156 relations: Aeron (kingdom), Ammianus Marcellinus, Ancient Germanic law, Aneirin, Angles, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon law, Anglo-Saxons, Annales Cambriae, Annals of Tigernach, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Archaism, Ayrshire, Áedán mac Gabráin, Bard, Battle of Arfderydd, Battle of Catraeth, Bede, Bernicia, Bo'ness, Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd, Books of authority, Bretons, Brittonic languages, Burgh, Cadrawd Calchfynydd, Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Calchfynydd, Celtic Britons, Celtic law, Celts, Chivalric romance, Civitas, Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire, Coel Hen, Common Brittonic, Common law, Cornish people, Court (royal), Cumberland, Cumbria, Cumbric language, Cunedda, Dalmeny, Danelaw, Dál Riata, De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, Deira, Dent, Cumbria, ..., Dumbarton, Dynod Bwr, Early Irish law, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Edinburgh, Edward Anwyl, Edwin of Northumbria, Elegy, Elmet, England in the Middle Ages, English law, Epigraphy, Ergyng, Firth of Clyde, Firth of Forth, Gaels, Genealogies from Jesus College MS 20, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Germanic peoples, Gildas, Glywysing, Gododdin, Harleian genealogies, Henry II of England, Historia Brittonum, Historia Regum Britanniae, Historical basis for King Arthur, History of Anglo-Saxon England, House of Lancaster, House of York, Humber, Iolo Morganwg, John Davies (historian), John Edward Lloyd, Kelso, Scottish Borders, Kenneth H. Jackson, King Arthur, Kingdom of Gwent, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Kinship, Leges inter Brettos et Scottos, Llywarch Hen, Manaw Gododdin, Matter of Britain, Medieval Welsh literature, Mercia, Middle Ages, Military of ancient Rome, Nennius, Neologism, Norman law, Norsemen, North Yorkshire, Northern England, Novantae, Old Welsh, Oswiu, Paean, Penda of Mercia, Picts, Pseudohistory, Rachel Bromwich, Rheged, Ribble and Alt Estuaries, River Tees, River Tyne, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman law, Scotland, Scotland in the Early Middle Ages, Scottish Borders, Scottish Lowlands, Slamannan, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Solway Firth, Southwestern Brittonic languages, Stirlingshire, Studia Celtica, Sub-Roman Britain, Taliesin, Talorgan I, The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Tractatus of Glanvill, Tragedy, Tribe, University of Wales Press, Urien, Viking expansion, Vita Sancti Wilfrithi, Votadini, Wales, Wales in the Early Middle Ages, Wars of the Roses, Welsh language, Welsh law, Welsh mythology, Welsh Triads, William Forbes Skene, Y Cymmrodor, Y Gododdin, Yan tan tethera, Yorkshire. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
Aeron was a kingdom of the Brythonic-speaking Hen Ogledd (Old North), presumed to have been located in the region of the River Ayr in what is now southwestern Scotland.
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Ammianus Marcellinus (325 330 – after 391) was a fourth-century Roman soldier and historian.
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Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.
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Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.
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The Angles (Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period.
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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
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Anglo-Saxon law (Old English ǣ, later lagu "law"; dōm "decree, judgement") is a body of written rules and customs that were in place during the Anglo-Saxon period in England, before the Norman conquest.
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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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Annales Cambriae (Latin for The Annals of Wales) is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales.
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The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. AT) is a chronicle probably originating in Clonmacnoise, Ireland.
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Archaeologia Cambrensis is an archaeological and historical scholarly journal that is published annually by the Cambrian Archaeological Association.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
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Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir) is a historic county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde.
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Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from circa 574 until circa 609.
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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional poet/story teller, employed by a patron, such as a monarch or nobleman, to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
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The Battle of Arfderydd (also known as Arderydd) was fought, according to the Annales Cambriae, in 573.
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The Battle of Catraeth was fought around AD 600 between a force raised by the Gododdin, a Brythonic people of the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain, and the Angles of Bernicia and Deira.
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Bede (Bǣda or Bēda; 672/673 – 26 May 735), also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth and its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow (see Monkwearmouth-Jarrow), County Durham, both of which were then in the Kingdom of Northumbria.
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Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.
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Borrowstounness commonly known as Bo'ness is a coastal parish in the Central Lowlands of Scotland.
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Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd (The Descent of the Men of the North) is a brief Middle Welsh tract which claims to give the pedigrees of twenty 6th-century rulers of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of southern Scotland and northern England.
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Books of authority is a term used by legal writers to refer to a number of early legal textbooks that are excepted from the rule that textbooks (and all books other than statute or law report) are not treated as authorities by the courts of England and Wales and other common law jurisdictions.
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The Bretons are an ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
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The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig, yethow brythonek/predennek, yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
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A burgh was an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.
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Cadrawd Calchfynydd was king of the obscure Brythonic kingdom of Calchfynydd in the 6th century.
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Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.
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Calchfynydd (Welsh calch "lime" + mynydd "mountain") was an obscure Britonnic kingdom or sub-kingdom of sub-Roman Britain.
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The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.
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A number of law codes have in the past been in use in the various Celtic nations since the Middle Ages.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
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In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
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Clackmannan (Clach Mhanainn, meaning "Stone of Manau"), is a small town and civil parish set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland.
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Clackmannanshire is a historic county and council area in Scotland, bordering the council areas of Stirling, Fife and Perth & Kinross.
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Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages.
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Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.
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Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group associated with Cornwall,: in the south west of Great Britain, administered as part of England, and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom.
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The court of a monarch, or at some periods an important nobleman, is a term for the extended household and all those who regularly attended on the ruler or central figure.
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Cumberland (locally) is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
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Cumbria (locally) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England.
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Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
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Cunedda ap Edern or Cunedda Wledig (5th century) was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd.
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Dalmeny (Dail Mheinidh) is a village and parish in Scotland.
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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
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Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ulster in Ireland, across the North Channel.
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De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (Latin for "On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain") is a work by the 6th-century British cleric St Gildas.
Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a kingdom (559-664 AD) in Northern England which probably emerged when Anglian warriors conquered the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.
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Dent is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, England.
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Dumbarton is a town and burgh which is the administrative centre of the council area of West Dunbartonshire, and formerly of the historic county of Dunbartonshire, in the West-Central Lowlands of Scotland.
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Dynod son of Pabo (Dynod or Dunod ap Pabo; Dunaunt; died c. 595), better known as Dynod the Stout (Dynod Bwr) or Dynod Fawr was the ruler of a small kingdom in the North Pennines in the post-Roman Hen Ogledd ("Old North").
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Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.
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The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Latin: Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum), written by Bede in the 8th century, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman and Celtic Christianity.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
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Sir Edward Anwyl (5 August 1866 – 8 August 1914) was a Welsh academic, specializing in the Celtic languages.
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Edwin (Ēadwine; c. 586 – 12 October 632/633), also known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which later became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death.
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In English literature, an elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
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Elmet was an independent Brittonic kingdom covering a region of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire in the Early Middle Ages, between about the 5th century and early 7th century.
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England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.
English law means the legal system of England and Wales.
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Epigraphy (from the ἐπιγραφή epi-graphē, literally "on-writing", is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
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Ergyng (or Erging) was a Welsh kingdom of the sub-Roman and early medieval period, between the 5th and 7th centuries.
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The Firth of Clyde encloses the largest and deepest coastal waters in the British Isles, sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland.
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The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north and Lothian to the south.
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The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.
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The genealogies from Jesus College MS 20 are a medieval Welsh collection of genealogies preserved in a single manuscript, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Jesus College, MS 20, folios 33r–41r.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.
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The Gododdin were a Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period.
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The Harleian genealogies are a collection of Old Welsh genealogies preserved in British Library, Harleian MS 3859.
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Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
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The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
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Historia Regum Britanniae—in English, The History of the Kings of Britain—is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written c. 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
The historical basis for King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among historians.
In the history of Great Britain, Anglo-Saxon England refers to the historical land roughly corresponding to present-day England, as it existed from the 5th to the 11th century, but not including Devon and Cornwall until the 9th century.
House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
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The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
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The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
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Edward Williams, better known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwg (10 March 1747 – 18 December 1826), was an influential Welsh antiquarian, poet, collector, and literary forger.
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John Davies (25 April 1938 – 16 February 2015) was a Welsh historian, and a television and radio broadcaster.
Sir John Edward Lloyd (who wrote as J. E. Lloyd) (5 May 1861 – 20 June 1947), was a Welsh historian, the author of the first serious history of the country's formative years, A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, 2 vols.
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Kelso (Kelsae Cealsaidh) is a market town in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland.
Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.
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King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th to early 6th century A.D. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians.
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Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.
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The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to Rome which emerged in 5th-century Britain during the Coming of the Saxons.
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The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Kinrick o Scotland; Rìoghachd na h-Alba) was a state in north-west Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.
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Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
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The Leges inter Brettos et Scottos or Laws of the Brets and Scots was a legal codification under David I of Scotland (reigned 1124 – 1153).
Llywarch Hen (meaning 'Llywarch the Old') was a 6th-century prince and poet of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a ruling family in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain (modern southern Scotland and northern England).
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Manaw Gododdin was the narrow coastal region on the south side of the Firth of Forth, part of the Brythonic-speaking Kingdom of Gododdin in the post-Roman Era.
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The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the body of medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
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Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Mercia (Miercna rīce), usually referred to as Mercia, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Roman military was intertwined with the Roman state much more closely than in a modern European nation.
Nennius (also known as Nemnius or Nemnivus) was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.
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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is the name for a relatively new or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been accepted into mainstream language.
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Norman law refers to the customary law of Normandy which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries following the establishment of the Vikings there and which survives today still through the legal systems of Jersey and Guernsey in the Channel Islands.
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Norsemen refers to the group of people who spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between the 8th and 11th centuries.
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North Yorkshire is a county in England.
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Northern England, also known as the North of England, the North or the North Country, is a cultural region of England.
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The Novantae were a people of the late 2nd century who lived in what is now Galloway and Carrick, in southwestern-most Scotland.
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Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
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Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.
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A paean is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving.
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Penda (died 15 November 655)Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the year as 655.
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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
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"Pseudohistory" is a term applied to a type of historical revisionism.
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Rachel Bromwich (30 July 1915 – 15 December 2010) was a British scholar.
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Rheged is described in poetic sources as one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, in the Early Middle Ages.
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The Ribble and Alt Estuaries lie on the Irish Sea coast of the counties of Lancashire and Merseyside in north-west England, and form the boundaries of a number of nature preservation schemes.
The River Tees is in northern England.
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The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
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Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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Scotland in the early Middle Ages, between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 and the rise of the kingdom of Alba in 900, was divided into a series of kingdoms.
The Scottish Borders (The Mairches) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
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The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
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Slamannan (Sliabh Mhanainn) is a village in the south of the Falkirk council area in Central Scotland.
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The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is the senior antiquarian body of Scotland, with its headquarters in the National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh.
The Solway Firth (Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria (including the Solway Plain) and Dumfries and Galloway.
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The Southwestern Brittonic languages are the Brittonic Celtic tongues spoken in South West England and Brittany since the Early Middle Ages.
Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling (Coontie o Stirlin, Siorrachd Sruighlea) is a registration county of Scotland, based in Stirling, the county town.
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Studia Celtica is an annual journal published in Wales containing scholarly articles on linguistic topics, mainly in English but with some Welsh and German; it also contains book reviews and obituaries.
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Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeological label for the material culture of Great Britain in Late Antiquity.
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Taliesin (6th century; was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Eleven of the preserved poems have been dated to as early as the 6th century, and were ascribed to the historical Taliesin. The bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he also served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 583), are referred to in other sources. His name, spelled as Taliessin in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works, means "shining brow" in Middle Welsh. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is often referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd ("Taliesin, Chief of Bards" or chief of poets). He is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen ("Talhaearn Father of the Muse"), Aneirin, Blwchfardd, and Cian Gwenith Gwawd ("Cian Wheat of Song"), in the Historia Brittonum, and is also mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin. Taliesin was highly regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends.Griffin (1887) According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, and prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In later stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur. His legendary biography is found in several late renderings (see below), the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century.
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Talorcan (or Talorgan) mac Enfret (died 657) was a King of the Picts from 653 to 657.
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The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales is a printed collection of medieval Welsh literature, published in three volumes by the Gwyneddigion Society between 1801 and 1807.
The Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Angliae (Treatise on the laws and customs of the Kingdom of England) is the earliest treatise on English law.
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Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.
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A Tribe is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.
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The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.
Urien, often referred to as Urien Rheged or Uriens, was a late 6th-century king of Rheged, an early British kingdom of the Hen Ogledd (northern England and southern Scotland).
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Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East, as looters, traders, colonists, and mercenaries.
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The Vita Sancti Wilfrithi or Life of St Wilfrid (spelled "Wilfrid" in the modern era) is an early 8th-century hagiographic text recounting the life of the Northumbrian bishop, Wilfrid.
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The Votadini (the Wotādīni, Votādīni, or Otadini) were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain.
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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.
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Wales in the early Middle Ages covers the time between the Roman departure from Wales c. 383 and the rise of Merfyn Frych to the throne of Gwynedd c. 825.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
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Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.
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Welsh mythology is the mythology of the Welsh people.
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The Welsh Triads (Welsh Trioedd Ynys Prydein, literally "Triads of the Island of Britain") are a group of related texts in medieval manuscripts which preserve fragments of Welsh folklore, mythology and traditional history in groups of three.
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William Forbes Skene (7 June 1809 – 29 August 1892), was a Scottish historian and antiquary.
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Y Cymmrodor ('The Welshman') was the annual journal of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, published between 1821 and 1951.
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Y Gododdin (pronounced) is a medieval Welsh poem consisting of a series of elegies to the men of the Brittonic kingdom of Gododdin and its allies who, according to the conventional interpretation, died fighting the Angles of Deira and Bernicia at a place named Catraeth in c. AD 600.
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Yan Tan Tethera is a sheep-counting rhyme/system traditionally used by shepherds in Northern England and earlier in some other parts of England and the British Isles.
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Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
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