle

Economic miracle is an informal economic term commonly used to refer to a period of dramatic economic development that is entirely unexpected or unexpectedly strong.

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Economy of Germany

Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP).

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Eider (river)

The Eider (Die Eider; Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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Elbe

The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Electorate of Cologne

The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.

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Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.

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Electronic music

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production, an electronic musician being a musician who composes and/or performs such music.

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Enabling Act of 1933

The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption through using less of an energy service.

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Energy transition in Germany

Energiewende (German for Energy transition) is the transition by Germany to an energy portfolio dominated by renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable development.

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Environmental technology

Environmental technology (envirotech), green technology (greentech) or clean technology (cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.

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Equestrianism

Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, horseman, horse) more often known as riding, horseback riding (American English) or horse riding (British English) referring to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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Erfurt

Erfurt is the capital city of Thuringia and the main city nearest to the geographical centre of modern Germany, located south-west of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and south east of Hanover.

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Erich Mendelsohn

Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a Jewish German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas.

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Escada

Escada is an international luxury fashion group in women's designer clothing.

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Essen

Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ethnogenesis

Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is a process in which a group of people acquire an ethnicity, that is, a group identity that identifies them as an ethnic group.

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Eurasian beaver

The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Eurobarometer

Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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Europa (web portal)

Europa (sometimes capitalised EUROPA) is the official web portal of the European Union (EU).

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Europa-Park

Europa-Park is the largest theme park in Germany and the second most popular theme park resort in Europe, following Disneyland Paris.

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European badger

The European badger (Meles meles) is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe and some parts of the Middle East.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Communities

The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organisations that were governed by the same set of institutions.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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European Film Academy

The European Film Academy is an initiative of a group of European filmmakers who came together in Berlin on the occasion of the first presentation of the European Film Awards in November 1988.

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European Film Awards

The European Film Awards are presented annually since 1988 by the European Film Academy to recognize excellence in European cinematic achievements.

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European hare

The European hare (Lepus europaeus), also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Western Asia and Central Asia.

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European integration

European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.

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European migrant crisis

The European migrant crisis or European refugee crisis arose through the rising number of refugees and migrants coming to the European Union, across the Mediterranean Sea or Southeast Europe, and applying for asylum.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European-Mediterranean montane mixed forest

The European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests is a composite ecoregion of southern Europe and North Africa, designated by the World Wildlife Fund as one of their Global 200 ecoregions, a list of priority ecoregions for conservation.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eurozone

Eurozone (euro area).

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Eva Padberg

Eva Padberg (born 27 January 1980) is a German fashion model, singer, and actress.

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Evangelical Church in Germany

The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional and denominational churches in Germany, collectively encompassing the majority of Protestants in that country.

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Executive (government)

The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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Expressionism

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Expressionist architecture

Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.

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F. W. Murnau

Friedrich Wilhelm "F.

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Far Cry

The Far Cry series is a franchise of first-person shooter computer and video games, named after the first game of the series.

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Fashion

Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture.

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Federal Administrative Court of Germany

The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany.

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Federal Constitutional Court of Germany

The Federal Constitutional Court (German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, or BVerfG) is a supreme constitutional court established by the constitution or Basic Law ("Grundgesetz") of Germany.

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Federal Convention (Germany)

The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly, (Bundesversammlung) is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.

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Federal Court of Justice of Germany

The Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany.

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Federal Finance Court of Germany

The Federal Fiscal Court (Bundesfinanzhof) is one of five federal supreme courts of Germany, established according to Article 95 of the Basic Law.

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Federal Labour Court of Germany

The Federal Labor Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the court of the last resort for cases of labour law in Germany, both for individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e.g. cases concerning strikes and collective bargaining).

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Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

The Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz), abbreviated BMJV, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany)

The Federal Ministry of the Interior (Bundesministerium des Innern), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a democratic form of government.

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Federal Research Division

The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.

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Federal Social Court of Germany

The Federal Social Court (Bundessozialgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for social security cases, mainly cases concerning the public health insurance, long-term care insurance, pension insurance and occupational accident insurance schemes.

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Federal Statistical Office of Germany

The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortly Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.

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Federalism

Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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Federation

A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.

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Felix Klein

Christian Felix Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.

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Ferdinand Cohn

Ferdinand Julius Cohn (24 January 1828 – 25 June 1898) was a German biologist.

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Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin (also known as Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, Graf Zeppelin and in English, Count Zeppelin) (8 July 1838 – 8 March 1917) was a German general and later aircraft manufacturer.

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Fernsehturm Berlin

The Fernsehturm (Berlin TV Tower) is a television tower in central Berlin, Germany.

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Feuchtmayer

The Feuchtmayers (also spelled Feuchtmayr, Feichtmair, and Feichtmayr) were a German family of artists from the Baroque Wessobrunner School.

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FIFA Manager

FIFA Manager (short: FIFAM) was an association football series of sport management games published by Electronic Arts.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Film festival

A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region.

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Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50)

During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period the German Reichsdeutsche (German citizens) as well as persons of German ancestry were expelled from various Eastern European countries and sent to Germany and Austria.

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Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.

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Focus (German magazine)

Focus is a German weekly news magazine published in Munich and distributed throughout Germany.

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Football in Germany

Football is the most popular sport in Germany.

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Foreign Office (Germany)

The Federal Foreign Office (German), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign politics and its relationship with the European Union.

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Former eastern territories of Germany

The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.

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Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue.

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France–Germany relations

The relations between France and Germany, since 1871, according to Krotz, has three grand periods: 'hereditary enmity' (down to 1945), 'reconciliation' (1945–63) and since 1963 the 'special relationship' embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Friendship (Amitié franco-allemande; Deutsch-Französische Freundschaft).

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Francia

Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

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Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Frank Beyer

Frank Paul Beyer (26 May 1932 – 1 October 2006) was a German film director.

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt am Main is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2014 population of 717,624 within its administrative boundaries.

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Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, also known as Rhein-Main-Flughafen) is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centers.

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Frankfurt Book Fair

The Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF) (Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented, as well as the number of visitors.

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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany.

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Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (English literally Frankfurt General Newspaper), short F.A.Z., also known as the FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.

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Franz Iffland

Franz Iffland (1862–1935) was a German sculptor and painter who worked during the late 19th and early 20th century.

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Franz Marc

Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement.

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Fraunhofer Society

The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. — “Fraunhofer Society for the advancement of applied research”) is a German research organization with 67 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science).

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Frederick William IV of Prussia

Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 1795 – 2 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.

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Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term Free and Imperial Cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded Free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the 15th century to denote a self-ruling city that enjoyed a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Frei Otto

Frei Paul Otto (31 May 1925 – 9 March 2015) was a German architect and structural engineer noted for his use of lightweight structures, in particular tensile and membrane structures, including the roof of the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the 1972 Summer Olympics.

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Freiburg im Breisgau

Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a population of about 220,000.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.

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French Revolution of 1848

The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.

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French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.

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Friedrich Ebert

Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. or;; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, journalist, businessman, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, together with Karl Marx.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, composer, and Latin and Greek scholar.

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Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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Frisian languages

The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark.

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Frisians

The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group native to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and Germany.

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Frisii

The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.

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Fritz Lang

Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was a German-Austrian filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.

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Fritz Schumacher (architect)

Fritz Schumacher (4 November 1869 – 5 November 1947) was a German architect and urban designer.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is the generation of energy by nuclear fusion.

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G-20 major economies

The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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G8 (forum)

The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.

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Gameforge

Gameforge is a provider of online games.

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Gamescom

Gamescom (stylized as gamescom) is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany.

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Gastarbeiter

Gastarbeiter (plural, "Gastarbeiter") is German for "guest worker" (literal translation).

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Günter Grass

Günter Wilhelm Grass (16 October 1927 – 13 April 2015) was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. Grass, who identified as Kashubian, was born in the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). As a teenager, he served as a drafted soldier from late 1944 in the Waffen-SS, and was taken prisoner of war by U.S. forces at the end of the war in May 1945. He was released in April 1946. Trained as a stonemason and sculptor, Grass began writing in the 1950s. In his fiction, he frequently returned to the Danzig of his childhood. Grass is best known for his first novel, The Tin Drum (1959), a key text in European magic realism. It was the first book of his Danzig Trilogy, the other two being Cat and Mouse and Dog Years. His works are frequently considered to have a left-wing political dimension, and Grass was an active supporter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The Tin Drum was adapted as a film of the same name, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1999, the Swedish Academy awarded him the Nobel Prize in Literature, praising him as a writer "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history".

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Geiger counter

The Geiger counter, is an instrument used for measuring ionizing radiation used widely in such applications as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

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Georg Baselitz

Georg Baselitz (born 23 January 1938) is a German painter.

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Georg Hermann Nicolai

Georg Hermann Nicolai (10 January 1812 — 10 July 1881) was a German architect and educator, Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts on the Brühl Terrace in Dresden from 1850 until his death.

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Georg Hirth

Georg Hirth (13 July 1841 – 28 March 1916) was a German writer, journalist and publisher.

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Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff

Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (17 February 1699 – 16 September 1753) was a painter and architect in Prussia.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment.

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George Frideric Handel

George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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Gerhard Richter

Gerhard Richter (born 9 February 1932) is a German visual artist and one of the pioneers of the New European Painting that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century.

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Gerhard Schröder

Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005.

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Gerhart Hauptmann

Gerhart Hauptmann (15 November 1862 – 6 June 1946) was a German dramatist and novelist.

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Gerkan, Marg and Partners

Gerkan, Marg & Partners (gmp) is an international, architectural company based in Hamburg, Germany.

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German Aerospace Center

The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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German Air Force

No description.

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German American

German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who are of German descent.

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German Argentine

German Argentines (Deutschargentinier, germanoargentino) are Argentine citizens of German ancestry.

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German Army

No description.

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German art

German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

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German Avenue Road

The German Avenue Road (Deutsche Alleenstraße) is a tree-lined holiday route that runs the length of Germany from the Baltic Sea to Lake Constance.

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German Brazilian

A German Brazilian (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiro) is a Brazilian person of ethnic German ancestry or origin.

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German casualties in World War II

The German Red Cross in 2005 put the total combined German military and civilian war dead at 7,375,800, including ethnic Germans outside of Germany and Austrians.

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German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire.

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German cuisine

For various examples of German cuisine, see List of German dishes. German cuisine has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.

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German dialects

German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to some neighboring languages, e.g. the Dutch and Luxembourgish languages.

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German East Africa

German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included what are now Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of present Tanzania (formerly known as Tanganyika).

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.

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German Expressionism

German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin, during the 1920s.

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German federal election, 1930

The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.

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German federal election, 1998

German federal elections took place on 27 September 1998, to elect members to the 14th Bundestag, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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German federal election, 2005

German federal elections took place on 18 September 2005 to elect the members of the 16th German Bundestag, the federal parliament of Germany.

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German federal election, July 1932

Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.

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German folklore

German folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in Germany over a number of centuries.

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German Football Association

The German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund; DFB) is the governing body of football in Germany.

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German idealism

German idealism was a speculative philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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German literature

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.

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German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war

During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in deliberate extermination policies towards Soviet Union prisoners of war (POWs).

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German Navy

No description.

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German occupation of Czechoslovakia

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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German Open Tennis Championships

The German Open Hamburg, established in 1892, is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Hamburg, Germany and part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Tour.

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German order of precedence

The German order of precedence is a symbolic hierarchy of officials in the Government of Germany used to direct protocol.

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German philosophy

German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.

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German punk

German punk is punk rock music and punk subculture in Germany since punk music became popular in the 1970s.

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German Question

The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the Unification of Germany.

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German Red Cross

The German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz), or the DRK, is the national Red Cross Society in Germany.

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German referendum, 1933

A referendum on withdrawing from the League of Nations was held in Germany on 12 November 1933 alongside Reichstag elections.

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German Rentenmark

The (RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany.

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German reunification

The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23.

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German Revolution of 1918–19

The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic.

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German revolutions of 1848–49

The revolutions of 1848–49 in the German states, the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.

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German rock

Although German rock music (Deutschrock) didn't come into its own until the late 1960s, it spawned many bands spanning genres such as krautrock, new wave, heavy metal, punk, and industrial.

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German South-West Africa

German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915.

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German Timber-Frame Road

The German Timber-Frame Road (German: Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) is a German tourist route leading from the river Elbe in the north to Lake Constance in the south.

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German Unity Day

The Day of German Unity (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday.

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German wine

German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era.

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German Wine Route

The German Wine Route or Wine Road (Deutsche Weinstraße) is the oldest of Germany's tourist wine routes.

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German-occupied Europe

German–occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.

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Germania

Germania (Germanía) was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region inhabited mainly by the Germanic people.

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Germania (book)

The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.

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Germany at the Olympics

Athletes from Germany have taken part in most of the Olympic Games since the first modern Games in 1896.

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Germany men's national volleyball team

The Germany men's national volleyball team is the national team of Germany.

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Germany national football team

The Germany national football team (Die deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.

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GfK

The GfK SE, established in 1934 as Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung (Society for Consumer Research) is Germany's largest market research institute, and the fourth largest market research organisation in the world, after Nielsen Company, Kantar Group and Ipsos.

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Golden Bear

The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.

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Golden Bull of 1356

The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Golden Twenties

Golden Twenties or Happy Twenties is a term, mostly used in Europe, to describe the 1920s, in which most of the continent had an economic boom following the First World War and the severe economic downturns that took place between 1919–1923, and before the Wall Street Crash in 1929.

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Good Bye, Lenin!

Good Bye, Lenin! is a 2003 German tragicomedy film.

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Goodgame Studios

Goodgame Studios is an online games company founded in 2009 and based in Hamburg, Germany.

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Gothic (series)

Gothic is an action role-playing game franchise, created and owned by Piranha Bytes.

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Gottfried Böhm

Gottfried Böhm (born January 23, 1920) is a German architect.

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Gottfried Semper

Gottfried Semper (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize

The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize or in short the Leibniz Prize (complete German title "Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft") is a research prize awarded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) every year since 1985 to exceptional scientists and academics working in Germany for their outstanding achievements in the field of research.

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Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.

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Gottlieb Daimler

Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Grand coalition (Germany)

In modern Germany, grand coalition (Große Koalition) describes a governing coalition of the Christian Democrats (CDU together with the Bavarian CSU) and the Social Democrats, as they are the two largest parties.

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Gründerzeit

Gründerzeit (literally: "the Founder Epoch"), also referred to as promoterism, was the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.

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Great Famine of 1315–17

The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315–1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Greek cuisine

Greek cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine.

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Greifswald

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (in German Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe and the CIS, comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and U.S. preparatory high schools.

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HA Schult

HA Schult, born Hans-Jürgen Schult on June 24, 1939 in Parchim, Mecklenburg is a German installation, happening and conceptual artist known primarily for his object and performance art and more specifically his work with garbage.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Austrian Monarchy and Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Hainich National Park

Hainich National Park (Nationalpark Hainich), founded on December 31, 1997, is the 13th national park in Germany and the only one in Thuringia.

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Hajo Holborn

Hajo Holborn (Berlin, May 18, 1902 – Bonn, June 20, 1969) was a German-American historian and specialist in modern German history.

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Hambach Festival

The Hambacher Fest was a German national democratic festival celebrated from 27 May to 30 May 1832 at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Haardt in present-day Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (local pronunciation; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg), officially Freie und Hansestadt HamburgConstitution of Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union.

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Hamburg Airport

Hamburg Airport, known in German as Flughafen Hamburg, is the international airport of Hamburg, the second-largest city in Germany.

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Handball-Bundesliga

The Handball-Bundesliga (HBL) is the top German professional handball league.

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Hanne Darboven

Hanne Darboven (29 April 1941 – 9 March 2009) was a German conceptual artist, best known for her large scale minimalist installations consisting of handwritten tables of numbers.

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Hanover

Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hanover school of architecture

The Hanoverian school of architecture is a school of architecture that was popular in Northern Germany in the second half of the 19th century, characterized by a move away from classicism and neo-Baroque and distinguished by a turn towards the neo-Gothic.

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Hans Geiger

Johannes "Hans" Wilhelm "Gengar" Geiger (30 September 1882 – 24 September 1945) was a German physicist.

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Hans Haacke

Hans Haacke (born August 12, 1936) is a German-born artist who currently lives and works in New York.

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Hans Holbein the Elder

Hans Holbein the Elder (c. 1460 – 1524) was a German painter.

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Hans Holbein the Younger

Hans Holbein the Younger (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.

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Hans Kollhoff

Hans Kollhoff (b. Bad Lobenstein, Thuringia, 18 September 1946) is a German architect and professor.

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Hans Zimmer

Hans Florian Zimmer (born 12 September 1957) is a German composer and music producer.

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Hans-Peter Feldmann

Hans-Peter Feldmann (born 1941 in Düsseldorf) is a German visual artist.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.

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Harz National Park

The Harz National Park is a nature reserve in the German federal states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.

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Hauptschule

A Hauptschule (general school) is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education.

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Head of government

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Head of state

A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Head-On (film)

Head-On (Gegen die Wand, literally Against the Wall; Duvara Karşı) is a 2004 German-Turkish drama film written and directed by Fatih Akın.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Healthcare in Germany

Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system with two main types of health insurance: "Statutory Health Insurance" (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) known as sickness funds and "Private Health Insurance" (Private Krankenversicherung).

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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Heidelberg Castle

Heidelberg Castle (Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg.

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Heidelberg University

The Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Heidelberg University, Ruperto Carola) is a public research university located in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Heidi Klum

Heidi Klum (born June 1, 1973) is a German-American model, television host, businesswoman, fashion designer, television producer, and occasional actress.

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Heimatfilm

(German for "homeland-film"; German plural) is the name given to a film genre that was popular in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria from the late 1940s to the early 1970s.

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Heinrich Böll

Heinrich Theodor Böll (21 December 1917 – 16 July 1985) was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers.

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Heinrich Brüning

Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.

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Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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Helene Fischer

Helene Fischer (born 5 August 1984) is a Russian-born German singer and entertainer.

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Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres

The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany.

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Helmut Jahn

Helmut Jahn (born January 4, 1940) is a German-American architect, well known for designs such as the US$800 million Sony Center on the Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, the Messeturm in Frankfurt and the One Liberty Place, formerly the tallest building in Philadelphia, and Suvarnabhumi Airport, an international airport in Bangkok, Thailand.

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Herbert Marcuse

Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory.

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Heresy

Heresy is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs.

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Hermann Hesse

Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born Swiss poet, novelist, and painter.

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Hermann Muthesius

Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius (20 April 1861 – 29 October 1927), known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German architect, author and diplomat, perhaps best known for promoting many of the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement within Germany and for his subsequent influence on early pioneers of German architectural modernism such as the Bauhaus.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science.

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Hermann Weyl

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

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Hesse

Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany with just over six million inhabitants.

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Hidden champions

Hidden champions are relatively small but highly successful companies that are concealed behind a curtain of inconspicuousness, invisibility, and sometimes secrecy.

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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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Hildegard Knef

Hildegard Frieda Albertine Knef (28 December 19251 February 2002) was a German actress, singer, and writer.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Historicism (art)

Historicism or also Historism (Historismus) comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or artisans.

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History of Burgundy

The History of Burgundy stretches back to the times when the region was inhabited in turn by Celts, Romans (Gallo-Romans), and in the 4th century, the Roman allies the Burgundians, a Germanic people possibly originating in Bornholm (Baltic Sea), who settled there and established their own kingdom.

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History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire.

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History of Germany

The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.

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History of the Jews in Germany

Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (c.1000–1299 CE).

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HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hohenstaufen

The Hohenstaufen, also called the Staufer or Staufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, Romanorum Imperator) was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House music

House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.

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House of Hohenzollern

The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

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Hugo Boss

Hugo Boss AG is a German luxury fashion and style house based in Metzingen, Germany.

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Hugo Junkers

Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German engineer and aircraft designer.

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Huns

The Huns were a nomadic group of people who are known to have lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

The hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic was a three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic (modern-day Germany) between June 1921 and January 1924.

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Ice hockey in Germany

Ice hockey is one of the more popular sports in Germany, however it still ranks far behind football in spectator favour and meaning.

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Ich bin ein Berliner

"Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") is a quotation from a June 26, 1963, speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.

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Immigration to Germany

Germany is the second most popular migration destination in the world, after the United States.

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Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)

The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii or Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the Diet, or general assembly, of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire and emerged from the earlier informal assemblies, known as Hoftage.

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Imperial Reform

Imperial reform (Reichsreform) is the name given to repeated attempts in the 15th and 16th centuries to adapt the structure and the constitutional order (Verfassungsordnung) of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation to the requirements of the Early Modern state and to give it a unified government either under the imperial estates (Reichsstände) or under the emperor's supremacy.

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Imperial State

An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii ; plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).

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Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

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Index of Germany-related articles

Topics related to Germany (sorted alphabetically) include.

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Indian cuisine

Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India.

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Indie rock

Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1980s.

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Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0, Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Informatization

Informatization or informatisation refers to the extent by which a geographical area, an economy or a society is becoming information-based, i.e., increase in size of its information labor force.

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Inquisitorial system

An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.

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Intercity-Express

The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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International Transport Forum

The International Transport Forum (ITF) is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) system.

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Invasion of Luxembourg

The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and alternatively the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß in Germany (Case White), was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.

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Invasion of Yugoslavia

The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.

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Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of Iranian languages.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Irreligion in Germany

Irreligion is prevalent in Germany.

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Islam in Germany

Owing to labour migration in the 1960s and several waves of political refugees since the 1970s, Islam has become a visible religion in Germany.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Italian city-states

The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Jack Wolfskin

Jack Wolfskin is a German-based producer of outdoor wear and equipment that was founded in 1981 and is now owned by the American company The Blackstone Group.

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Jacob the Liar (1975 film)

Jacob the Liar (Jakob der Lügner) is a 1975 East German-Czechoslovakian Holocaust film directed by Frank Beyer and based on the novel of the same name by Jurek Becker.

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Jasmund National Park

The Jasmund National Park (German: Nationalpark Jasmund) is a nature reserve in the Jasmund peninsula, in the northeast of Rügen island in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Jörg Immendorff

Jörg Immendorff (June 14, 1945 – May 28, 2007) was one of the best known contemporary German painters; he was also a sculptor, stage designer and art professor.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (or;; born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jürgen Mayer-Hermann

Jürgen Mayer-Hermann (born 1965 in Stuttgart) (also known as Jürgen Mayer H.) is a German architect and artist.

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Jürgen Schmidhuber

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963 in Munich) is a computer scientist and artist known for his work on machine learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI), artificial neural networks, digital physics, and low-complexity art.

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Jews

The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

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Jil Sander

Heidemarie Jiline "Jil" Sander (born 27 November 1943, Wesselburen) is a minimalist German fashion designer and the founder of the Jil Sander fashion house.

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Joachim Gauck

Joachim Gauck (born 24 January 1940) is the President of Germany, serving since March 2012.

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Johann Baptist Zimmermann

Johann Baptist Zimmermann (3 January 1680, Gaispoint — 2 March 1758, Munich) was a German painter and a prime stucco plasterer during the Baroque.

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Johann Friedrich Höger

Johann Friedrich (Fritz) Höger (12 June 1877 – 21 June 1949) was a German architect from Bekenreihe, Steinburg, Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), a German philosopher, became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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Johann Michael Feuchtmayer

Johann Michael Feuchtmayer (the Younger) (sometimes spelled Johann Michael Feuchtmayr or Feichtmayr) (1709 – June 4, 1772) was a German Baroque stucco sculptor and plasterer of the Wessobrunner School, who worked alongside Johann Michael Fischer, Johann Joseph Christian, and Franz Joseph Spiegler to create some of the most famous churches along the Upper Swabian Baroque Route.

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Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist.

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Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (1398 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK), (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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Joint Medical Service (Germany)

No description.

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Joint Support Service (Germany)

The Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis, SKB) is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000 as a result of major reforms of the Bundeswehr.

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Josef von Sternberg

Josef von Sternberg, born Jonas Sternberg (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director.

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Joseph Beuys

Joseph Beuys (12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

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Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826), ennobled in 1824 as Ritter von Fraunhofer, was a German optician.

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Judaism

Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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Julia Stegner

Julia Stegner (born 2 November 1984 in Munich, Bavaria, West Germany) is a German model.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.

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Jurek Becker

Jurek Becker (probably September 30, 1937 – March 14, 1997) was a Polish-born German writer, film-author and GDR dissident.

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Kalypso Media

Kalypso Media is a German video game developer and publisher.

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Kapp Putsch

The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.

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Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German engine designer and engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine, and together with Bertha Benz, pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.

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Karl Lagerfeld

Karl Lagerfeld (born Karl Otto Lagerfeld, 10 September 1933) is a German fashion designer, artist, and photographer based in Paris.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karl Weierstrass

Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis".

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Karlheinz Stockhausen

Karlheinz Stockhausen (22 August 1928 – 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

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Katja Ebstein

Katja Ebstein, born Karin Witkiewicz (9 March 1945) is a German singer.

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Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Keimzeit

Keimzeit is a German musical band formed in 1979 in Lütte (Belzig) near Potsdam, GDR (German Democratic Republic).

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Kiel

Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 240,832 (June 2014).

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Kindergarten

A kindergarten (German), literally children's garden, is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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Kingdom of Germany

The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom") developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.

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Kjell Espmark

Kjell Erik Espmark (born 19 February 1930 in Strömsund, Sweden), is a writer, literary historian, member of the Swedish Academy and Professor of the History of Literature at Stockholm University.

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Klemens von Metternich

Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (full name Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, anglicised as Clement Wenceslas Lothar von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein; 15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.

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Knowledge economy

The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.

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Kommando Spezialkräfte

KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is an elite special forces military unit composed of special operations soldiers handpicked from the ranks of Germany's Bundeswehr and organized under the Rapid Forces Division.

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Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman.

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Konrad Wolf

Konrad Wolf (20 October 1925 – 7 March 1982) was an East German film director.

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Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.

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Kosovo

Prior to a change (other than minor edits), discussion NEEDS to take place.

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Kosovo War

No description.

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Kraftwerk

Kraftwerk ("power station") is a German electronic music band formed by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider in 1970 in Düsseldorf, and fronted by them until Schneider's departure in 2008.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (کوردی, Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

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Lake Constance

Lake Constance (German: Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.

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Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia

The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.

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Languages of the Balkans

This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lay judge

A lay judge is a person assisting a judge in a trial, and as such are sometimes called lay assessors.

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Lübeck

The Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Low German) is the second-largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.

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Lüneburg Heath

Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath, geest and woodland in the northeastern part of the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.

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Legislature

A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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Leipzig Book Fair

The Leipzig Book Fair (Leipziger Buchmesse) is the second largest book fair in Germany after the Frankfurt Book Fair.

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Leipzig University

Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.

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Leipzig/Halle Airport

Leipzig/Halle Airport (German: Flughafen Leipzig/Halle) is an international airport located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.

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Leni Riefenstahl

Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer.

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Leopold Mozart

Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist.

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Lexicon

A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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Liberalism in Germany

This article aims to give an historical outline of liberalism in Germany.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Lignite

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Limes Germanicus

The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.

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Lion-man

The Löwenmensch figurine or Lion man of the Hohlenstein Stadel is a very early prehistoric sculpture that was discovered in the Hohlenstein-Stadel, a German cave in 1939.

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List of attendance figures at domestic professional sports leagues

The table below lists domestic professional sports leagues from around the world by total attendances for the last completed season for which data is available.

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List of cities and towns in Germany

This is a complete list of the 2,060 towns and cities in Germany (as of January 1, 2015).

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List of cities in Germany by population

This is a list of cities in Germany by population.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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List of countries by beer consumption per capita

This is a list of countries ordered by annual per capita consumption of beer.

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List of countries by exports

This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on the The World Factbook of the CIA.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions

This is a list of countries by total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2010.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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List of countries by immigrant population

This is a list of countries by immigrant population.

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List of countries by imports

This is a list of countries by imports, based on the World Trade Organization and The World Factbook.

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List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by life expectancy at birth.

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List of countries by motor vehicle production

This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2014 and earlier.

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List of districts of Germany

Germany is divided into 402 administrative districts; these consist of 295 rural districts (German: Kreise and Landkreise), and 107 urban districts (German: Kreisfreie Städte and Stadtkreise – cities that constitute a district in their own right.

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List of former German colonies

This is a list of former German colonies and protectorates (Schutzgebiete) outside of the European borders of Prussia and the German Empire.

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List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions

The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.

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List of German architects

The following are German-born or Germany-based architects listed according to their architectural style.

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List of German cheeses

Cheeses have played a significant role in German cuisine, both historically and in contemporary times.

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List of German inventors and discoverers

---- This is a list of German inventors and discoverers.

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List of German wine regions

German wine regions are classified according to the quality category that the wine falls into - Tafelwein, Landwein, Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA) and Prädikatswein.

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List of magazines in Germany

The following is an incomplete list of current and defunct magazines published in Germany. Their language may be German or other languages.

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List of national parks of Germany

The following are the 15 national parks of Germany, sorted from North to South: Germany also has 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks.

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List of nature parks in Germany

Ninety eight official nature parks (Naturparks) have been established in Germany under section 22, paragraph 4 of that country's Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG).

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List of newspapers in Germany

The number of national daily newspapers in Germany was 598 in 1950, whereas it was 375 in 1965.

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List of oldest universities in continuous operation

This is a list of the oldest existing universities in the world.

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List of radio stations in Germany

The List of radio stations in Germany lists all radio stations broadcast in Germany, sorted first by legal status, then by area.

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List of seaside resorts in Germany

The following is a list of state-accredited seaside resorts in Germany.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rate

This is a list of all countries and dependent territories by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density

This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.

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List of spa towns in Germany

The following is a list of spa towns in Germany.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire

This list of States which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.

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List of universities in Germany

This is a list of the universities in Germany, of which there are about seventy.

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List of water sports

There are a large number of sports that involve water.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Germany

There are 40 official UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany: 37 cultural sites and two natural sites.

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List of world's busiest container ports

This is a list of the world's busiest container ports by total number of actual twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port.

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Live birth (human)

In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact.

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Lorelei

The name comes from the old German words lureln, Rhine dialect for "murmuring", and the Celtic term ley "rock".

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen; Nedersaksen) is a German state (Bundesland) situated in northwestern Germany and is second in area, with, and fourth in population (8 million) among the sixteen Länder of Germany.

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Lucas Cranach the Elder

Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.

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Ludwig Erhard

Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.

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Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Ludwigshafen

Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Lufthansa

Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is a German airline and also the largest airline in Europe, both in terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size when combined with its subsidiaries.

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Lusatia

Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Lužice) is an historical region in Central Europe.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union or TEU) undertaken to integrate Europe was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands.

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Magdeburg

Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Mainz

Mainz (Mogontiacum) (Mayence), formerly known in English as Mentz, is the capital of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.

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Markus Lüpertz

Markus Lüpertz (born 25 April 1941 in Reichenberg, now Liberec) is a contemporary German painter, sculptor, writer, art educator, and jazz pianist.

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Marlene Dietrich

Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992) was a German-American actress and singer.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition, particularly within the fields of existential phenomenology and philosophical hermeneutics.

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Martin Kippenberger

Martin Kippenberger (25 February 1953 – 7 March 1997) was a German artist known for his extremely prolific output in a wide range of styles and media, superfiction as well as his provocative, jocular and hard-drinking public persona.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German friar, priest, professor of theology, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Mass media

The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann

Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (May 3, 1662 - January 17, 1736) was a German master builder who helped to rebuild Dresden after the fire of 1685.

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Matthias Grünewald

Matthias Grünewald (– August 31, 1528) was a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century.

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Mauer 1

The Mauer 1 mandible is the oldest fossilized specimen of the genus Homo ever to be discovered in Germany.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Max Ernst

Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet.

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Max Horkheimer

Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a German Jewish philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the 'Frankfurt School' of social research.

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Max Liebermann

Max Liebermann (20 July 1847 – 8 February 1935) was a German-Jewish painter and printmaker, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1948 and named in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

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Max Skladanowsky

Max Skladanowsky (April 30, 1863 – November 30, 1939) was a German inventor and early filmmaker.

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Müritz National Park

The Müritz National Park (Müritz-Nationalpark) is a national park situated roughly in the middle between Berlin and Rostock, in the south of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (also known as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in English, nicknamed MV or MeckPomm) is a federated state in northern Germany.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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Memory of the World Programme

UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.

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Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz is a German automobile manufacturer, a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century AD.

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Metro AG

Metro AG, otherwise known as Metro Group, is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf.

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Metropolis (1927 film)

Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist epic science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang.

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Metropolitan regions in Germany

The metropolitan regions in Germany are eleven densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Michael Michalsky

Michael Michalsky (born 23 February 1967 in Göttingen) is a German fashion designer.

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Michael Schumacher

Michael Schumacher (born 3 January 1969) is a retired German racing driver.

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Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin) are a series of annual guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than one hundred years.

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Microbiology

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Migration Period

The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.

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Minister President of Prussia

The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.

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Mittelstand

Mittelstand refers to small and medium-sized enterprises in German-speaking countries, especially in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

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Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system originally used to elect representatives to the German Bundestag, which has now been adopted by several other legislatures around the world.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.

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Modern Talking

Modern Talking was a German duo consisting of Thomas Anders and Dieter Bohlen.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.

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Monday demonstrations in East Germany

The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 (Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that took place every Monday evening.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mouflon

The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).

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Multinational state

A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations.

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Munich

Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Munich Airport

Munich Airport, Flughafen München, is the international airport of Munich, the capital of Bavaria.

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Murderers Among Us

Die Mörder sind unter uns, a German film known in English as Murderers Among Us in the United States or The Murderers Are Among Us in the United Kingdom) was one of the first post-World War II German films and the first Trümmerfilm. It was produced in 1945 and 1946 in the Althoff-Atelier in Babelsberg and in Jofa-Ateliers in Johannisthal. It was written and directed by Wolfgang Staudte.

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Music of Germany

In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, producers and performers of the world.

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Nadja Auermann

Nadja Auermann (born 19 March 1971) is a German model and actress.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Day

The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.

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Nativity play

A Nativity play or Christmas pageant is a play which recounts the story of the Nativity of Jesus.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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NATO bombing of Yugoslavia

The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War.

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Nazi concentration camps

Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.

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Nazi seizure of power

The Nazi Seizure of Power (German: Machtergreifung) refers to the acquisition by Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist Party of the chancellorship of Germany, and of several other high-ranking cabinet posts, on 30 January 1933, following the appointment of Hitler as chancellor by the aged President Paul von Hindenburg, then 84.

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Neandertal

The Neandertal (sometimes called in English "the Neander Valley") is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about east of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Neanderthal

The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.

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Neanderthal 1

Feldhofer 1, Neanderthal 1 is the scientific name of the 40,000 year old type specimen fossil of the species ''Homo neanderthalensis'', found in a German cave, Kleine Feldhofer Grotte, east of Düsseldorf, located in the Neandertal valley, also known as the Neander Valley in August 1856.

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Nebra (Unstrut)

Nebra (official name: Nebra (Unstrut)) is a town in the district of Burgenlandkreis of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Nebra sky disk

The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter and a weight of 2.2 kg, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols.

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Neckarsulm

Neckarsulm is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, near Stuttgart, and part of the district Heilbronn.

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Nena

Gabriele Susanne Kerner (born 24 March 1960), better known by her stage name Nena, is a German singer-songwriter, actress, and comedienne who rose to international fame in 1983 with the New German Wave song "99 Luftballons".

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Neo Rauch

Neo Rauch (born 18 April 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany) is a German artist whose paintings mine the intersection of his personal history with the politics of industrial alienation.

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Neo-expressionism

Neo-expressionism is a style of late-modernist or early-postmodern painting and sculpture that emerged in the late 1970s.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Neue Deutsche Welle

Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW,; "New German Wave") is a genre of German music originally derived from post-punk and new wave music.

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Neuschwanstein Castle

Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.

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New German Cinema

New German Cinema (Neuer Deutscher Film) is a period in German cinema which lasted from the late 1960s into the 1980s.

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New Imperialism

The New Imperialism (sometimes Neoimperialism or Neo-imperialism) was a period of colonial expansion—and its accompanying ideologies—by the European powers, the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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New Leipzig School

The term New Leipzig School (Neue Leipziger Schule) refers to a movement in modern German painting.

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New Objectivity

The New Objectivity (in Neue Sachlichkeit) is a term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it.

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New Objectivity (architecture)

The New Objectivity (a translation of the German Neue Sachlichkeit, sometimes also translated as New Sobriety) is a name often given to the Modern architecture that emerged in Europe, primarily German-speaking Europe, in the 1920s and 30s.

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New states of Germany

The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Nina Hagen

Catharina "Nina" Hagen (born 11 March 1955) is a German singer and actress.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nordic Bronze Age

The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.

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North Africa

North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.

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North African Campaign

During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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North Atlantic Current

The North Atlantic Current (also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement) is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast.

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North German Confederation

The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was a federation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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North Rhine-Westphalia

North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)) is the most populous state of Germany, as well as the fourth largest by area. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly parts of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf; the biggest city is Cologne. Four of Germany's ten biggest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, and Essen—are located in North Rhine-Westphalia. The state is currently run by a coalition of the Social Democrats (SPD) and Greens.

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North Sea

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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November Group (German)

The November Group (Novembergruppe) was a group of German expressionist artists and architects.

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Nowhere in Africa

Nowhere in Africa (Nirgendwo in Afrika) is a 2001 German film that was written and directed by Caroline Link.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear power in Germany

Nuclear power in Germany accounted for 17.7% of national electricity supply in 2011, compared to 22.4% in 2010.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nuremberg

Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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Nuremberg Laws

The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany.

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Nuremberg trials

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who allegedly planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

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Occupation of the Ruhr

The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Oktoberfest

Oktoberfest is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair).

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050 AD.

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Ole Scheeren

Ole Scheeren (born 1971, Karlsruhe) is a German architect and principal of Büro Ole Scheeren with offices in Beijing, Hong Kong and London and a visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Weserübung

Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.

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Organic food

Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming.

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Ostpolitik

Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, refers to the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), also called German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of German speakers from the Holy Roman Empire (primarily present-day southern and western Germany) into less-populated regions of Eastern Europe.

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Oswald Mathias Ungers

Oswald Mathias Ungers (July 12, 1926 – September 30, 2007) was a German architect and architectural theorist, known for his rationalist designs and the use of cubic forms.

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Otto Hahn

Otto Hahn,, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and the radiochemical proof of nuclear fission.

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Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), also known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973.

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Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto III (Jun/Jul 980 - 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.

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Otto Lilienthal

Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the Glider King.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.

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Ottonian architecture

Ottonian Architecture is an architectural style which evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975).

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Ottonian dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of German Kings (919–1024), named after its first Emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin.

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Outline of Germany

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Germany: Germany – federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe consisting of 16 constituent states, which retain limited sovereignty.

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Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France.

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Pan-Germanism

Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung) is a pan-nationalist political idea.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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Paul Kalkbrenner

Paul Kalkbrenner (born 11 June 1977) is a German live act, producer of electronic music, and actor from Berlin.

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Paul van Dyk

Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk (born 16 December 1971 in Eisenhüttenstadt, East Germany) is a German Grammy Award-winning electronic dance music DJ, musician and record producer.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Generalfeldmarschall, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany (1925–34).

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PC Games (magazine)

PC Games is a monthly released PC game magazine, published by the Computec Media AG GmbH in Germany.

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Peace of Augsburg

The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany.

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Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster.

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Performance art

Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.

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Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.

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Perspectivism

Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the term coined by Friedrich Nietzsche in developing the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter.

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Peter Robert Keil

Peter Robert Keil (* 6 August 1942 in Züllichau, Pomerania) is a German painter and sculptor.

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Philipp Plein

Philipp Patrick Plein (born 1978 in Munich) is a German fashion designer and founder of the namesake luxury brand PHILIPP PLEIN that includes menswear, womenswear, accessories and children’s apparel.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Piranha Bytes

Piranha Bytes is a German video game developer known for their Gothic role-playing video game series.

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Pizza

Pizza is a flatbread generally topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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Poles

The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.

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Politburo

A politburo is the executive committee for a number of (usually communist) political parties.

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Political crime

In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system.

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Pop music

Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.

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Pop rock

Pop rock is a music genre that mixes a catchy pop style and light lyrics in its (typically) guitar-based rock songs.

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Pope Gregory V

Pope Gregory V, né Bruno of Carinthia (Gregorius V; c. 972 – 18 February 999) was Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.

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Porajmos

The Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), was the planned and attempted effort, often described as a genocide, during World War II by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani (Gypsy) people of Europe.

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Porsche

Dr.

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Port of Hamburg

The Port of Hamburg (German mostly: Hamburger Hafen, in official usage also Hafen Hamburg) is a port in Hamburg, Germany, on the river Elbe.

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Potash

Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.

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Potsdam

Potsdam, is the capital city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.

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Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

The Pragmatic Sanction (Sanctio Pragmatica) was an edict issued by Charles VI on 19 April 1713, to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by a daughter.

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Pre-Roman Iron Age

The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/4th–1st century BC) was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlands north of the Rhine River.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls under gravity.

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President of Germany

The President of Germany, officially the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in an international context; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.

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President of the Bundestag

The President of the Bundestag (Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries.

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Prime minister

A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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Prince-elector

The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having since the 13th century the privilege of electing the King of the Romans or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Pritzker Architecture Prize

The Pritzker Architecture Prize was founded in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker to honor outstanding living architects worldwide.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Product design

Product design as a verb is the process of creating a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.

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ProSiebenSat.1 Media

ProSiebenSat.1 Media SE (officially abbreviated as P7S1, and until July 7, 2015, ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG) is a German mass media company.

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Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.

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Prussia

Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.

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Prussian blue

Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment with the idealized chemical formula Fe7(CN)18.

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Prussian Union of churches

The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major church body which emerged in the 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church in Prussia.

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Public holidays in Germany

Except for the national holiday (German Unity Day), public holidays in Germany (gesetzliche Feiertage) are determined by the federal states.

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Puma SE

Puma SE (officially branded as PUMA) is a major German multinational company that produces athletic and casual footwear, as well as sportswear, headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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Quedlinburg

Quedlinburg is a medieval German town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Queen consort

A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).

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Radiochemistry

Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).

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Rainer Fetting

Rainer Fetting (* 31 December 1949 in Wilhelmshaven, Germany) is a German painter and sculptor.

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Rainer Werner Fassbinder

Rainer Werner Fassbinder (31 May 1945 – 10 June 1982) was a German film director, screenwriter, and actor.

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Rammstein

Rammstein is a German Neue Deutsche Härte band, formed in 1994 in Berlin.

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Rationalism

In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Rügen

Rügen (also lat. Rugia, Ruegen or Rugia Island) is Germany's largest island by area.

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Realschule

Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Estonia.

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Red fox

The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, is the largest of the true foxes and the most abundant wild member of the Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Red–green alliance

In politics, a red–green alliance or red–green coalition is an alliance of "red" social-democratic or democratic socialist parties with "green" environmentalist or sometimes Nordic agrarian parties.

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Refugee

A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.

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Regensburg

Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, situated at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River.

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Regierungsbezirk

Regierungsbezirk (abbreviated Reg.-Bez.) is an administrative region on federal state level in Germany.

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Regiopolis

A regiopolis is a city outside a metropolitan area, that serves as an independent driving force for development within a larger region.

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Reichstag building

The Reichstag building (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag), of the German Empire.

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Reichstag fire

The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933.

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Reichstag Fire Decree

The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933.

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Reichswehr

The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").

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Reinheitsgebot

The Reinheitsgebot (literally "purity order"), sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" in English, is the collective name for a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and its predecessor states.

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Renaissance architecture

Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Republic of Florence

The Republic of Florence, or the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy.

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Republic of Genoa

The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova, Repúbrica de Zêna) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.

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Research and development

Research and Development (R&D), also known in Europe as research and technical (or technological) development (RTD), is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation.

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Resort architecture

Resort architecture or Bäder architecture (Bäderarchitektur) is an architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts on the German Baltic coast.

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Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.

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Rhine-Ruhr

The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 11 million inhabitants.

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland) has become the name for several areas of Western Germany along the Middle and Lower Rhine.

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Rhineland-Palatinate

Rhineland-Palatinate (German: Rheinland-Pfalz,; Rhénanie-Palatinat) is one of the 16 states (German: Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Right of return

The right of return is a principle which is drawn from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, intended to enable people to return to, and re-enter, their country of origin.

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Robert Koch

Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist.

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Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and influential music critic.

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Robert Wiene

Robert Wiene (27 April 1873 – 17 July 1938) was an important film director of the German silent cinema.

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Roman Catholicism in Germany

The Roman Catholic Church in Germany, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, is under the leadership of the Pope, assisted by the Roman Curia, and of the German bishops.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romanesque Revival architecture

Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque architecture.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany, Gypsy, or Gipsy; romani ćhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romantic Road

The Romantic Road (Romantische Straße) is a "theme route" devised by promotion-minded travel agents in the 1950s.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Rowing (sport)

Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times.

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Rubble film

Rubble film (Trümmerfilm) was an aesthetic choice for those films made directly after World War II dealing with the impact of the battles in the countries at the center of the war.

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Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine and his mysterious death.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials.

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Rur Dam

The Rur Dam (Rurtalsperre Schwammenauel) is a 77.2 metre high dam located in the southwestern part of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saar (League of Nations)

The Territory of the Saar Basin (French: Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre; German: Saarbeckengebiet), also referred as the Saar or Saargebiet, was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.

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Saarbrücken

Saarbrücken (ltz. Saarbrécken, fr. Sarrebruck, local dialect Saarbrigge) is the capital of the state of Saarland, Germany.

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Saarland

The Saarland (German: das Saarland –; la Sarre -) is one of the sixteen federal states (or Bundesländer) of Germany.

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Sailing

Sailing is combined wind propulsion by means of sails and steering of a craft on water, ice or land.

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Salian dynasty

The Salian dynasty, named after the Isalan Salian Franks, was a High Medieval dynasty of four Holy Roman Emperors (1027–1125).

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SAP SE

SAP SE (Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing) is a German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (spoken as "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1966 and 1973.

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Saxon Switzerland National Park

Saxon Switzerland National Park (Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz), is a National Park in the German Free State of Saxony near the capital city of Dresden.

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Saxons

The Saxons (Saxones, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Sachsen, Saksen) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the North German Plain.

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Saxony

The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska; Sasko) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland and the Czech Republic.

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Saxony-Anhalt

Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.

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Süddeutsche Zeitung

The Süddeutsche Zeitung, published in Munich, is the largest German national subscription daily newspaper.

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Schöffe

The German word Schöffe (pl. Schöffen) refers to a lay judge in German-speaking countries.

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Schöningen

Schöningen is a town of about 11,000 inhabitants in the district of Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is the area comprising 26 European countries that have abolished passport and any other type of border control at their common borders, also referred to as internal borders.

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Schlager music

Schlager music (Schlager, iskelmä, synonym of "hit-songs" or "hits"), also known in the United States as entertainer music or German hit mix, is a style of popular or electronic music prevalent in Central and Northern Europe, and Southeast Europe (in particular Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Flanders, Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Switzerland, Turkey, Scandinavia and the Baltic States) and also (to a lesser extent) in France and Poland.

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Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.

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Schwarz Gruppe

Schwarz Gruppe GmbH is a private family-owned German retail group, which owns and operates the Lidl and Kaufland brands.

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Schwerin

Schwerin (or, Latin Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Science and technology in Germany

Germany's achievements in science and technology have been significant and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy.

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Scientific revolution

The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.

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Scooter (band)

Scooter are a German dance/trance group founded in Hamburg, who have sold over 30 million records and earned over 80 Gold and Platinum awards.

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Scorpions (band)

Scorpions are a German rock band founded in 1965 in Hannover by Rudolf Schenker.

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Sebastian Vettel

Sebastian Vettel (born 3 July 1987) is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari.

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Second Merkel cabinet

The second Merkel cabinet was the Government of Germany during the 17th legislative session of the Bundestag following the 2009 federal election, and left office on 17 December 2013.

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Second Schleswig War

The Second Schleswig War (2.; Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question.

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Secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.

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Security

Security is the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm.

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Sergei Tchoban

Sergei Tchoban (Sergei Enwerowitsch Tchoban, r; born 9 October 1962) is a Russian and German Architect working in various cities in Europe and the Russian Federation.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Sicambri

The Sicambri, also known as the Sugambri or Sicambrians, were a Germanic people who during Roman times lived on the right bank of the Rhine river, in what is now Germany, near the border with the Netherlands.

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Siegfried Bing

Siegfried Bing (26 February 1838 – 6 September 1905), who usually gave his name as S. Bing, and was thus often referenced erroneously as "Samuel Bing" (Samuel Otto Bing, 1850–1905, was his brother) was a German-French art dealer who lived in Paris as an adult, and who helped introduce Japanese art and artworks to the West and was a factor in the development of the Art Nouveau style during the late nineteenth century.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich.

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Sigmar Polke

Sigmar Polke (13 February 1941 – 10 June 2010) was a German painter and photographer.

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Sinti

The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing. Sinto fem. sing. Sintesa) are a Romani people of Central Europe.

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Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses.

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Slavs

The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

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Small and medium-sized enterprises

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs; sometimes also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

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Social market economy

The social market economy (Soziale Marktwirtschaft) is a form of market capitalism combined with a social policy favoring social insurance, and is sometimes classified as a coordinated market economy.

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Social network game

A social network game is a type of online game that is played through social networks, and typically features multiplayer and asynchronous gameplay mechanics.

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Socialist Unity Party of Germany

The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED') was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from its formation in 1946 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.

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Sorbian languages

The Sorbian languages (Serbsce, Serbski) are two closely related languages spoken by the Sorbs, a Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.

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Sorbs

Sorbs (Serbja; Serby; also known as Wends, Lusatian Sorbs or Lusatian Serbs) are a Western Slavic people of Central Europe living predominantly in Lusatia, a region on the territory of Germany and Poland.

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Sound film

A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.

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Southern Europe

Most definitions of Southern Europe include the countries of the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the Italian peninsula, France (only Southern France) and Greece.

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SpellForce: The Order of Dawn

SpellForce: The Order of Dawn is a real-time strategy and role-playing video game developed by German game studio Phenomic Game Development and released on 11 November 2003 in Europe and on 11 February 2004 in North America.

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Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München

The Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München (public Royal Brewery in Munich, also Hofbräu München) is a brewery in Munich, Germany, owned by the Bavarian state government.

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Stab-in-the-back myth

The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy.

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Standard German

Standard German (Standarddeutsch or Hochdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.

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Stasi

The Ministry for State Security (German: Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS), commonly known as the Stasi (abbreviation Staatssicherheit, literally State Security), also State Security Service (German Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), or Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), colloquially known as East Germany.

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State of Defence (Germany)

The term State of Defence (in German: Verteidigungsfall or V-Fall) refers to the legal status of the Federal Republic of Germany if it is "under attack by armed force or imminently threatened with such an attack".

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states (Bundesland, or Land).

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States of the German Confederation

The States of the German Confederation were those member states that from 20 June 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 24 August 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial House of Habsburg, which was represented by an Austrian presidential envoy to the Federal diet in Frankfurt.

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Stem duchy

The stem duchies (Stammesherzogtümer, from Stamm "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) were the constituent duchies of the kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.

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Stern (magazine)

Stern (German for "Star") is a weekly news magazine published in Hamburg, Germany, by Gruner + Jahr, a subsidiary of Bertelsmann.

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Stock

The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners.

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

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Stollen

Stollen is a fruit cake containing dried fruit and often marzipan and covered with sugar, powdered sugar or icing sugar.

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Strafgesetzbuch

Strafgesetzbuch is the German name for Penal Code and is abbreviated to StGB.

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Stralsund

Stralsund, is a Hanseatic city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.

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Stuttgart

Stuttgart (Swabian: Schduagert) is the capital and largest city of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.

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Supermodel

A supermodel (also spelled super-model and super model) is a highly paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling.

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Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

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Sushi

is a Japanese food consisting of cooked combined with other, seafood, vegetables and sometimes tropical fruits.

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Sustainable energy

Sustainable energy is the form of energy obtained from non-exhaustible resources, such that the provision of this form of energy serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

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Swabian cuisine

In comparison to the more French-influenced Baden cuisine, Swabian cuisine is rather simple and down-to-earth.

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Swabian Jura

The Swabian Jura (more rarely), sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a low mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending from southwest to northeast and in width.

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Swimming (sport)

Swimming is an individual or team sport and activity.

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Sylt

Sylt (Sild; Söl'ring North Frisian: Söl) is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, and well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.

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Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, gossip columns about the personal lives of celebrities and sports stars, and junk food news.

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Tacitus

Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56 – after 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Taliban

The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternately spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan.

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Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.

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Tangerine Dream

Tangerine Dream are a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese.

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Tatjana Patitz

Tatjana Patitz (born 25 March 1966) is a German model and actress.

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Tear down this wall!

"Tear down this wall!" was the challenge issued by United States President Ronald Reagan to Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev to destroy the Berlin Wall, in a speech at the Brandenburg Gate near the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, commemorating the 750th anniversary of Berlin.

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Techno

Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.

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Telephone numbers in Germany

The regulation of telephone numbers in Germany is the responsibility of the Federal Network Agency (German: Bundesnetzagentur, BNetzA) of the German government.

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Television in Germany

Television in Germany began in Berlin on 22 March 1935, broadcasting for 90 minutes three times a week.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).

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The Art Newspaper

The Art Newspaper is a monthly newspaper about the visual arts based in London established in 1983 and published by the Italian publishing house Umberto Allemandi.

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The Blue Angel

The Blue Angel (Der blaue Engel) is a 1930 German tragicomedic film directed by Josef von Sternberg and starring Emil Jannings, Marlene Dietrich and Kurt Gerron.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international news organization that delivers global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, daily news briefing, email newsletters, Amazon Kindle subscription, and mobile site.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.

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The Journal of Legal Studies

The Journal of Legal Studies is a law journal published by the University of Chicago Press focusing on interdisciplinary academic research in law and legal institutions.

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The Lives of Others

The Lives of Others (Das Leben der Anderen) is a 2006 German drama film, marking the feature film debut of filmmaker Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, about the monitoring of East Berlin residents by agents of the Stasi, the GDR's secret police.

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The NeverEnding Story (film)

The NeverEnding Story (German: Die unendliche Geschichte) is a 1984 West German (English language), epic fantasy film based on the novel of the same name by Michael Ende, about a boy who reads a magical library book that tells a story of a young warrior whose task is to stop a dark storm called the Nothing from engulfing a fantasy world.

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The Ninety-Five Theses

The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Godness power (original Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum) were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the 1920s to 1945.

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The Settlers

The Settlers is a video game series.

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The Tin Drum (film)

The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel) is a 1979 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Günter Grass.

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The White Ribbon

The White Ribbon is a 2009 black-and-white German-language drama film written and directed by Michael Haneke.

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Theodiscus

Theodiscus, the Latinised form of a Germanic word meaning "vernacular" or "of the common people", is a Medieval Latin adjective referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle Ages.

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Theodor Fontane

Theodor Fontane (30 December 1819 – 20 September 1898) was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.

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Theodor W. Adorno

Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher and composer known for his critical theory of society.

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Third Merkel cabinet

The incumbent government of Germany, the third cabinet of Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel, was sworn in on 17 December 2013.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Thomas Mann

Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.

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Thuringia

The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.

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Thuringii

The Thuringii or Toringi were a Germanic tribe which appeared late during the Völkerwanderung in the Harz Mountains of central Germania around 280, in a region which still bears their name to this day — Thuringia.

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Tocotronic

Tocotronic is a German rock band founded in 1993 (see 1993 in music).

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Togoland

Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914, encompassing what is now the nation of Togo and most of what is now the Volta Region of Ghana.

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Tokio Hotel

Tokio Hotel is a German pop-rock / alternative rock band, founded in 2001 by singer Bill Kaulitz, guitarist Tom Kaulitz, drummer Gustav Schäfer, and bassist Georg Listing.

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Toni Garrn

Antonia (Toni) Garrn (born 7 July 1992) is a German model.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.

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Transmediale

is an annual festival for media art and digital culture taking place for one week in February in Berlin, Germany.

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Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen—called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English—in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement which amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).

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Treaty of Verdun

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.

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Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland (or the Two Plus Four Agreement, Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty) was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous "Two"), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Trio (band)

Trio was a German band, formed in the small German town of Großenkneten in 1980.

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Triple Alliance (1882)

The Triple Alliance was a military alliance among Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy.

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Triumph of the Will

Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) is a 1935 propaganda film directed, produced, edited and co-written by Leni Riefenstahl.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.

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Turrican

Turrican is a 1990 video game programmed and designed by Manfred Trenz.

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Ubisoft Blue Byte

Ubisoft Blue Byte (formerly Blue Byte Software) is a video game developer and publisher based in Düsseldorf, Germany, founded in 1988.

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UEFA Euro 1988

The 1988 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in West Germany between 10 and 25 June 1988.

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UEFA European Championship

The UEFA European Championship, or simply, The Euros, is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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Unification of Germany

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace in the Hall of Mirrors in France.

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United and uniting churches

United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Arabic:(قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL Arabic:(يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, was originally created by the United Nations Arabic:(الأمم المتحدة), with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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Universal health care

Universal health care, sometimes referred to as universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care, usually refers to a health care system which provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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University of Freiburg

The University of Freiburg (German Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, colloquially Uni Freiburg), sometimes referred to with its full title, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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University of Greifswald

The University of Greifswald (Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald) is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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University of Rostock

The University of Rostock (Rostock University, Universität Rostock) is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Upper Swabian Baroque Route

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route (Oberschwäbische Barockstraße) is a tourist theme route through Upper Swabia, following the themes of "nature, culture, baroque".

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p; Урал тауҙары), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Urban area

An urban area is a location characterized by high human population density and vast human-built features in comparison to the areas surrounding it.

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USA Today

USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.

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Ute Lemper

Ute Lemper (born 4 July 1963) is a German singer and actress renowned for her interpretation of the work of Kurt Weill.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi/Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.

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V-2 rocket

The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat-4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Venus of Hohle Fels

The Venus of Hohle Fels (also known as the Venus of Schelklingen; in German variously Venus vom Hohlen Fels, vom Hohle Fels; Venus von Schelklingen) is an Upper Paleolithic figurine of a woman hewn from the ivory of a mammoth tusk that was found in 2008 near Schelklingen, Germany.

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Vernacular

A vernacular or vernacular language is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary, national or standard language, or a lingua franca used in the region or state inhabited by that population.

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Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Video gaming in Germany

Germany has the largest video games market in Europe, outpacing the United Kingdom.

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Vocational education

Vocational education is education within vocational schools that prepares people for a specific trade.

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Volker Schlöndorff

Volker Schlöndorff (born 31 March 1939) is a Berlin-based German filmmaker who has worked in Germany, France and the United States.

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Volkswagen

Volkswagen (VW) is a German car manufacturer headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Volunteer fire department

A volunteer fire department (VFD) is a fire department composed of volunteers who perform fire suppression and other related emergency services for a local jurisdiction.

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Wadden Sea National Parks

The Wadden Sea National Parks in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands are located along the German Bight of the North Sea.

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Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.

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Walther von der Vogelweide

Walther von der Vogelweide (c. 1170 – c. 1230) is the most celebrated of the Middle High German lyric poets.

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War crimes of the Wehrmacht

War crimes of the Wehrmacht were those carried out by the German armed forces during World War II.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.

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War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War, led by the USSR.

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Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Канди́нский, Vasiliy Vasil’yevich Kandinskiy,; – 13 December 1944) was an influential Russian painter and art theorist.

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Water resource management

Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.

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Water supply and sanitation in Germany

*This article has been written in 2007/08.

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Weihnachten

Weihnachten is the observance of what is commonly known in English as Christmas Day in the German-speaking countries like Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

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Weimar

Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.

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Weimar Constitution

The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933).

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire.

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Weisswurst

A Weisswurst (German Weißwurst, literally white sausage; Weißwuascht) is a traditional Bavarian sausage made from minced veal and pork back bacon.

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Welfare in Germany

Social security in Germany is codified on the Sozialgesetzbuch, or the "Social Code", contains 12 main parts, including the following,.

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Wendelstein 7-X

Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental stellarator (nuclear fusion reactor) currently being built in Greifswald, Germany by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), which will be completed by 2015.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Werner Herzog

Werner Herzog Stipetić (born 5 September 1942), known as Werner Herzog, is a German film director, producer, screenwriter, author, actor and opera director.

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Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and later American) aerospace engineer and space architect credited with inventing the V-2 Rocket and the Saturn V, for Nazi Germany and the United States, respectively.

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Weser Renaissance

Weser Renaissance is a form of Renaissance architectural style that is found in the area around the River Weser in central Germany and which has been well preserved in the towns and cities of the region.

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Wessobrunner School

The Wessobrunner School is the name for a group of Baroque stucco-workers that, beginning at the end of the 17th century, developed in the Benedictine Wessobrunn Abbey in Bavaria, Germany.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park

The Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park (Nationalpark Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft) is Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's largest national park, situated at the coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Wiesbaden

Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II or William II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

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William I, German Emperor

William I, also known as Wilhelm I (full name: William Frederick Louis, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was the King of Prussia (2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888), as well as the first Head of State of a united Germany.

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William L. Shirer

William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.

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Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman and politician, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1969 to 1974.

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Wilstermarsch

Wilstermarsch is an Amt ("collective municipality") in the district of Steinburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Wim Wenders

Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, photographer, and a major figure in New German Cinema.

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Wirtschaftswunder

The term (German for "economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism based social market economy).

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Wismar

Wismar is a port and hanseatic city in Northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Wittenberg

Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a city in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (English see fn.; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.

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Wolfgang Joop

Wolfgang Joop (born November 18, 1944 in Potsdam) is a German fashion designer.

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Wolfgang Staudte

Wolfgang Staudte (9 October 1906 – 19 January 1984), born Georg Friedrich Staudte, was a German film director, script writer and actor.

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Wolfram von Eschenbach

Wolfram von Eschenbach (c. 1170 – c. 1220) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of his time.

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Wolfsburg

Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony.

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Woodland

Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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Wooga

Wooga is a mobile-first game developer located in Berlin, Germany.

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Workforce

The workforce or labour force (also labor force in the United States) is the labour pool in employment.

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Workforce productivity

Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.

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Working language

A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Europe and North America

Under UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme, there are currently 297 biosphere reserves recognized as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Europe and North America.

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World Tourism Organization

The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War I casualties

The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million: over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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World War II casualties

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total dead.

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X-ray

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Yager Development

Yager Development is an independent German video game developer founded in 1999 by 5 developers and artists.

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York University

York University (Université York) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Youth unemployment

Youth unemployment is the unemployment of young people, defined by the United Nations as 14–28 years old.

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Zillierbach Dam

The Zillierbach Dam (Zillierbachtalsperre) lies in the East Harz in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt near the town of Elbingerode (Harz) and impounds the Zillierbach stream.

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Zivildienst

Zivildienst (German, translated verbatim to "Civilian Service", although "compulsory paid community service" is more contextually equivalent. However the official translation by the German government is "alternative civilian service") is the civilian branch of the national service systems in Austria and Switzerland.

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Zollverein

The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.

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Zugspitze

The Zugspitze, at 2,962 m (9,718 ft) above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany.

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Zwickau Hauptbahnhof

Zwickau Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station of Zwickau in the German state of Saxony.

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Zwinger (Dresden)

The Zwinger (Dresdner Zwinger) is a palace in Dresden, eastern Germany, built in Rococo style and designed by court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann.

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.de

.de is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Federal Republic of Germany.

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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16th meridian east

The meridian 16° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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1936 Summer Olympics

The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany.

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1936 Winter Olympics

The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1936), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany.

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1972 Summer Olympics

The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

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1974 FIFA World Cup

The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany (including West Berlin) from 13 June to 7 July.

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2006 FIFA World Cup

The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.

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2011 German Census

According to the 2011 German Census there are 80.2 million German citizens.

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20th-century classical music

20th-century classical music was without a dominant style and highly diverse.

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24 Hours of Le Mans

The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.

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47th parallel north

The 47th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 47 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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55th parallel north

The 55th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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5th meridian east

The meridian 5° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Alemanha, Almanya, BR Deutschland, Bundesdeutsch, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Deuchland, Deutchland, Deutschland, Duitsland, Etymology of Germany, F.R. Germany, FR Germany, Federal Republic Of Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, Foederal Republic of Germany, GERMANY, GerMany, Geramny, GermanY, Germanio, Germeny, Germny, ISO 3166-1:DE, Jermany, Land der Dichter und Denker, Nemska, Niemcy, Nimska, Němska, THyskaland, Teutonica, Thyskaland, Tyskland, United States of Germany, Vokietija.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

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