46 relations: Academy of Persian Language and Literature, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar Velayati, Ali Khamenei, Ali Larijani, Alireza Rajaei, Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, Arabic, Expediency Discernment Council, Guardian Council, Hassan Habibi, Hossein Nasr, Hossein Saffar Harandi, Immanuel Kant, International Science Olympiad, Iran, Iranian Cultural Revolution, Iranian legislative election, 2000, Iranian legislative election, 2004, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian Revolution, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic philosophy, Islamic Republican Party, Marxism, Mehdi Karroubi, Mehr News Agency, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad-Hassan Aboutorabi Fard, Mohammad-Reza Bahonar, Mojtaba Khamenei, Morteza Motahhari, Persian language, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Quran, Reformism, Shia Islam, Shiraz University, Social science, Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution, Sociology, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tehran, Turkish language, University of Tehran, Urdu.
Iran's Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Persian: فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی, pronounced) is a body controlled by the Iranian government presiding over the use of the Persian language.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی), or Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی), born 25 August 1934) is an influential Iranian politician and writer, who was the fourth president of Iran. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 till 2011 when he decided not to nominate himself for the post. He is also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. During the Iran–Iraq War Rafsanjani was the de facto commander-in-chief of the Iranian military. Rafsanjani was elected chairman of the Iranian parliament in 1980 and served until 1989. Rafsanjani also served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997. He played an important role in the choice of Ali Khamenei as Supreme Leader. In 2005 he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but ultimately losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off round of the 2005 election. Rafsanjani has been described as a centrist and a pragmatic conservative. He supports a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries, and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West. In 1997 during the Mykonos trial in Germany, it was declared that Hashemi Rafsanjani (the then president of Iran) alongside of Ayatollah Ali Khameni (supreme leader), Ali-Akbar Velayati (the then foreign minister) and Ali Fallahian (Intelligence Minister) has had role in assassination of Iran's opposition activists in Europe. He is considered to be the richest person in Iran. On 11 May 2013, Rafsanjani entered the race for the June 2013 presidential election, but on 21 May he was disqualified by the Guardian Council.
Ali Akbar Velayati (علیاکبر ولایتی; born 24 June 1945) is an Iranian Conservative politician, academic and diplomat.
Sayyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (fa; born 17 July 1939) is the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran and a Muslim cleric.
Ali Ardashir Amoli Larijani (علی اردشیر آملی لاریجانی; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian philosopher, politician and the current chairman of the Parliament of Iran.
Alireza Rajaei (in Persian: علیرضا رجائی) is an Iranian journalist.
The Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran (ائتلاف آبادگران ایران اسلامی; E'telāf-e Ābādgarān-e Īrān-e Eslāmī), usually shortened to Abadgaran (آبادگران), is an Iranian political federation of parties and organizations.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shora-ye Negahban-e Qanun-e Assassi) is an appointed and constitutionally-mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (29 January 1937 – 31 January 2013) was an Iranian politician, lawyer, scholar and the head of Academy of Persian Language and Literature (from 11 October 2004 to his death in 2013).
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Mohammad-Hossein Saffar-Harandi (born 29 September 1953) is an Iranian politician who was minister of culture and Islamic guidance of Iran from 21 August 2005 until 23 July 2009 when he resigned after opposed the appointment of Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei as vice president.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.
The International Science Olympiads are a group of worldwide annual competitions in various areas of science.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Cultural Revolution (1980–1987) (in Persian: انقلاب فرهنگی) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 18 February 2000, with a second round on 5 May.
The Iranian parliamentary elections of February 20 and May 7, 2004 were a victory for Islamic conservatives over the reformist parties.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.
The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;, Iran Chamber., MS Encarta. October 31, 2009., PDF. Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements. and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121 and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracyInternational Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261 based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath). Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (مجلس شورای اسلامی Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), or the People's House (خانه ملت), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Islamic philosophy is the systematic investigation of problems connected with life, the universe, ethics, society, and so on as conducted in the Muslim world.
The Islamic Republican Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی), or IRP, was the only-legal political party in Iran, formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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Mehdi Karroubi ((Luri/Persian:مهدی کروبی), Mehdī Karrūbĩ; born 26 September 1937) is an influential Iranian reformist politician, democracy activist, mojtahed, and chairman of the National Trust Party.
The Mehr News Agency (MNA) is an Iranian news agency headquartered in Tehran, owned by the Islamic Ideology Dissemination Organization (IIDO).
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf or Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician, professor, a former IRGC Air Force and a Pilot of Iran Air and police commander.
Mohammad-Hassan Aboutorabi Fard (محمد حسن ابوترابی فرد in Persian) is the conservative first deputy speaker of the Parliament of Iran.
Mohammad-Reza Bahonar (محمدرضا باهنر, born 2 February 1952) is an Iranian principlist politician and who is currently member of the Parliament of Iran.
Sayyed Mojtaba Hosseini Khamenei (سید مجتبی حسینی خامنهای; born 1969) is an Iranian hard-line cleric and a son of Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Morteza Motahhari (31 January 1919 – 1 May 1979) (مرتضی مطهری) was an Iranian cleric, philosopher, lecturer, and politician.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science (Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können) is a book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, published in 1783, two years after the first edition of his Critique of Pure Reason.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).
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Reformism is the belief that gradual changes through and within existing institutions can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic system and political structures.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Shiraz University (دانشگاه شیراز Dāneshgāh-e-Shirāz), formerly known as Pahlavi University, is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution (جمعیت ایثارگران انقلاب اسلامی Jam`iyat-e Isargaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami) is a legally existent, conservative Iranian political party.
Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior, including its origins, development, organization, and institutions.
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The Supreme Leader of Iran (ولی فقیه ایران,, lit. Guardian Jurist of Iran, or رهبر انقلاب,, lit. Leader of the Revolution), officially in Iran, the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Tehran (also Romanized as Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
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Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.
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