137 relations: Aberration of light, Acronym, Adriaan Blaauw, Age of the universe, Apparent magnitude, Ariane (rocket family), Ariane 4, Arianespace, Asteroseismology, Astrium, Astrometry, Astronomical seeing, Atmosphere, Axial precession, Binary star, Bremen, Bristol, British Aerospace, Brown dwarf, Carl Zeiss AG, Carte du Ciel, Cartesian coordinate system, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Celestial sphere, Center of mass, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Cepheid variable, Chandler wobble, Charge-coupled device, CNES, Correlation and dependence, Delft, Delta Scuti variable, Doppler effect, Double star, EADS CASA, Earth, Earth's rotation, Ecliptic, Effective temperature, ELA-2, Epoch (astronomy), European Space Agency, European Space Operations Centre, Exoplanet, François Mignard, Friedrichshafen, Gaia (spacecraft), Galactic halo, Galaxy, ..., Galaxy rotation curve, Gamma-ray burst, General relativity, Geocentric orbit, Geostationary orbit, Geostationary transfer orbit, Globular cluster, Gothenburg, Gould Belt, Gravity, Guiana Space Centre, Gyroscope, HD 209458, Hipparchus, Hubble Space Telescope, Hyades (star cluster), Hydrazine, Ice age, Image dissector, Inertial frame of reference, Initial mass function, International Celestial Reference System, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Kourou, Least squares, Leiden, Light, Lobbying, Lutz–Kelker bias, Madrid, Marseille, Matra Marconi Space, MERLIN, Millennium Star Atlas, Minute and second of arc, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Neuchâtel, Newton (unit), Oberkochen, Observatory of Strasbourg, Oort constants, Oort limit, Parallax, Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism, Photometric system, Photomultiplier, Pleiades, Proper motion, Quasar, Radial velocity, Red giant, Rheinmetall Air Defence, RR Lyrae variable, RUAG Space, S band, Satellite, Schmidt camera, Search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Space observatory, Special relativity, Spectroscopy, Spiral galaxy, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard error, Star, Star formation, Star system, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar kinematics, Stellar structure, Subdwarf, Thales Alenia Space, Trigonometry, Tycho-2 Catalogue, UBV photometric system, United States Naval Observatory, Vélizy-Villacoublay, Very-long-baseline interferometry, Vignetting, White dwarf, Wolf–Rayet star, Zürich, 2MASS, 3C 273. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
The aberration of light (also referred to as astronomical aberration or stellar aberration) is an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their locations dependent on the velocity of the observer.
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An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.
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Adriaan Blaauw (12 April 1914 – 1 December 2010) was a Dutch astronomer.
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In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
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Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch use.
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Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace.
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Arianespace SA is a European multinational company founded in 1980 as the world's first commercial launch service provider.
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Asteroseismology (from Greek ἀστήρ, astēr, "star"; σεισμός, seismos, "earthquake"; and -λογία, -logia) also known as stellar seismology is the science that studies the internal structure of pulsating stars by the interpretation of their frequency spectra.
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Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.
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Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
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Astronomical seeing refers to the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects such as stars caused by turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere varying the optical refractive index.
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An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, 17th century, from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body.
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In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
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A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass.
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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany.
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Bristol is a city, unitary authority and county in South West England with an estimated population of 442,500 in 2015.
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British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
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Brown dwarfs are substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen-1 fusion reactions in their cores, unlike main-sequence stars.
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Carl Zeiss is a German manufacturer of optical systems, industrial measurements and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.
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The Carte du Ciel (literally, 'Map of the Sky') and the Astrographic Catalogue (or Astrographic Chart) were two distinct but connected components of a massive international astronomical project, initiated in the late 19th century, to catalogue and map the positions of millions of stars as faint as 11th or 12th magnitude.
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A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth.
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In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero or the point where if a force is applied causes it to move in direction of force without rotation.
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The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
A Cepheid variable is a star that pulsates radially, varying in both temperature and diameter to produce brightness changes with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
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The Chandler wobble is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891.
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A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
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The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
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In statistics, dependence is any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data.
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands.
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A Delta Scuti variable (sometimes termed dwarf cepheid) is a variable star which exhibits variations in its luminosity due to both radial and non-radial pulsations of the star's surface.
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The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.
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In observational astronomy, a double star is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.
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EADS CASA was a Spanish aircraft manufacturer, previously Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA).
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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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Earth's rotation is the rotation of the planet Earth around its own axis.
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The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.
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The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.
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ELA-2, short for Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 2 (French for Ariane Launch Area 2), was a launch pad at the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guiana.
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In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
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The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) serves as the main mission control centre for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is located in Darmstadt, Germany.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun.
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François Mignard (born 1949) is a French astronomer who is the director of CERGA (Centre de recherches en géodynamique et astrométrie) of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur.
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Friedrichshafen is a university city on the eastern shoreline of Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in Southern Germany, near both the borders of Switzerland and Austria.
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Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry.
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The galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component.
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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.
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The rotation curve of a disc galaxy (also called a velocity curve) is a plot of the measured magnitude of the orbital velocities (i.e., the speeds) of visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that galaxy's centre and typically rendered graphically as a plot.
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Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
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General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
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A geocentric orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
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A geostationary orbit, geostationary Earth orbit or geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) is a circular orbit above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation.
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A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high thrust chemical engines.
A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite.
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Gothenburg (Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
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The Gould Belt is a partial ring of stars in the Milky Way, about 3000 light years across, tilted toward the galactic plane by about 16 to 20 degrees.
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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana.
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A gyroscope (from Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation.
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HD 209458 is an 8th magnitude star in the constellation Pegasus.
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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.
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The Hyades (Greek Ὑάδες, also known as Melotte 25 or Collinder 50) is the nearest open cluster to the Solar System and one of the best-studied of all star clusters.
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Hydrazine (systematically named diazane or tetrahydridodinitrogen(N—N)) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written). It is a colourless flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odor.
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An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
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An image dissector, also called a dissector tube, is a video camera tube in which photocathode emissions create an "electron image" which is then scanned to produce an electrical signal representing the visual image.
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In physics, an inertial frame of reference (also inertial reference frame or inertial frame or Galilean reference frame or inertial space) is a frame of reference that describes time and space homogeneously, isotropically, and in a time-independent manner.
In astronomy, the initial mass function (IMF) is an empirical function that describes the distribution of initial masses for a population of stars.
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The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is the current standard celestial reference system adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some 50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro, New Mexico.
Kourou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
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The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.
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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland.
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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Lobbying (also lobby) is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in a government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
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The Lutz–Kelker bias is a systematic bias that results from using the assumption that the number of observable stars increases with the square of the distance.
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Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.
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Marseille (locally:; Marselha), also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France.
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Matra Marconi Space (MMS) was a Franco-British aerospace company.
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The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) is an interferometer array of radio telescopes spread across England.
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The Millennium Star Atlas was constructed as a collaboration between a team at Sky & Telescope led by Roger Sinnott, and the European Space Agency's Hipparcos project, led by Michael Perryman.
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A minute of arc (MOA), arcminute (arcmin) or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to one-sixtieth of one degree.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is the Dutch expertise institute for space research.
Neuchâtel, neu(f) "new" + chatel "castle" (château); lang; lang; lang)It was called Neuchâtel outre Joux too to make the difference with another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière. is the capital of the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel on Lake Neuchâtel. The city has approximately 33,600 inhabitants (80,000 in the metropolitan area). The city is sometimes referred to historically by the German name, which has the same meaning, since it originally belonged to the Holy Roman Empire and later Prussia, which ruled the area until 1848. The official language of Neuchâtel is French. Neuchâtel is a pilot of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
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The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
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Oberkochen is a town (officially a city, despite its size) in the Ostalbkreis, in Baden-Württemberg, in Germany, central Europe.
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The Observatory of Strasbourg is an astronomical observatory in Strasbourg, France.
The Oort constants (discovered by Jan Oort) A and B are empirically derived parameters that characterize the local rotational properties of our galaxy, the Milky Way, in the following manner: \begin & A.
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The Oort limit is a theoretical location at the outer limits of the Oort cloud, where the amount of comets and minor planets orbiting the Sun drops drastically, or drops entirely.
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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
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Post-Newtonian formalism is a calculational tool that expresses Einstein's (nonlinear) equations of gravity in terms of the lowest-order deviations from Newton's law of universal gravitation.
In astronomy, a photometric system is a set of well-defined passbands (or filters), with a known sensitivity to incident radiation.
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Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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In astronomy, the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters (Messier 45 or M45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.
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Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, as compared to the imaginary fixed background of the more distant stars.
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Quasars or quasi-stellar radio sources are the most energetic and distant members of a class of objects called active galactic nuclei (AGN).
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The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.
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A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
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Rheinmetall Air Defence AG is a division of German armament manufacturer Rheinmetall, created when the company's Oerlikon Contraves unit was renamed on 1 January 2009 and integrated with Rheinmetall's other air-defence products.
RR Lyrae variables are periodic variable stars, commonly found in globular clusters, and are used as standard candles to measure (extra)galactic distances.
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RUAG Space is the Space Division of the Swiss technology group RUAG.
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The S band is part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
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A Schmidt camera, also referred to as the Schmidt telescope, is a catadioptric astrophotographic telescope designed to provide wide fields of view with limited aberrations.
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The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is the collective name for scientific activities undertaken to search for intelligent extraterrestrial life.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-filter imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.
A space observatory is any instrument (such as a telescope) in outer space that is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies and other outer space objects.
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In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
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A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence.
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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The standard error (SE) is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic, most commonly of the mean.
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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.
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A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
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Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes during its lifetime.
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Stellar kinematics is the study of the movement of stars without needing to understand how they acquired their motion.
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Stars of different mass and age have varying internal structures.
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A subdwarf, sometimes denoted by "sd", is a star with luminosity class VI under the Yerkes spectral classification system.
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Thales Alenia Space is a Franco-Italian aerospace manufacturer formed after the Thales Group bought the participation of Alcatel in the two joint-ventures between Alcatel and Finmeccanica, Alcatel Alenia Space and Telespazio.
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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
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The Tycho-2 Catalogue is a catalogue of more than 2.5 million of the brightest stars.
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UBV photometric system, also called the Johnson system (or Johnson-Morgan system), is a wide band photometric system for classifying stars according to their colors.
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The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
Vélizy-Villacoublay is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
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Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
In photography and optics, vignetting (French: "vignette") is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation at the periphery compared to the image center.
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A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
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Wolf–Rayet stars (often referred to as WR stars) are a heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
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Zürich or Zurich (Zürich, Swiss German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo, Turitg) is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
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The Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) was a survey of the whole sky in three infrared wavebands around 2 micrometres (μm): J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and Ks (2.17 μm).
New!!: Hipparcos and 2MASS ·
3C 273 is a quasar located in the constellation Virgo.
New!!: Hipparcos and 3C 273 ·
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