133 relations: Accumulator (computing), Addressing mode, Advanced Micro Devices, Alpha, AltiVec, ARB assembly language, Arithmetic logic unit, Arity, ARM architecture, Assembly language, Athlon, AVR32, Binary multiplier, Bitwise operation, Branch (computer science), Branch predication, Byte, Bytecode, Common Language Runtime, Compare-and-swap, Comparison of instruction set architectures, Compiler, Complex instruction set computing, Computer architecture, Computer programming, Control flow, Control unit, CPU cache, CUDA, Data type, Delay slot, Digital signal processor, Emulate, Emulator, Exception handling, Executable compression, Explicitly parallel instruction computing, Fetch-and-add, Field-programmable gate array, Flag field, Flash memory, Flynn's taxonomy, Fred Brooks, Graphics processing unit, Hardware abstraction, Harvard architecture, IBM System/360, Immunity-aware programming, Indirect branch, Input/output, ..., Instruction pipeline, Instruction set, Instruction set simulator, Intel, Interpreter (computing), Interrupt, Java virtual machine, Just-in-time compilation, Kolmogorov complexity, Linearizability, List of instruction sets, Load-link/store-conditional, Load/store architecture, Logical conjunction, Logical disjunction, Machine code, Mainframe computer, MCP-1600, Memory model (programming), Microarchitecture, Microcode, Microcontroller, Minimal instruction set computer, MIPS instruction set, MMX (instruction set), MOS Technology 6502, Motorola 68000, Multi-core processor, Multiply–accumulate operation, Negation, Non-blocking algorithm, NOP, NOP slide, One instruction set computer, Opcode, OpenGL, Operand, Orthogonal instruction set, OVPsim, P5 (microarchitecture), Parallel computing, Personal computer, Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Power Architecture, Processor design, Processor register, Programmable logic array, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Proprietary hardware, Random-access memory, Read-modify-write, Read-only memory, Reconfigurable computing, Reduced instruction set computing, Register allocation, Register transfer language, Rekursiv, SIMD, Sine, Smalltalk, SPARC, Square root, Stack (abstract data type), Stack machine, Status register, Subroutine, Supercomputer, System call, Test-and-set, Threaded code, TI MSP430, Transmeta, Transport triggered architecture, Trigonometric functions, VAX, Vector processor, Very long instruction word, Western Digital, Word (computer architecture), X86, Zilog Z80, 3DNow!. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.
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Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American worldwide semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α; Άλφα Álpha) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
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AltiVec is a floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple, IBM, and Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola's Semiconductor Products Sector) — the AIM alliance.
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ARB assembly language is a low-level shading language, which can be characterized as an assembly language.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise logical operations on integer binary numbers.
In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands the function or operation accepts.
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ARM, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments, developed by British company ARM Holdings.
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An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions.
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
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The AVR32 is a 32-bit RISC microcontroller architecture produced by Atmel.
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A binary multiplier is an electronic circuit used in digital electronics, such as a computer, to multiply two binary numbers.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
A computer program is, fundamentally, the use of instructions executed by a computer.
Branch predication is a strategy in computer architecture design for mitigating the costs usually associated with conditional branches, particularly branches to short sections of code.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits.
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Bytecode, also known as p-code (portable code), is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.
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The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's.NET framework, manages the execution of.NET programs.
In computer science, compare-and-swap (CAS) is an atomic instruction used in multithreading to achieve synchronization.
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Computer architectures are often described as n-bit architectures.
A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.
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Complex instruction set computing (CISC) is a processor design where single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
In electronic engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization and implementation of computer systems.
Computer programming (often shortened to programming) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs.
In computer science, control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
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The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs operation of the processor.
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A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average time to access data from the main memory.
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CUDA, which stands for Compute Unified Device Architecture, is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by NVIDIA.
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In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type; the operations that can be done on values of that type; the meaning of the data; and the way values of that type can be stored.
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In computer architecture, a delay slot is an instruction slot that gets executed without the effects of a preceding instruction.
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A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
Emulate is a startup company focused on the commercialization of the Organ on a chip - a tissue-based technology that replicates human organ-level function that is used to model organs in healthy and diseased states.
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In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
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Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
Executable compression is any means of compressing an executable file and combining the compressed data with decompression code into a single executable.
Explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) is a term coined in 1997 by the HP–Intel alliance to describe a computing paradigm that researchers had been investigating since the early 1980s.
In computer science, the fetch-and-add CPU instruction is a special instruction that atomically modifies the contents of a memory location.
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A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
In computer programming, a flag field is an integer interpreted as a sequence of boolean bits, each called a "flag".
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Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
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Flynn's taxonomy is a classification of computer architectures, proposed by Michael J. Flynn in 1966.
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Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.
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A graphics processor unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processor unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.
Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.
The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) was a mainframe computer system family announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
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When writing firmware for an embedded system, immunity-aware programming refers to programming techniques which improve the tolerance of transient errors in the program counter or other modules of a program that would otherwise lead to failure.
An indirect branch (also known as a computed jump, indirect jump and register-indirect jump) is a type of program control instruction present in some machine language instruction sets.
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In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
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An instruction pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers to increase their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that can be executed in a unit of time).
An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O.
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An instruction set simulator (ISS) is a simulation model, usually coded in a high-level programming language, which mimics the behavior of a mainframe or microprocessor by "reading" instructions and maintaining internal variables which represent the processor's registers.
Intel Corporation (commonly referred to as Intel) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California.
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In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program.
In systems programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
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A Java virtual machine (JVM) is an abstract computing machine that enables a computer to run a Java program.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, also known as dynamic translation, is compilation done during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity (also known as descriptive complexity, Kolmogorov–Chaitin complexity, algorithmic entropy, or program-size complexity) of an object, such as a piece of text, is a measure of the computational resources needed to specify the object.
In concurrent programming, an operation (or set of operations) is atomic, linearizable, indivisible or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur instantaneously.
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A list of computer central processor instruction sets: (Companies that created only a few different processors are listed at the end under "Other").
In computer science, load-link and store-conditional (LL/SC) are a pair of instructions used in multithreading to achieve synchronization.
In computer engineering a load/store architecture only allows memory to be accessed by load and store operations, and all values for an operation need to be loaded from memory and be present in registers.
In logic and mathematics, and is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.
Machine code or machine language is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
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Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning and transaction processing.
The MCP-1600 was a multi-chip microprocessor made by Western Digital in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.
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In computing, a memory model describes the interactions of threads through memory and their shared use of the data.
In electronics engineering and computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA) is implemented in a particular processor.
Microcode is a layer of hardware-level instructions that implement higher-level machine code instructions or internal state machine sequencing in many digital processing elements.
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A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
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Minimal Instruction Set Computer (MISC) is a processor architecture with a very small number of basic operations and corresponding opcodes.
MIPS (originally an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by MIPS Technologies (formerly MIPS Computer Systems, Inc.). The early MIPS architectures were 32-bit, with 64-bit versions added later.
MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as "Pentium with MMX Technology".
The MOS Technology 6502 (pronounced "sixty-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector (now Freescale Semiconductor).
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A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (called "cores"), which are the units that read and execute program instructions.
In computing, especially digital signal processing, the multiply–accumulate operation is a common step that computes the product of two numbers and adds that product to an accumulator.
In logic, negation, also called logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition p to another proposition "not p", written ¬p, which is interpreted intuitively as being true when p is false and false when p is true.
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In computer science, an algorithm is called non-blocking if failure or suspension of any thread cannot cause failure or suspension of another thread; for some operations, these algorithms provide a useful alternative to traditional blocking implementations.
In computer science, a NOP or NOOP (short for No Operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
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In computer security, a NOP slide, NOP sled or NOP ramp is a sequence of NOP (no-operation) instructions meant to "slide" the CPU's instruction execution flow to its final, desired, destination whenever the program branches to a memory address anywhere on the sled.
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A one instruction set computer (OISC), sometimes called an ultimate reduced instruction set computer (URISC), is an abstract machine that uses only one instruction – obviating the need for a machine language opcode.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
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OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a cross-language, multi-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.
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In mathematics, an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, a quantity on which an operation is performed.
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In computer engineering, an orthogonal instruction set is an instruction set architecture where all instruction types can use all addressing modes.
OVPsim is a multiprocessor platform emulator (often called a full-system simulator) used to run unchanged production binaries of the target hardware.
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The Intel Pentium microprocessor was introduced on March 22, 1993.
Parallel computing is a form/type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved at the same time.
A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities and original sale price make it useful for individuals, and is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
Power Architecture is a registered trademark for similar RISC instruction sets for microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AppliedMicro, LSI, e2v and Synopsys.
Processor design is the design engineering task of creating a microprocessor, a component of computer hardware.
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In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of storage available as part of a digital processor, such as a central processing unit (CPU).
A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.
A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming, serving as a way of building the structure and elements of computer programs.
Proprietary hardware is computer hardware whose interface is controlled by the proprietor, often under patent or trade-secret protection.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage.
In computer science, read-modify-write is a class of atomic operations (such as test-and-set, fetch-and-add, and compare-and-swap) that both read a memory location and write a new value into it simultaneously, either with a completely new value or some function of the previous value.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices.
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Reconfigurable computing is a computer architecture combining some of the flexibility of software with the high performance of hardware by processing with very flexible high speed computing fabrics like field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).
Reduced instruction set computing, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is a CPU design strategy based on the insight that a simplified instruction set (as opposed to a complex set) provides higher performance when combined with a microprocessor architecture capable of executing those instructions using fewer microprocessor cycles per instruction.
In compiler optimization, register allocation is the process of assigning a large number of target program variables onto a small number of CPU registers.
In computer science, register transfer language (RTL) is a kind of intermediate representation (IR) that is very close to assembly language, such as that which is used in a compiler.
Rekursiv was a computer processor designed by David M. Harland in the mid-1980s for Linn Smart Computing in Glasgow, Scotland.
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Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD), is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.
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Sine, in mathematics, is a trigonometric function of an angle.
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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
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SPARC (from "scalable processor architecture") is a RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Sun Microsystems and introduced in mid-1987.
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In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.
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In computer science, a stack or LIFO (last in, first out) is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the last element that was added.
In computer science, computer engineering and in programming language implementations, a stack machine is a real or emulated computer that uses a pushdown stack rather than individual machine registers to evaluate each sub-expression in the program.
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A status register, flag register, or condition code register is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
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In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit.
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A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.
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In computing, a system call is how a program requests a service from an operating system's kernel.
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In computer science, the test-and-set instruction is an instruction used to write to a memory location and return its old value as a single atomic (i.e., non-interruptible) operation.
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In computer science, the term threaded code refers to a compiler implementation technique where the generated code has a form that essentially consists entirely of calls to subroutines.
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The MSP430 is a mixed-signal microcontroller family from Texas Instruments.
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Transmeta Corporation was an American fabless semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California.
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In computer architecture, a transport triggered architecture (TTA) is a kind of CPU design in which programs directly control the internal transport buses of a processor.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called the circular functions) are functions of an angle.
VAX was an instruction set architecture (ISA), developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
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In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
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Very long instruction word (VLIW) refers to processor architectures designed to take advantage of instruction level parallelism (ILP).
Western Digital Corporation (commonly referred to as Western Digital and often abbreviated as WDC or WD) is an American computer data storage company and one of the largest computer hard disk drive manufacturers in the world, along with Seagate Technology.
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In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
x86 is a family of backward compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
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The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which was designed and manufactured by Zilog.
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3DNow! is an extension to the x86 instruction set developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).
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