132 relations: Advaita Vedanta, Africa, Americas, Arabic, Artha, Arvind Sharma, Asia, Avesta, Āryāvarta, Bali, Bangladesh, Bengali language, Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti, Bhakti movement, Brahman, British Empire, Buddhism, Cambodia, Chaitanya Bhagavata, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Christian, Constitution of India, Creed, Darius I, Daulatabad, Maharashtra, David Lorenzen, Denpasar, Dharma, Diksha, Diwali, Dualism, Dvaita, Dvaitadvaita, Eknath, Europe, Ficus religiosa, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gavin Flood, Guru, Hindu, Hindu philosophy, Hindu reform movements, Hindu temple, Hinduism, Hinduism by country, Hinduism in India, Hindutva, History of Hinduism, Holi, ..., India, Indian religions, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indonesia, Indra, Indus River, Itihasa, Jahangir, Jainism, Japa, Jeffery D. Long, Julius J. Lipner, Kabir, Kakatiya dynasty, Kama, Karma, Karnataka, Khilafat Movement, Laos, Lifestyle (sociology), Lingam, List of Hindu festivals, Madura Vijayam, Mahabharata, Maharashtra, Major religious groups, Malaysia, Maratha Empire, Mleccha, Moksha, Muslim, Myanmar, Nalanda, Nepal, North India, Oceania, Orientalism, P. B. Gajendragadkar, Pakistan, Persian language, Philippines, Puja (Hinduism), Puranas, Rajatarangini, Rama, Ramayana, Rigveda, Saṃsāra, Sanskara (rite of passage), Sanskrit, Sasanian Empire, Seuna (Yadava) dynasty, Shaivism, Shaktism, Sharia, Shiva, Sikh, Sikhism, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Supreme Court of India, Surya, Tamil Nadu, Thailand, The Asiatic Society, United Kingdom, United States, Upanishads, Vaishnavism, Varanasi, Vedas, Vidyapati, Vietnam, Vishishtadvaita, Vishnu, Wayang, World War I, Xuanzang, Yama, Yoga. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, an ancient Hindu tradition of scriptural exegesis and religious practice, and the best-known school of advaita, the nonduality of Atman and Brahman or the Absolute.
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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Artha (अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy.
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Arvind Sharma is the Birks Professor of Comparative Religion at McGill University.
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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
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The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
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Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: "abode of the Indo-Aryan peoples") is the name for present-day Pakistan, North India and part of Bengal in classical Sanskrit literature.
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Bali is an island and province of Indonesia.
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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
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Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.
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The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,; lit. "Song of the Lord"), often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700 Shlokas - Sanskrit verses, Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.
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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to (as a religious principle or means of salvation)".
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The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism.
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In Hinduism, Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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The Chaitanya Bhagavata (চৈতন্য ভাগবত) is a hagiography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (b.1486), the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krishna incarnation in Kaliyuga, written by Vrindavana Dasa Thakura (1507-1589 CE).
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The Chaitanya Charitamrita is one of the primary biographies detailing the life and teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533), a Vaisnava saint and founder of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Sampradaya.
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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
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A creed (also confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
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Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, c. 550–486 BCE) was the third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
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Daulatabad also known as Devagiri is a town which includes the Devagiri-Daulatabad fort It carries the distinction of remaining undefeated in battle.
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David N. Lorenzen received his doctorate in the History of Indian Religions from the Australian National University in 1968 where he studied with the well-known historian A. L. Basham (Arthur Llewellyn Basham).
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Denpasar (Indonesian: Kota Denpasar,, Balinese alphabet) is the capital of Bali.
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Dharma (धर्म dharma,; धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.
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Diksha (Sanskrit: दीक्षा in Devanagari,, Tamil: தீட்சை) also spelled deeksha or deeksa in common usage, translated as a "preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony", is giving of a mantra or an initiation by the guru in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
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Diwali (or Deepavali, the "festival of lights") is an ancient Hindu festival celebrated in autumn (northern hemisphere) every year.
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Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning "two") denotes the state of two parts.
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Dvaita, also known as Bhedavāda, Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda, is a school of Vedanta founded by Madhvacharya (c. 1238-1317) who was also known as Pūrṇaprājña and Ānandatīrtha.
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Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region.
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Sant Eknath was a prominent Marathi sant, scholar, and religious poet of the Varkari sampradaya.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, south-west China and Indochina.
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Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as Chaitanya Vaishnavism and Hare Krishna) is a Vaishnava religious movement founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in India.
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Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) FBA is a British scholar of comparative religion with specialization in Shaivism and phenomenology with research interests that span South Asian traditions.
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Guru (IAST: Guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide or master" of certain knowledge.
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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
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Hindu philosophy refers to a group of philosophies that emerged in ancient India.
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Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism, strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism, both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense.
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A Hindu temple (Sanskrit: मन्दिर mandir, प्रासाद prāsāda) is a house of god(s).
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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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Hinduism has over 1 billion adherents worldwide (15% of world's population).
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Hinduism is the major religion of India, with 79.8% of the population identifying themselves as Hindu, which accounts for 96.63 crore Hindus in India(2011 census).
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Hindutva, or "Hinduness", a term coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923, is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India.
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Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related Hindu denominations native to South Asia, notably in Nepal and the Indian subcontinent.
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Holi (Holī) is a spring festival, also known as the festival of colours or the festival of love.
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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indian religions, also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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(), also known as in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism.
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The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
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Itihasa (Sanskrit: Itihāsa, "historical event"; from iti, ha and āsa, lit. "so indeed it was") as defined by Amarakosha (I.6.4) refers to purvavritta, i.e. events of the past.
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Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir (30 August 1569 – 7 November 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.
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Japa (जप) is a spiritual discipline involving the meditative repetition of a mantra or name of a divine power.
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Jeffery D. Long is Professor of Religion and Asian Studies at Elizabethtown College, in Pennsylvania, USA.
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Julius Lipner (born 11 August 1946), who is of Indo-Czech origin, is Professor of Hinduism and the Comparative Study of Religion at the University of Cambridge.
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Kabir (IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century mystic poet and saint of India, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Adi Granth.
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The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
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Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, longing in Indian literature.
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Karma (कर्म;; kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
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Karnataka is a state in south western region of India.
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The Khilafat movement (1919-1926) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government.
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Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.
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The term lifestyle can denote the interests, opinions, behaviors, and behavioral orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
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The lingam (also linga, ling, Shiva linga, Shiv ling, लिङ्गं,, meaning "mark", "sign", or "inference") is a representation of the Hindu deity Shiva used for worship in temples.
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This list of Hindu festivals summarizes festivals observed in Hinduism.
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Madurā Vijayam (Sanskrit: मधुरा विजयं) meaning "The Conquest of Madurai" is a 14th-century C.E Sanskrit poem written by the poet Gangadevi.
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The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US; UK; महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.
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Maharashtra (Marathi pronunciation:, abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's third largest state and also the world's second-most populous sub-national entity.
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The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice.
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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.
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The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818.
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Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit meaning "non-Vedic", "barbarian", also romanized as "Mlechchha" or "Maleccha") referred to people of foreign extraction in ancient India.
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In Indian religions and Indian philosophy, moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, means emancipation, liberation or release.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.
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Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia.
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North India (उत्तर भारत, ਉੱਤਰ ਭਾਰਤ, شمالي هندستان) is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
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Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.
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Orientalism is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, African and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures).
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Pralhad Balacharya Gajendragadkar (16 March 1901 – 12 June 1981) originally from Gajendra-Gad, a historic fort and town in Karnataka, South India was the 7th Chief Justice of India, serving from February 1964 to March 1966.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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Pūjā or Poojan is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus to host, honour and worship one or more deities, or to spiritually celebrate an event.
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The word Puranas (पुराण) literally means "ancient, old",Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature (1995 Edition), Article on Puranas, ISBN 0-877790426, page 915 and it is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.
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Rājatarangiṇī ("The River of Kings") is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhaṇa in 12th century CE.
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Rama (Sanskrit: राम Rāma) is the seventh avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, and a king of Ayodhya.
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The Ramayana (रामायणम्) is a Sanskrit epic poem ascribed to the Hindu sage and Sanskrit poet Valmiki.
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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise, shine" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
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Traditional Tibetan thangka showing the bhavacakra and realms of saṃsāra Saṃsāra (Sanskrit), is the repeating cycle of birth, life and death (reincarnation) as well as one's actions and consequences in the past, present, and future in Hinduism, Buddhism, Bon, Jainism, Taoism, and Sikhism.
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Sanskara (IAST:, sometimes spelled samskara) are rites of passage in a human being's life described in ancient Sanskrit texts, as well as a concept in the karma theory of Indian philosophies.
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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri (850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra).
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Shaivism or Saivism is one of the four most widely followed sects of Hinduism, which reveres the God Shiva as the Supreme Being.
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Shaktism or Shaktidharma (Sanskrit:, शाक्तं; lit., "doctrine of power" or "doctrine of the Goddess") is a denomination of Hinduism that focuses worship upon Shakti or Devi – the Hindu Divine Mother – as the absolute, ultimate Godhead.
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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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Shiva (Sanskrit:, meaning "The Auspicious One"), also known as Mahadeva ("Great God"), is one of the main deities of Hinduism.
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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.
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Sikhism, or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), is a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the 15th century.
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.
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The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
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Surya (सूर्य Sūrya, "the Supreme Light"Wilhelm, Ernst. Graha Sutras, Kala Occult Publishers, p.49. ISBN 0-9709636-4-5), also known as Aditya, Bhanu or Ravi Vivasvana in Sanskrit, and in Avestan Vivanhant, is the chief solar deity in Hinduism and generally refers to the Sun.
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Tamil Nadu; literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country is one of the 29 states of India.
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Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir Robert Chambers, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The Upanishads (Upaniṣad) are a collection of texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism and Jainism.
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Vaishnavism (Vaisnava dharma) is one of the major branches of Hinduism along with Shaivism, Smartism, Shaktism.
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Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, is a North Indian city on the banks of the Ganges in Uttar Pradesh, India south-east of the state capital, Lucknow and east of Allahabad.
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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.
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Vidyapati (1352 – 1448), also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet cuckoo of Maithili) was a Maithili poet and a Sanskrit writer.
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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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Vishishtadvaita Vedanta (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत), the philosophy of the Sri Sampradaya, is a sub-school of the Vedanta (literally, end or the goal of knowledge, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita, Dvaita, "Dvaitadvaita" and Achintya-Bheda-Abheda.
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In Hinduism, Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु) is the Supreme god Svayam Bhagavan of Vaishnavism (one of the three principal denominations).
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Wayang (Krama Javanese: Ringgit) is a Javanese word for particular kinds of theatre.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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Xuanzang (c. 602 – 664), born Chen Hui or Chen Yi (Chen I), was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang dynasty.
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Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic deities.
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Yoga (Sanskrit) is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice or discipline which originated in India.
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