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Insect

Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. [1]

484 relations: Abdomen, About.com, Adult, Aerodynamics, Agriculture, Alexandr Rasnitsyn, Allomone, Amber, Amblycorypha oblongifolia, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Amino acid, Amnion, Amylase, Ancient Greek, Animal, Animal echolocation, Ant, Antenna (biology), Anthecology, Anus, Aphid, Aposematism, Apterygota, Arachnid, Arachnocampa, Archaeognatha, Aristotle, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropod cuticle, Arthropod leg, Attacus atlas, Australia, Australian Biological Resources Study, Bat, Batesian mimicry, Bed bug, Bee, Bee learning and communication, Beekeeper, Beetle, Biological pest control, Biological specificity, Bioluminescence, Biomineralization, Bipedalism, Bird, Blaptica dubia, Blattodea, Blood, ..., Bombyx mori, Brevisana brevis, Buccal space, Butterfly, Caddisfly, Calcium carbonate, Calliphoridae, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carl Linnaeus, Carrion, Catabolism, Catalepsy, Caterpillar, Cenozoic, Centipede, Chelicerata, Chemical ecology, China, Chitin, Chorion, Chromosome, Cicada, Circulatory system, Clade, Cladogram, Class (biology), Click beetle, Coccinellidae, Cockroach, Coevolution, Common descent, Corixidae, Crab, Cretaceous, Cricket (insect), Crop (anatomy), Crustacean, Crypsis, Cultural materialism (anthropology), Cuticle, David Grimaldi (entomologist), DDT, Death's-head Hawkmoth, Decibel, Deep frying, Defense in insects, Delicatessen, Devonian, Diapause, Dictyoptera, Diffusion, Digestion, Diploptera, Diplura, Discontinuous gas exchange, Diverticulum, DNA replication, Drosophila, Drosophila melanogaster, Earwig, Ecdysis, Ecosystem, Ectognatha, Egg, Embioptera, Embryo, Empis livida, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endopterygota, Entognatha, Entomology, Entomophagous parasite, Entomophagy, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Epicranium, Epidermis, Epistasis, Esophagus, Ethnoentomology, Eukaryote, Eumenes (wasp), European hornet, Eurypterid, Eusociality, Evolution, Evolutionary developmental biology, Excretion, Exopterygota, Exoskeleton, Eye, Fat, Fecundity, Fertilisation, Firefly, Fitness (biology), Flea, Flowering plant, Fly, Flying and gliding animals, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food safety, Foregut, Fruit, Gait, Ganglion, Gangrene, Gas exchange, Genetic linkage, Genetics, Genome, Genome project, Genus, German language, Gerridae, Gestation, Gilgamesh, Gill, Glossary of entomology terms, Grasshopper, Greece, Greek language, Greenhouse, Ground beetle, Gryllotalpa brachyptera, Halobates, Haplodiploidy, Harpactorinae, Head, Hearing range, Hedylidae, Heliconius, Helicoverpa zea, Hemimetabolism, Hemiptera, Hemocyte, Hemolymph, Herbivore, Hermaphrodite, Hexapoda, Hibernation, Hindgut, Holometabolism, Honey, Honey bee, Housefly, Human, Human gastrointestinal tract, Hydraulics, Hymenoptera, Hypermetamorphosis, Imago, Indigenous Australians, Infrared, Insect, Insect biodiversity, Insect ecology, Insect flight, Insect migration, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Insecticide, Insectivore, Integrated pest management, Invertebrate, Isopoda, Jet stream, Kairomone, Kalahari Desert, Lacquer, Large blue, Larva, Latin, Leaf, Leaf beetle, Lepidoptera, Lepidotrichidae, Lichen, Light, Limenitidinae, List of diseases caused by insects, List of prehistoric insects, Locust, Longhorn beetle, Louse, Lung, Lycaenidae, Macromolecule, Madagascar hissing cockroach, Maggot, Maggot therapy, Malacostraca, Malaria, Male, Mallophaga, Malpighian tubule system, Mandible (insect mouthpart), Mantis, Marangoni effect, Marvin Harris, Mastication, Mayfly, Müllerian mimicry, Mecoptera, Megaloptera, Meganeura, Mesopotamia, Mesothorax, Metamorphosis, Metathorax, Michael S. Engel, Microvillus, Milkweed butterfly, Millipede, Mimicry, Model organism, Monarch butterfly, Monophyly, Monosaccharide, Monura, Morphology (biology), Mosquito, Moth, Moulting, Mouth, Mutualism (biology), Mycetophilidae, Myriapoda, Myrmecophily, Natural environment, Nature (journal), Nectar, Neontology, Neoptera, Neoteny, Nervous system, Neuroptera, NEXRAD, Nezara viridula, Nociception, Nociceptor, Notoptera, Notum, Nucleic acid, Numeracy, Nutrition, Nymph (biology), Odonata, Ogg, Old Cairo, Ootheca, Opodiphthera eucalypti, Orchard, Order (biology), Organism, Orgyia recens, Orthoptera, Ovariole, Ovary, Ovoviviparity, Oxygen, Pain in animals, Pain in invertebrates, Palaeoptera, Paleozoic, Pancrustacea, Paraneoptera, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Parasitoid, Parenting, Parthenogenesis, Pathogen, Pauropoda, Pennsylvanian (geology), Pentatomoidea, Peramorphosis, Periodical cicadas, Peristalsis, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Pest (organism), Pharynx, Phasmatodea, Phengodidae, Phenotype, Pheromone, Philemon Holland, Philopatry, Photinus (beetle), Phylogenetics, Phylum, Piscivore, Plant, Plant defense against herbivory, Plecoptera, Pleuron (insect anatomy), Pliny the Elder, Ploidy, PLOS Biology, Polarization (waves), Polistes versicolor, Pollen, Pollination, Pollination management, Pollination syndrome, Pollinator decline, Polyembryony, Polymorphism (biology), Polyphyly, Polysaccharide, Population growth, Portable Document Format, Predation, Prevailing winds, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Process (science), Protein, Prothorax, Protura, Proventriculus, Psocodea, Psocoptera, Pterygota, Pupa, Recycling, Remipedia, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory system of insects, Rhaphidophoridae, Rhinotia hemistictus, Rhynie chert, Rhyniognatha, Robot, Rove beetle, Russian language, Salivary gland, Scarabaeidae, Scavenger, Schizophora, Science (journal), Sclerite, Sclerotin, Scorpion, Sea spider, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Segmentation (biology), Semiochemical, Sense, Serbo-Croatian, Serous membrane, Sex-determination system, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual reproduction, Shrimp, Silk, Silk Road, Silurian, Silverfish, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sister group, Snakefly, Southern hawker, Species, Spermatheca, Spermatogonium, Sphingidae, Spider, Spiracle, Springer Science+Business Media, Springtail, Stenus, Stomach, Strepsiptera, Stridulation, Suboesophageal ganglion, Sucking louse, Superorganism, Suture (anatomy), Symphyla, Systematics, Taboo, Tagma (biology), Taxon, Termite, Terrain, Testicle, Thorax, Thorax (insect anatomy), Thrips, Thysania agrippina, Thysanura, Topsoil, Torpor, Trachea, Transcription (genetics), Trichromacy, Trilobite, Tripedalism, Tufts University, Tympanal organ, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, United Nations, United States Forest Service, University of California Press, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Wyoming, Upper Arrernte language, Uric acid, Vein, Ventral nerve cord, Vertex (anatomy), Vespula germanica, Vibration, Viceroy (butterfly), Vivipary, Vortex, Wasp, Water beetle, Wax, Weather radar, Weevil, Welsh language, Wheel, Xiphosura, Yellow fever, Zoraptera, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (434 more) »

Abdomen

The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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About.com

About.com, also known as The About Group (formerly About Inc.), is an Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites," of which there are nearly 1,000.

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Adult

Biologically, an adult is a human being or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is a branch of Fluid dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Alexandr Rasnitsyn

Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn (Russian: Александр Павлович Расницын) is a Russian entomologist, expert in palaeoentomology, and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (2001).

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Allomone

An allomone is any chemical substance produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator but not the receiver.

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Amber

Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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Amblycorypha oblongifolia

The Oblong-Winged katydid (Amblycorypha oblongifolia) is a species of katydid, or bush-cricket, of the family Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers).

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Amnion

The amnion is a membrane that when first formed, closely covers the embryo.

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Amylase

An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Animal echolocation

Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.

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Ant

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Antenna (biology)

Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Anthecology

Anthecology, or pollination biology, is the study of pollination as well as the relationships between flowers and their pollinators.

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Anus

The anus (which is from the Proto-Indo-European ano–, meaning "ring") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Aphid

Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Aposematism

Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σ̑ημα sema sign, coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890. Foldout "The Colours of Animals Classified According to Their Uses", after page 339.), perhaps most commonly known in the context of warning coloration, describes a family of antipredator adaptations where a warning signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators.

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Apterygota

The name Apterygota is sometimes applied to a subclass of small, agile insects, distinguished from other insects by their lack of wings in the present and in their evolutionary history.

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Arachnid

Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Arachnocampa

Arachnocampa is a genus of five fungus gnat species which have a luminescent larval stage, akin to the larval stage of glowworm beetles.

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Archaeognatha

The Archaeognatha are an order of wingless insects, also known as jumping bristletails.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Artery

The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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Arthropod cuticle

The cuticle forms the major part of the integument of the Arthropoda.

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Arthropod leg

The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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Attacus atlas

The Atlas moth (Attacus atlas) is a large saturniid moth found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, and is common across the Malay archipelago.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) is a project undertaken by Parks Australia Division of Australia's Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA).

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Bat

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Batesian mimicry

Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry typified by a situation where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator.

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Bed bug

Bed bugs, bed-bugs, or bedbugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood.

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Bee

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Bee learning and communication

Honey bees are sensitive to odors (including pheromones), tastes, and colors, including ultraviolet.

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Beekeeper

A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees (i.e. practices beekeeping).

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Beetle

Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera.

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Biological pest control

Biological control is a bioeffector-method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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Biomineralization

Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Bipedalism

Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Bird

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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Blaptica dubia

The Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia), also known as the orange-spotted cockroach, Guyana spotted cockroach, or Argentinian wood cockroach, is a medium-sized species of cockroach which grows to around.

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Blattodea

Blattodea is an order of insects that currently combines the cockroaches and the termites.

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Blood

Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Bombyx mori

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Brevisana brevis

Brevisana brevis is a cicada found in Africa and is the loudest insect on record.

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Buccal space

The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces).

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Butterfly

Butterflies are part of the class of insects in the order Lepidoptera, along with the moths.

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Caddisfly

The caddisflies are an order, Trichoptera, of insects with approximately 12,000 described species.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calliphoridae

The Calliphoridae (commonly known as blow flies, blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies) are a family of insects in the order Diptera, with 1,100 known species.

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Calque

In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camouflage

Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, at 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, at 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carrion

Carrion (from the Latin "caro", meaning "meat") refers to the dead and decaying flesh of an animal.

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Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Catalepsy

Catalepsy (from Greek κατάληψις "catch") is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain.

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Caterpillar

Caterpillar is the common name for the larvae of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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Cenozoic

The Cenozoic Era (or; also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic or; meaning "new life", from Greek καινός kainos "new", and ζωή zoe "life") is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and covering the period from 65 million years ago to present day.

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Centipede

Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda.

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Chelicerata

The subphylum Chelicerata (or; New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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Chemical ecology

Chemical ecology is the study of chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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Chorion

In humans and most mammals, the chorion is one of the membranes that exist during pregnancy between the developing fetus and mother.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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Cicada

The Cicadoidea, cicadas, are a superfamily of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (formerly part of the obsolete "Homoptera"), along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladogram

A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics which shows relations among organisms.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is.

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Click beetle

Insects in the family Elateridae are commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related Cerophytidae and Eucnemidae).

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Coccinellidae

The Coccinellidae are a family of small beetles, ranging from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.0315 to 0.708 inches).

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Cockroach

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, sometimes called Blattaria, of which about 30 species out of 4,600Beccaloni, G. W. 2014. Cockroach Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. World Wide Web electronic publication. total are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about long; the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, about long; the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also about in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, about. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and, contrary to popular opinion, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

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Coevolution

In biology, coevolution is "the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object".

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Corixidae

Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera that inhabit ponds and slow moving streams, where they swim near the bottom.

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Crab

Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (βραχύς / brachys.

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Cretaceous

The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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Cricket (insect)

Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as "true crickets"), are insects related to grasshoppers.

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Crop (anatomy)

A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.

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Crustacean

Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

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Crypsis

In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by other organisms.

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Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, Paperback ISBN 0-7591-0133-7 as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy.

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Cuticle

A cuticle, or cuticula, is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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David Grimaldi (entomologist)

David A. Grimaldi (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

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DDT

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a colorless, crystalline, tasteless and almost odorless organochloride known for its insecticidal properties.

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Death's-head Hawkmoth

The name Death's-head Hawkmoth refers to any one of the three moth species of the genus Acherontia (Acherontia atropos, Acherontia styx and Acherontia lachesis).

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Decibel

The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that expresses the ratio of two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity.

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Deep frying

Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, such as oil.

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Defense in insects

Insects have a wide variety of predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, carnivorous plants, and other arthropods.

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Delicatessen

Delicatessen is a term meaning "delicacies" or "fine foods".

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Devonian

The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about Mya (million years ago), to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about.

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Diapause

Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.

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Dictyoptera

Dictyoptera (from Ancient Greek diktuon "net" + pteron "wing") is an insect superorder that includes two orders of polyneopterous insects - the termites and cockroaches (both order: Blattodea) along with the mantids (order: Mantodea).

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Diploptera

Diploptera is a genus of cockroach, used particularly in molecular research into allatostatins.

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Diplura

The order Diplura is one of the four groups of hexapods, alongside insects, springtails and Protura.

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Discontinuous gas exchange

Discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC), also called discontinuous ventilation or discontinuous ventilatory cycles, follow one of several patterns of arthropod gas exchange that have been documented primarily in insects; they occur when the insect is at rest.

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Diverticulum

A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.

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DNA replication

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

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Drosophila

Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Earwig

Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera and are found throughout the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand.

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Ecdysis

Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

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Ectognatha

Ectognatha is a clade of Hexapods whose sole class is Insecta.

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Egg

An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches.

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Embioptera

The order Embioptera, commonly known as webspinners, are a small group of mostly tropical and subtropical insects, classified under the subclass Pterygota.

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Embryo

An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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Empis livida

Empis livida is a species of dance fly, in the fly family Empididae.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endopterygota

The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages.

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Entognatha

The Entognatha are a class of wingless (ametabolous) arthropods, which, together with the insects, makes up the subphylum Hexapoda.

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Entomology

Entomology (from Greek ἔντομος, moment, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented", hence "insect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Entomophagous parasite

Entomophagous parasites (coined from Greek entomon "insect" and Gk. -phagos "eater of") are insects that are parasitic on other insects.

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Entomophagy

Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human consumption of insects as food: human insectivory.

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Environment (biophysical)

The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epicranium

The Epicranium is the medical term for the collection of structures covering the cranium.

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Epidermis

The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of cells in the skin,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005) Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders.

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Epistasis

Epistasis is a phenomenon that consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes' (genetic background).

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Esophagus

The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Ethnoentomology

Ethnoentomology is the study of the relationship between insects and people.

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Eukaryote

A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eumenes (wasp)

Eumenes is the type genus of the subfamily Eumeninae ("potter wasps") of Vespidae.

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European hornet

The European hornet (Vespa crabro) is the largest eusocial wasp in Europe and the largest vespine in North America.

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Eurypterid

Eurypterids (sea scorpions) are an extinct group of arthropods that are related to arachnids and include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.

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Eusociality

Eusociality (Greek eu: "good/real" + "social"), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including brood care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labour into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary developmental biology

Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved.

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Excretion

Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.

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Exopterygota

The Exopterygota, also known as Hemipterodea, are a superorder of insects of the subclass Pterygota in the infraclass Neoptera, in which the young resemble adults but have externally developing wings.

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Eye

Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

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Fecundity

In demography and biology, fecundity is the actual reproductive rate of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.

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Fertilisation

Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy) is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Firefly

The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w in population genetics models) is a central idea in evolutionary and sexual selection theories.

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Flea

Fleas are insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Fly

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di.

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Flying and gliding animals

A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food safety

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness.

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Foregut

The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.

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Gait

Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.

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Ganglion

In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.

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Gangrene

Gangrene (or gangrenous necrosis) is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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Genome

In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome project

Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.

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Genus

In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Gerridae

Gerridae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, pond skaters, water skippers, or jesus bugs.

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Gestation

Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals.

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Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh (Gilgameš, originally Bilgamesh) is the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an Akkadian poem that is considered the first great work of literature, and in earlier Sumerian poems.

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Gill

A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Glossary of entomology terms

This glossary describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.

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Grasshopper

Grasshoppers are insects of the order Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera.

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Greece

Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Greenhouse

A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with additional heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.

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Ground beetle

Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.

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Gryllotalpa brachyptera

Gryllotalpa brachyptera is a mole cricket, native to Australia (New South Wales and Sydney).

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Halobates

Halobates or sea skaters are a genus with over 40 species of water striders.

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Haplodiploidy

Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.

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Harpactorinae

Harpactorinae is a large subfamily of the Reduviidae (assassin bugs).

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Head

A head is the part of an organism, which usually comprises the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste.

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Hearing range

Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the range of levels.

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Hedylidae

Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea.

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Heliconius

Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterfly commonly known as the longwings or heliconians. This genus is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World, from South America as far north as the southern United States. The larvae of these butterflies eat Passion flower vines (Passifloraceae). Adults exhibit bright wing color patterns to signal their distastefulness to potential predators. Brought to the forefront of scientific attention by Victorian naturalists, these butterflies exhibit a striking diversity and mimicry, both amongst themselves and with species in other groups of butterflies and moths. The study of Heliconius and other groups of mimetic butterflies allowed the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates, following his return from Brazil in 1859, to lend support to Charles Darwin, who had found similar diversity amongst the Galapagos Finches.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Hemimetabolism

Hemimetabolism or hemimetaboly, also called incomplete metamorphosis and paurometabolism,McGavin, George C. Essential Entomology: An Order-by-Order Introduction.

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Hemiptera

The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers and shield bugs.

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Hemocyte

A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates.

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Hemolymph

Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hermaphrodite

In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Hexapoda

The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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Hibernation

Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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Hindgut

The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.

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Holometabolism

Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages – as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult.

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Honey

Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee), in contrast with the stingless honey bee, is any bee that is a member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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Housefly

The housefly (also house fly, house-fly or common housefly), Musca domestica, is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha.

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Human

Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human gastrointestinal tract

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Hydraulics

Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids.

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Hymenoptera

The Hymenoptera are the third largest orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants.

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Hypermetamorphosis

Hypermetamorphosis is a term used in entomology that refers to a class of variants of holometabolism, that is to say, complete insect metamorphosis, but where some larval instars are distinct from each other.

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Imago

In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are members of groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation.

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Infrared

Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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Insect

Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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Insect biodiversity

Insect biodiversity accounts for a large proportion of all biodiversity on the planet, with over 1,000,000 insect species described.

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Insect ecology

The insect ecology is the scientific study of how insects, individually or as a community, interact with the surrounding environment or ecosystem.

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Insect flight

Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.

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Insect migration

Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.

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Insect mouthparts

Insects exhibit a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.

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Insect wing

Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.

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Insecticide

An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects.

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Insectivore

robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.

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Integrated pest management

Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as Integrated Pest Control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.

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Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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Isopoda

Isopoda is an order (group) of crustaceans that includes woodlice, sea slaters and their relatives.

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Jet stream

Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmosphere of some planets, including Earth.

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Kairomone

A kairomone (a coinage using the Greek καιρός opportune moment, paralleling pheromone "kairomone, n.". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/241005?redirectedFrom.

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Kalahari Desert

The Kalahari Desert (in Afrikaans: Kalahari-woestyn) is a large semi-arid sandy savannah in:southern Africa extending, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia (previously South West Africa), and South Africa.

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Lacquer

Lacquer is a clear or coloured wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.

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Large blue

The large blue (Phengaris arion, also known as Maculinea arion and Glaucopsyche arion) is species of butterfly in the Lycaenidae family.

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Larva

A larva (plural larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leaf

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Leaf beetle

The family Chrysomelidae, commonly known as leaf beetles, includes over 35,000 species in more than 2,500 genera, making it one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.

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Lepidoptera

The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (both called lepidopterans).

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Lepidotrichidae

Lepidotrichidae is a family of basal insects belonging to the order Thysanura.

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Lichen

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Limenitidinae

The Limenitidinae ares a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives.

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List of diseases caused by insects

Invertebrates are very common vectors of disease.

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List of prehistoric insects

Prehistoric insects are various groups of insects that lived before recorded history.

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Locust

Locusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae.

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Longhorn beetle

The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.

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Louse

Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera; three of which are classified as human disease agents.

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Lung

The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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Lycaenidae

Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 5,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Madagascar hissing cockroach

The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa), also known as the hissing cockroach or simply hisser, is one of the largest species of cockroach, reaching at maturity.

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Maggot

A maggot is the larva of a fly (order Diptera); it is applied in particular to the larvae of Brachyceran flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies, rather than larvae of the Nematocera, such as mosquitoes and Crane flies.

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Maggot therapy

Maggot therapy (also known as maggot debridement therapy (MDT), larval therapy, larva therapy, larvae therapy, biodebridement or biosurgery) is a type of biotherapy involving the introduction of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or animal for the purpose of cleaning out the necrotic (dead) tissue within a wound (debridement) and disinfection.

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Malacostraca

Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.

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Male

A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Mallophaga

Mallophaga is a suborder of lice, known as chewing lice, biting lice or bird lice, containing more than 3000 species.

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Malpighian tubule system

The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.

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Mandible (insect mouthpart)

Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).

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Mantis

Mantodea is an order of insects that contains over 2,400 species and about 430 genera of mantises in 15 families, by far the largest family being Mantidae ("mantids").

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Marangoni effect

The Marangoni effect (also called the Gibbs–Marangoni effect) is the mass transfer along an interface between two fluids due to surface tension gradient.

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Marvin Harris

Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist.

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Mastication

Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

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Mayfly

Mayflies or shadflies are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.

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Müllerian mimicry

Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more poisonous species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals.

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Mecoptera

Mecoptera (from the Greek: meco-.

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Megaloptera

Megaloptera is an order of insects.

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Meganeura

Meganeura is a genus of extinct insects from the Carboniferous period (approximately 300 million years ago), which resembled and are related to the present-day dragonflies.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Mesothorax

The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs.

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Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Metathorax

The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs.

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Michael S. Engel

Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.

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Microvillus

Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Milkweed butterfly

Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies.

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Millipede

Millipedes are arthropods in the class Diplopoda characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments.

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Mimicry

In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one species to another that protects one or both.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Monarch butterfly

The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.

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Monophyly

In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar; British English: monosaccharaides) are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Monura

Monura is an extinct order of wingless insects in the subclass Apterygota.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mosquito

Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies which compose the family Culicidae.

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Moth

Moths are a group of insects related to butterflies belonging to the order Lepidoptera.

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Moulting

In biology, moulting or molting (see spelling differences), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Mouth

In biological anatomy, commonly referred to as the mouth, under formal names such as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats.

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Myriapoda

Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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Myrmecophily

Myrmecophily (literally "ant-love") is the term applied to positive interspecies associations between ants and a variety of other organisms such as plants, other arthropods, and fungi.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nectar

Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Neontology

Neontology is the part of biology which – in contrast to paleontology – deals with now living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neoptera

Neoptera is a classification group that includes most part of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens.

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Neoteny

Neoteny, also called juvenilization,Montagu, A. (1989).

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuroptera

The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.

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NEXRAD

NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 160 high-resolution S-band Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the United States Department of Commerce, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within the Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Air Force within the Department of Defense.

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Nezara viridula

Nezara viridula, commonly known as the southern green stink bug (USA) or green vegetable bug (Australia and New Zealand), is a plant-feeding stink bug.

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Nociception

Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception) is the encoding and processing of harmful stimuli in the nervous system, and, therefore, the ability of a body to sense potential harm.

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Nociceptor

A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain.

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Notoptera

The insect order Notoptera, a group first proposed in 1915, has been largely unused since its original conception, but in the most recent classification of the lineage of insects that includes the Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea, the name was resurrected and redefined so as to give a single order that includes both the living and fossil representatives of the lineage.

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Notum

Notum, (plural nota), is a word used to denote an anatomical area in two different groups of invertebrate animals.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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Numeracy

Numeracy is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts.

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Nutrition

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Nymph (biology)

In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis (hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage.

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Odonata

Odonata is an order of carnivorous insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera/Epiprocta) and damselflies (Zygoptera).

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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Old Cairo

Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: Masr el Qadīma) is a part of Cairo, Egypt, that which pre-date the Fatimid city of al-Qahira, founded in 969 CE.

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Ootheca

An ootheca (pl. oothecae) is a type of egg mass made by any member of a variety of species (usually insects or mollusks).

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Opodiphthera eucalypti

The Emperor gum moth (Opodiphthera eucalypti) is a species of moth in the family Saturniidae, that is native to Australia.

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Orchard

An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Organism

In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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Orgyia recens

The Scarce Vapourer (Orgyia recens) is a species of moth of the Lymantriidae family.

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Orthoptera

The Orthoptera order of insects includes the grasshoppers, crickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets, katydids, weta, lubber, Acrida, and locusts.

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Ovariole

An ovariole is one of the tubes of which the ovaries of most insects are composed.

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Ovary

The ovary (From ovarium, literally "egg" or "nut") is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.

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Ovoviviparity

Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pain in animals

Pain in animals is a contentious issue.

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Pain in invertebrates

Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue.

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Palaeoptera

The name Palaeoptera has been traditionally applied to those ancestral groups of winged insects (most of them extinct) that lacked the ability to fold the wings back over the abdomen as characterizes the Neoptera.

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Paleozoic

The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (or; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning from roughly (ICS, 2004).

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Pancrustacea

Pancrustacea is a clade, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods.

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Paraneoptera

Paraneoptera is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.

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Paraphyly

In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.

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Parasitism

In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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Parasitoid

A parasitoid is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host.

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Parenting

Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.

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Pauropoda

Pauropods are small, pale, centipede-like arthropods.

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Pennsylvanian (geology)

The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.

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Pentatomoidea

The Pentatomoidea comprise a superfamily of insects in the Heteroptera suborder of the Hemiptera order and, as such, share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.

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Peramorphosis

In developmental biology, peramorphosis is a phylogenetic change in which individuals of a species mature past adulthood and take on hitherto unseen traits.

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Periodical cicadas

Magicicada is the genus of the 13-year and 17-year periodical cicadas of eastern North America.

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Peristalsis

Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.

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Permian

The Permian is a geologic period and system which extends from to million years ago.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Pest (organism)

A pest is "a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns (as agriculture or livestock production)"; alternative meanings include organisms that cause nuisance and epidemic disease associated with high mortality (specifically: plague).

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Pharynx

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across the species.

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Phasmatodea

The Phasmatodea (sometimes called Phasmida or Phasmatoptera) are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (in Europe and Australasia), stick-bugs or walking sticks (in the United States and Canada), phasmids, ghost insects and leaf insects (generally the family Phylliidae).

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Phengodidae

The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms.

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Phenotype

A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Pheromone

A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Philemon Holland

Philemon Holland (1552 – 9 February 1637) was an English schoolmaster, physician, and translator.

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Philopatry

Philopatry is the “tendency of an organism to stay in, or return to, its home area”.

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Photinus (beetle)

The rover fireflies (Photinus) are a genus of fireflies (family Lampyridae).

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Phylogenetics

Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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Phylum

In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla)The term was coined by Haeckel from Greek φῦλον phylon, "race, stock," related to φυλή phyle, "tribe, clan." is a taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.

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Piscivore

A piscivore is a carnivorous animal which eats primarily fish.

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Plant

Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant defense against herbivory

Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.

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Plecoptera

The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies.

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Pleuron (insect anatomy)

The pleuron (pl. pleura, from Greek side, rib) is a lateral sclerite of thoracic segment of an insect between the tergum and the sternum.

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Pliny the Elder

Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

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Ploidy

Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell.

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PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation.

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Polistes versicolor

Polistes versicolor is a subtropical social wasp within Polistes, the most common genus of the paper wasp.

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Pollen

Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollination

Pollination is a process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction.

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Pollination management

Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.

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Pollination syndrome

Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.

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Pollinator decline

The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the twentieth century, and continuing into the present day.

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Polyembryony

Polyembryony is the phenomenon of two or more embryos developing from a single fertilized egg (in humans, identical twins).

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology is said to occur when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species—in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph.

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Polyphyly

A polyphyletic (Greek for "of many races") group is characterized by one or more homoplasies: phenotypes which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Population growth

In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Portable Document Format

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.

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Predation

In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prevailing winds

Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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Princeton University Press

The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Process (science)

The process of science is the scientific method.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Prothorax

The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs.

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Protura

The Protura, or proturans, and sometimes nicknamed coneheads, are very small (Some evidence indicates the Protura are basal to all other hexapods, although not all researchers consider them Hexapoda, rendering the monophyly of Hexapoda unsettled. Uniquely among hexapods, proturans show anamorphic development, whereby body segments are added during moults. Szeptycki (2007) lists a total of 731 described species worldwide, in seven families, nearly 300 of which are contained in a single genus, Eosentomon.

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Proventriculus

The proventriculus is part of the digestive system of birds, invertebrates and insects.

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Psocodea

Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice.

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Psocoptera

Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice, barklice or barkflies.

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Pterygota

The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects.

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Pupa

A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation.

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Recycling

Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.

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Remipedia

Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in coastal aquifers which contain saline groundwater, with populations identified in almost every ocean basin so far explored, including in Australia, the Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Respiratory system of insects

An insect's respiratory system is the biological system with which it introduces respiratory gases to its interior and performs gas exchange.

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Rhaphidophoridae

The orthopteran family Rhaphidophoridae includes the cave weta, cave crickets, camelback crickets, camel crickets, spider crickets (sometimes shortened to "criders", or "land shrimp" or sprickets") and sand treaders, of the suborder Ensifera.

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Rhinotia hemistictus

Rhinotia hemistictus is a species of beetle in the genus Rhinotia of the family Belidae, commonly called the long nosed weevil.

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Rhynie chert

The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).

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Rhyniognatha

Rhyniognatha hirsti is the world’s oldest known insect.

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Robot

A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

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Rove beetle

The rove beetles are a family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Salivary gland

The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva.

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Scarabaeidae

The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.

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Scavenger

Scavenger is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Schizophora

Schizophora is a section of true flies containing 78 families, which are collectively referred to as muscoids, althoughtechnicallythe term "muscoid" should be limited to flies in the superfamily Muscoidea; this is an example of informal, historical usage persisting in the vernacular.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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Sclerite

A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.

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Sclerotin

Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.

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Scorpion

Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida.

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Sea spider

Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.

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Secretariat of the Pacific Community

The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) (sometimes called the Pacific Community) is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories in the Pacific Ocean and their metropolitan powers.

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Segmentation (biology)

Segmentation in biology refers to the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Semiochemical

A semiochemical (from Greek semeon meaning "signal") is a generic term used for a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message for purpose of communication.

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Serous membrane

In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of two layers of epithelial cells (as membranes), which secrete serous fluid.

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Sex-determination system

A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Shrimp

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Silk

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.

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Silurian

The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period.

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Silverfish

Lepisma saccharina, commonly known as a silverfish or fishmoth, is a small, wingless insect in the order Thysanura.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a systematic term from cladistics denoting the closest relatives of a given unit in a phylogenetic tree.

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Snakefly

Snakeflies are a group of insects comprising the order Raphidioptera, consisting of about 210 extant species.

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Southern hawker

The southern hawker or blue hawker (Aeshna cyanea) is a long species of hawker dragonfly.The species is one of the most common and most widespread dragonflies in Europe.

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Species

In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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Spermatheca

The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.

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Spermatogonium

A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell, originating in a seminiferous tubule and dividing into two primary spermatocytes (a kind of germ cell) in the production of spermatozoa.

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Sphingidae

The Sphingidae are a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths, and hornworms; it includes about 1,450 species.

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Spider

Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Spiracle

Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Springtail

Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).

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Stenus

Stenus is a genus of semiaquatic rove beetles in the subfamily Steninae.

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Stomach

The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in many animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs.

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Strepsiptera

The Strepsiptera (translation: twisted wing, giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.

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Stridulation

Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts.

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Suboesophageal ganglion

The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of insects is part of the central nervous system (CNS).

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Sucking louse

Sucking lice (Anoplura, formerly known as Siphunculata) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice.

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Superorganism

A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms.

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Suture (anatomy)

In anatomy, a suture is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism, with or without significant overlap of the elements.

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Symphyla

Symphylans, also known as garden centipedes or pseudocentipedes, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the class Symphyla in the subphylum Myriapoda.

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Systematics

Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Taboo

A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment.

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Tagma (biology)

This article is about the biology term.

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Taxon

In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Termite

Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Terrain

Terrain, or land relief, is the vertical and horizontal dimension of land surface.

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Testicle

The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" of virility, plural testes) is the male gonad in animals.

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Thorax

The thorax or chest (θώραξ (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"), thorax is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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Thorax (insect anatomy)

The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.

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Thrips

Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are minute, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)).

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Thysania agrippina

Thysania agrippina is a species of moth in the Erebidae family.

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Thysanura

Thysanura is the now deprecated name of an order of the class insecta.

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Topsoil

Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.

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Torpor

Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.

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Trachea

The trachea, colloquially called windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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Transcription (genetics)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Trichromacy

Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the condition of possessing three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different cone types.

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Trilobite

Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Tripedalism

Tripedalism (from the Latin tri.

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Tufts University

Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Tympanal organ

A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.

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Ultrasound

Ultrasounds are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (U of I, University of Illinois, UIUC, or simply Illinois) is a public research-intensive university in the U.S. state of Illinois.

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University of Wyoming

The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.

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Upper Arrernte language

Arrernte or Aranda, or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Vein

In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Ventral nerve cord

The ventral nerve cord makes up the nervous system of some phyla of the invertebrates, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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Vertex (anatomy)

In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) refers to the upper surface of the head.

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Vespula germanica

Vespula germanica (European wasp, German wasp, or German yellowjacket) is a species of wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, native to Europe, Northern Africa, and temperate Asia.

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Vibration

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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Viceroy (butterfly)

The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico.

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Vivipary

Vivipary has two different meanings.

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Vortex

In fluid dynamics, a vortex is a region in a fluid medium in which the flow is mostly rotating around an axis line, the vortical flow that occurs either on a straight-axis or a curved-axis.

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Wasp

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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Water beetle

A water beetle is a generalized name for any beetle that is adapted to living in water at any point in its life cycle.

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Wax

Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures.

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Weather radar

Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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Weevil

A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).

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Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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Xiphosura

The Xiphosura are an order of marine chelicerates that includes a large number of extinct lineages and only four extant species in the family Limulidae, which include the horseshoe crabs.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever, known historically as yellow jack, yellow plague, or bronze john, is an acute viral disease.

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Zoraptera

The insect order Zoraptera contains a single family, the Zorotypidae, which in turn contains one extant genus with 39 species, Zorotypus as well as 9 extinct species.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect

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