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Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). [1]

211 relations: Afghanistan, Africa, Afroasiatic languages, Albania, Alps, Altai Mountains, American Journal of Human Genetics, Americas, Anatolia, Andaman Islands, Arabian Peninsula, Asia, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesia, Austronesian peoples, Bali, Balkans, Bennett Greenspan, Berbers, Bohemia, Cameroon, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Europe, China, Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups, County of Tyrol, Cro-Magnon, Dagestan, Demographics of Ethiopia, Dinaric Alps, DNA, Dungan people, East Africa, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Egyptians, Ethiopia, Ethnic Malays, Eurasia, Eurasian Steppe, Europe, European Journal of Human Genetics, Family Tree DNA, Frisia, Fula people, Gagauzia, ..., Genealogical DNA test, Genetic genealogy, Genetic history of Europe, Genetic marker, Genetic recombination, Genographic Project, Germany, Great Britain, Greater Maghreb, Greece, Han Chinese, Haplogroup, Haplogroup A (Y-DNA), Haplogroup B-M60, Haplogroup BT, Haplogroup C-F3393, Haplogroup C-M130, Haplogroup C-M217, Haplogroup CF (Y-DNA), Haplogroup CT, Haplogroup D-M15, Haplogroup D-M174, Haplogroup DE, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup E-M33, Haplogroup E-M75, Haplogroup E-M96, Haplogroup E-P147, Haplogroup E-P177, Haplogroup E-P2, Haplogroup E-V38, Haplogroup F-M89, Haplogroup G-M201, Haplogroup G-M285, Haplogroup G-M377, Haplogroup G-M406, Haplogroup G-P303, Haplogroup G2 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), Haplogroup I-M170, Haplogroup I-M253, Haplogroup I-M438, Haplogroup IJ, Haplogroup IJK, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup J-M267, Haplogroup J-P209, Haplogroup K-M9, Haplogroup K2, Haplogroup L-M20, Haplogroup M-P256, Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup NO, Haplogroup O-M122, Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup O-M176, Haplogroup O-M95, Haplogroup O-MSY2.2, Haplogroup O-P31, Haplogroup P (Y-DNA), Haplogroup Q-M242, Haplogroup Q-M3, Haplogroup R (Y-DNA), Haplogroup R1, Haplogroup R1a, Haplogroup R1b, Haplogroup R2, Haplogroup S-M230, Haplogroup T-M184, Hazaras, Human, Human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, Ibiza, India, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, International Society of Genetic Genealogy, Iran, Italy, Japan, Japanese people, Kazakhs, Korea, Koreans, Levant, Libya, List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms, List of Y-STR markers, Malaysia, Manchuria, Mediterranean Sea, Melanesia, Mesopotamia, Micronesia, Middle East, Molecular phylogenetics, Mongols, Most recent common ancestor, Na-Dene languages, National Geographic Society, Near East, Neolithic Revolution, New Guinea, Niger–Congo languages, Nomenclature, North Africa, North America, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northern Europe, Oceania, Oman, Pakistan, Paleosiberian languages, Paragroup, Patrilineality, Phylogenetic tree, Polynesia, Portugal, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Pyrenees, Recent African origin of modern humans, Romani people, Romania, Scandinavia, Sciacca, Scythians, Semitic people, Siberia, Sindhis, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Socotra, Somalis, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southern Russia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Stilfs, Subclade, Tai–Kadai languages, Taiwan, Tibet, Tibetan people, Ticuna people, Tungusic peoples, University of Arizona, Uralic peoples, Wayuu people, Western Asia, Western Europe, Y chromosome, Y Chromosome Consortium, Y-chromosomal Adam, Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations, Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations, Yemenite Jews, Yunnan. Expand index (161 more) »

Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).

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Albania

Albania (or sometimes,; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially known as the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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American Journal of Human Genetics

The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.

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Americas

The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Anatolia

Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands (अंडमान द्वीप) form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China.

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Austronesia

Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Indonesian, Malay, Filipino, Maori, Malagasy, Hawaiian, Fijian, Taiwan's Austronesian languages and around a thousand other languages.

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Austronesian peoples

Austronesians, Austronesian peoples or Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Asia, Oceania and Africa that speak languages of the Austronesian family.

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Bali

Bali is an island and province of Indonesia.

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Balkans

The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.

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Bennett Greenspan

Bennett C. Greenspan (born 1952) is an American businessman.

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Berbers

The Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen/imazighen/, singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ/Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.

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Bohemia

Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia) is a region in the Czech Republic.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.

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Central Asia

Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Europe

Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups

In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.

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County of Tyrol

The County of Tyrol is a historical region in what is now Austria and Italy from 1140 up to 1919.

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Cro-Magnon

Cro-Magnon is a common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) that lived in the European Upper Paleolithic.

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Dagestan

The Republic of Dagestan (or; Респу́блика Дагеста́н, Respublika Dagestan), also spelled Daghestan, is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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Demographics of Ethiopia

The demographics of Ethiopia encompass the demographic features of Ethiopia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Dinaric Alps

The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides is a mountain chain which spans areas of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dungan people

Dungan (Дунгане Dungane, Dungan: Хуэйзў Huejzw) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a Muslim people of Chinese origin.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptians

Egyptians (مَصريين; مِصريّون) are an ethnic group and the citizens of Egypt sharing a common culture and a variety of Arabic.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethnic Malays

Malays (Melayu, Jawi: ملايو) are an ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula; East Sumatra; Southern Thailand; the Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar; Pulau Ujong; coastal Borneo, including Brunei, West Kalimantan; and coastal Sarawak and Sabah and the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Journal of Human Genetics

The European Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the European Society of Human Genetics.

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Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA is a division of Gene by Gene, a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas.

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Frisia

Frisia or Friesland is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of Germany.

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Fula people

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw) numbering approximately 20 million people in total are one of the most widely dispersed and culturally diverse of the peoples of Africa.

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Gagauzia

Gagaúzia (Gagaúziya or Gagaúz Yerí; Găgăuzia; Гагаýзия, Gagaúziya), formally known as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri) (Gagauz: Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri; Romanian: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Russian: Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, Avtonomnoye territorialnoye obrazovaniye Gagauziya), is an autonomous region of Moldova.

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Genealogical DNA test

A genealogical DNA test looks at a person's genome at specific locations.

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Genetic genealogy

Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.

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Genetic history of Europe

The genetic history of Europe is complicated because European populations have a complicated demographic history, including many successive periods of population growth.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genographic Project

The Genographic Project, launched on 13 April 2005 by the National Geographic Society and IBM, is a multi-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from hundreds of thousands of people from around the world.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Greater Maghreb

The Maghreb (or;Literally sunset; المغرب العربي, "the Arab West"; ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ; previously known as Barbary Coast), or the Greater Maghreb (المغرب الكبير el-Maghrib el-Kbīr), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt.

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Greece

Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Han Chinese

No description.

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Haplogroup

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple" and Proto-kruppaz, "round mass, lump") is similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.

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Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup A is the a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup B-M60

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor.

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Haplogroup BT

In human genetics, Haplogroup BT (BT-M91, formerly also variously known as A4, BR, or BCDEF) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup C-F3393

Haplogroup C1 also known as C-F3393, is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup C-M130

Haplogroup C is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, and P260, which are all SNP mutations.

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Haplogroup C-M217

Haplogroup C2 M217, previously known as C3, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup CF (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup CF, also known as CF(xDE), is a human male Y-DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup CT

In human genetics, Haplogroup CT is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major lines of common ancestry of humanity along father-to-son male lines.

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Haplogroup D-M15

In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M15 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup D-M174

In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M174 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup DE

In human genetics, Haplogroup DE is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Y Haplogroup E-M215, also referred to in the literature by other names such as E1b1b and E3b (see further discussion below), is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-M33

In human genetics, Haplogroup E-M33 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-M75

In human genetics, haplogroup E-M75 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-M96

In human genetics, Haplogroup E-M96 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-P147

In human genetics, Haplogroup E-P147 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup E-P177

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.

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Haplogroup E-P2

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.

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Haplogroup E-V38

In human genetics, Haplogroup E-V38 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup F-M89

Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and, previously, as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup G-M201

In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup G-M285

In human genetics, Haplogroup G1 (M285) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup G-M377

In human genetics, Haplogroup G2b-M377 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup and is defined by the presence of the M377 mutation.

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Haplogroup G-M406

In human genetics, Haplogroup G2a3a (M406) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup G-P303

In human genetics, Haplogroup G-P303 (P303) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup G2 (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup G2a (Y-DNA) is the main paternal lineage of Neolithic farmers.

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Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)

In human genetics, Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Haplogroup I-M170

In human genetics, Haplogroup I-M170 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK.

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Haplogroup I-M253

In human genetics, Haplogroup I-M253 is a Y chromosome haplogroup which occurs at greatest frequency in Fenno-Scandia.

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Haplogroup I-M438

Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 and previously I2b is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170.

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Haplogroup IJ

Haplogroup IJ (M429/P125) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a descendant branch of Haplogroup IJK (previously known as Haplogroup F-L15).

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Haplogroup IJK

In human genetics, Haplogroup IJK is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. IJK is a descendant branch of the macrohaplogroup GHIJK and, subsequently, HIJK. Its direct descendants are Haplogroup IJ and Haplogroup K.

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Haplogroup J-M172

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.

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Haplogroup J-M267

In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2).

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Haplogroup J-P209

Haplogroup J-P209 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup K-M9

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup K2

Haplogroup K2, also known as M526, formerly known as K(xLT) and MNOPS, is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup.

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Haplogroup L-M20

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.

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Haplogroup M-P256

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.

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Haplogroup N-M231

Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup typical of northern Eurasia, defined by the presence of the marker M231.

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Haplogroup NO

Haplogroup NO (M214) also known as K2a is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup O-M122

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.

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Haplogroup O-M175

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.

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Haplogroup O-M176

In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M176 (aka O-SRY465) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is best known for its part in the settlement of Korea and Japan. It is a descendant of Haplogroup O-P31.

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Haplogroup O-M95

In genetics, Haplogroup O-M95 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup O-MSY2.2

In human genetics, Haplogroup O-MSY2.2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup O-P31

In human genetics, Haplogroup O-P31 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup P (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup P also known as P295/PF5866/S8 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.

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Haplogroup Q-M242

Haplogroup Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup Q-M3

Haplogroup Q-M3 (Y-DNA) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup R, or haplogroup R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup R1

Haplogroup R1, or haplogroup R-M173, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup R, associated with the M173 mutation.

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Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a common Y DNA haplogroup in many parts of Eurasia.

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Haplogroup R1b

Haplogroup R1b, also known as haplogroup R-M343, is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (the Bashkir minority), Central Asia (e.g. Turkmenistan) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon).

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Haplogroup R2

Haplogroup R2, or haplogroup R-M479, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker M479.

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Haplogroup S-M230

Haplogroup S (M230), also known as Haplogroup K2b1a4, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup T-M184

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.

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Hazaras

The Hazaras (Persian: هزاره) are a Persian-speaking people who mainly live in central Afghanistan and Hazara Town in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Human

Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human genetics

Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.

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Ibiza

Ibiza (Eivissa)p is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of the city of Valencia, in eastern Spain.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are members of groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Asia (in particular North Asia) to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of experts agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago. These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of creation myths. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean sea. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" often does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many Indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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International Society of Genetic Genealogy

The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) is an independent non-commercial nonprofit organization of genetic genealogists run by volunteers.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Japanese people

The are an ethnic group native to Japan.

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Kazakhs

The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Қазақтар; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia).

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Korea

Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).

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Koreans

The Koreans (alternatively, see names of Korea) are a historic people based in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria.

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Levant

The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms

No description.

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List of Y-STR markers

The following list of Y-STR markers are commonly used in forensic and genealogical DNA testing.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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Melanesia

Melanesia (UK:; US) is a subregion of Oceania (and occasionally Australasia) extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Micronesia

Micronesia (from μικρός, mikrós, "small" + νῆσος, nisos, "island") is a subregion of Oceania, comprising thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a group are directly descended.

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Na-Dene languages

Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a Native American language family that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States of America, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Near East

Near East (Proche-Orient) is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution or Neolithic Demographic Transition, sometimes called the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to support an increasingly large population.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Papua or, historically, Irian) is a large Island in the South West Pacific region.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages.

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Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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North Africa

North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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Northeast Caucasian languages

The Northeast Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dagestanian (Daghestanian), or Nakho-Dagestanian languages are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia, in northern Azerbaijan and northeastern Georgia, as well as in diaspora populations in Russia, Turkey, and the Middle East.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe.

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Oceania

Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Paleosiberian languages

Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (Palaeo-Asiatic) (from Greek palaios, "ancient") is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of linguistic isolates as well as a few small families of languages spoken in parts both of northeastern Siberia and of the Russian Far East.

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Paragroup

Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is traced through his or her father's lineage.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Polynesia

Polynesia (UK:; US:, from πολύς "poly" many + νῆσος "nēsos" island) is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Proto-Indo-Europeans

The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), a reconstructed prehistoric language of Eurasia.

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Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak or Auñamendiak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, or the "out of Africa" theory (OOA), is the most widely accepted model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

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Romania

RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a historical and cultural-linguistic region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethno-cultural North Germanic heritage and related languages.

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Sciacca

Sciacca (Greek: Θέρμαι; Latin: Thermae Selinuntinae, Thermae Selinuntiae, Thermae, Aquae Labrodes and Aquae Labodes), also Schiacca, is a town and comune in the province of Agrigento on the southwestern coast of Sicily.

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Scythians

The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Semitic people

In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sindhis

Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are a Sindhi-speaking ethnic group primarily of Indo-Aryan origin native to the Sindh province of Pakistan.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single nucleotide polymorphism, also known as simple nucleotide polymorphism, (SNP, pronounced snip; plural snips) is a DNA sequence variation occurring commonly within a population (e.g. 1%) in which a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes.

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Socotra

Socotra (سُقُطْرَى), also spelled Soqotra, is an island and a small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean.

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Somalis

Somalis (Soomaali, صومال) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).

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South America

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Russia

Southern Russia or the South of Russia (Юг России, Yug Rossii) is a colloquial term for the southernmost geographic portion of European Russia, generally covering the Southern Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.

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Stilfs

Stilfs (Stelvio) is a comune (municipality) in the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

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Subclade

In genetics, a subclade is a subgroup of a haplogroup.

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Tai–Kadai languages

The Tai–Kadai languages, also known as Kra–Dai, Daic, and Kadai are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China and Southeast Asia.

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Taiwan

Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tibet

Tibet is a region on the Tibetan Plateau in Asia northeast of the Himalayas.

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet.

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Ticuna people

The Ticuna (also Magüta, Tucuna, Tikuna, or Tukuna) are an indigenous people of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.

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Tungusic peoples

Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university located in Tucson, Arizona, United States.

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Uralic peoples

The Uralic peoples or Uralic speaking peoples are the ethnic groups speaking Uralic languages, divided into two larger groups: Finno-Ugric peoples and Samoyedic peoples.

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Wayuu people

Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is an American Indian ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northern Colombia and northwest Venezuela.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Y Chromosome Consortium

The Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) is a collection of scientists who work toward the understanding of human Y chromosomal phylogenetics and evolution.

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Y-chromosomal Adam

In human genetics, Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA; informally also known as Y-chromosomal Adam) refers to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living people are descended patrilineally.

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Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations

The following articles are lists of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in populations around the world.

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Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations

The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe.

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Yemenite Jews

Yemenite Jews (Yehudei teiman; اليهود اليمنيين) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.

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Yunnan

Yunnan (-) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Y-chromosome_DNA_haplogroup

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