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International Computers Limited

International Computers Limited, or ICL, was a large British computer hardware, computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002. [1]

130 relations: ALGOL 68, ALGOL W, Ashton-under-Lyne, Barclays, Beaumont College, Block-oriented terminal, Bracknell, Brian Warboys, British Tabulating Machine Company, C (programming language), Charles Babbage Institute, COBOL, CODASYL, Cold War, Compiler, Computer Consoles Inc., Computer hardware, Content Addressable File Store, Cookham, Cullinet, Dalkeith Palace, Datasaab, Department for Work and Pensions, Dukinfield, Eastern Europe, Elliott 803, Elliott Brothers (computer company), English Electric, English Electric KDF8, English Electric KDF9, English Electric System 4, Ericsson, Europe, Feltham, Ferranti, Ferranti-Packard, Ferranti-Packard 6000, Finland, Fortran, Fujitsu, Fujitsu Siemens Computers, GEORGE (operating system), Gorton, Harold Wilson, Hedsor House, Hitachi, Hugh Laurie, IBM, IBM 4300, IBM Personal Computer/AT, ..., IBM System/360, ICL 2900 Series, ICL Direct Machine Environment, ICL Distributed Array Processor, ICL Series 39, ICL VME, ICT 1900 series, IDMS, Information technology, Ingres (database), Inland Revenue, Integrated circuit, International Computers and Tabulators, J. Lyons and Co., Kazan, Kidsgrove, Labour Party (UK), LEO (computer), Letchworth, London, Mainframe computer, Marconi Company, Massively parallel (computing), Michael Edwardes, Middleware, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Mintimer Shaimiev, Native (computing), NCR Corporation, Nokia, Nordic countries, Nottingham, Odra (computer), Old Windsor, Operating system, Oracle Database, Order of the British Empire, Outsourcing, Pascal (programming language), Personal computer, Peter Bonfield, Post Office Ltd, Powers-Samas, Prestel, Privately held company, Program evaluation and review technique, Punched card, Pune, Putney, Putney Wharf Tower, Queen's Awards for Enterprise, RCA, RCA Spectra 70, Reading, Berkshire, Regnecentralen, Russia, S3 (programming language), Saab Group, Siemens, Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, Singer Corporation, Singer System 10, Software, Soviet Union, Standard Telephones and Cables, Stephen Fry, Stevenage, Sweden, System programming language, Taplow, Tatarstan, Teletype Model 33, Tony Benn, UNIVAC, University of Manchester, University of Southampton, Utica, New York, Videotex, Western Electric, Winsford. Expand index (80 more) »

ALGOL 68

ALGOL 68 (short for ALGOrithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.

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ALGOL W

ALGOL W is a programming language.

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Ashton-under-Lyne

Ashton-under-Lyne (pop. 43,200) is a market town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England.

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Barclays

Barclays is a British multinational banking & financial services company headquartered in London.

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Beaumont College

Beaumont College was a Jesuit public school in Old Windsor, Berkshire, England.

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Block-oriented terminal

A block-oriented terminal or block mode terminal is a type of computer terminal that communicates with its host in blocks of data, as opposed to a character-oriented terminal that communicates with its host one character at a time.

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Bracknell

Bracknell is a town and civil parish in the Borough of Bracknell Forest in Berkshire, England.

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Brian Warboys

Brian Warboys (born 30 April 1942), was Professor of Software Engineering at the University of Manchester from 1985 until he retired in September 2007.

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British Tabulating Machine Company

The British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) was a firm which manufactured and sold Hollerith unit record equipment and other data-processing equipment.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.

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COBOL

COBOL (an acronym for common business-oriented language) is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

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CODASYL

CODASYL is an acronym for "Conference/Committee on Data Systems Languages".

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Compiler

A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.

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Computer Consoles Inc.

Computer Consoles Inc. or CCI was a telephony and computer company located in Rochester, New York, USA, which did business first as a private, and then ultimately a public company from 1968 to 1990.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware (usually simply called hardware when a computing context is implicit) is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system.

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Content Addressable File Store

The Content Addressable File Store (CAFS) was a hardware device developed by International Computers Limited (ICL) that provided a disk storage with built-in search capability.

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Cookham

Cookham is a village and civil parish in the north-easternmost corner of Berkshire in England, on the River Thames, notable as the home of the artist Stanley Spencer.

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Cullinet

Cullinet was a software company whose products included the database management system IDMS and the integrated software package Goldengate.

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Dalkeith Palace

Dalkeith Palace in Dalkeith, Midlothian, Scotland, is a historic house and the former seat of the Duke of Buccleuch.

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Datasaab

Datasaab was the computer division of, and later a separate company spun off from, aircraft manufacturer Saab in Linköping, Sweden.

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Department for Work and Pensions

The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) is the largest government department in the United Kingdom, and is responsible for welfare and pension policy.

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Dukinfield

Dukinfield is a town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Elliott 803

The Elliott 803 is a small, medium speed digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.

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Elliott Brothers (computer company)

Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd was an early computer company of the 1950s–60s in the United Kingdom.

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English Electric

The English Electric Company Limited was a British industrial manufacturer formed after the armistice of World War I at the end of 1918.

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English Electric KDF8

KDF8 was an early British computer designed and built by English Electric, later English Electric Leo Marconi, EELM, later still incorporated into ICL.

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English Electric KDF9

KDF9 was an early British computer designed and built by English Electric.

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English Electric System 4

The English Electric (later ICL) System 4 was a mainframe computer introduced in the mid-1960s.

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Ericsson

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational provider of communication technology and services.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Feltham

Feltham is a suburban town in the London Borough of Hounslow, West London, west south west of central London and south of Heathrow Airport.

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Ferranti

Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993 (the Belgian subsidiary lives on as Ferranti Computer Systems and is now part of the Nijkerk Holding).

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Ferranti-Packard

Ferranti-Packard Ltd. was the Canadian division of Ferranti's global manufacturing empire, formed by the 1958 merger of Ferranti Electric and Packard Electric.

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Ferranti-Packard 6000

The FP-6000 Ferranti Packard: Pioneers in Canadian Electrical Manufacturing Norman R Ball, John N Vardalas ISBN 0773509836 ISBN 978-0773509832was a second-generation mainframe computer developed and built by Ferranti-Packard in the early 1960s.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.

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Fortran

Fortran (previously FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Fujitsu

, commonly referred to as Fujitsu, is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Fujitsu Siemens Computers

Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH was a Japanese and German IT vendor.

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GEORGE (operating system)

GEORGE was the name given to a series of operating systems released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) in the 1960s, for the ICT 1900 series of computers.

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Gorton

Gorton is an area of the city of Manchester, in North West England.

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 191624 May 1995) was a British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976.

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Hedsor House

Hedsor House is a Georgian style mansion in the United Kingdom, located in Hedsor, Buckinghamshire, England.

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Hitachi

() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.

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Hugh Laurie

James Hugh Calum Laurie, OBE (born 11 June 1959), known professionally as Hugh Laurie, is an English actor, writer, director, musician, singer, comedian, and author.

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IBM

International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York.

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IBM 4300

The IBM 4300 series of computers were mid-range systems, various models of which were sold from 1979 through 1992.

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IBM Personal Computer/AT

The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) was a mainframe computer system family announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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ICL 2900 Series

The ICL 2900 Series was a range of mainframe computer systems announced by the UK manufacturer ICL on 9 October 1974.

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ICL Direct Machine Environment

Direct Machine Environment, abbreviated DME, was a mainframe environment for the ICL 2900 Series of computing systems from International Computers Limited that was developed in the 1970s.

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ICL Distributed Array Processor

The Distributed Array Processor (DAP) produced by International Computers Limited (ICL) was the world's first commercial massively parallel computer.

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ICL Series 39

The ICL Series 39 was a range of mainframe and minicomputer computer systems released by the UK manufacturer ICL in 1985.

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ICL VME

VME (Virtual Machine Environment) is a mainframe operating system developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL, now part of the Fujitsu group).

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ICT 1900 series

ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.

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IDMS

IDMS (Integrated Database Management System) is primarily a network (CODASYL) database management system for mainframes.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Ingres (database)

Ingres Database is a commercially supported, open-source SQL relational database management system intended to support large commercial and government applications.

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Inland Revenue

The Inland Revenue was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government responsible for the collection of direct taxation, including income tax, national insurance contributions, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, corporation tax, petroleum revenue tax and stamp duty.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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International Computers and Tabulators

International Computers and Tabulators or ICT was formed in 1959 by a merger of the British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and Powers-Samas.

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J. Lyons and Co.

J.

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Kazan

Kazan (p; Qazan) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kidsgrove

Kidsgrove is a town in the borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England, near the border with Cheshire.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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LEO (computer)

The LEO I (Lyons Electronic Office I) was the first computer used for commercial business applications.

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Letchworth

Letchworth, officially Letchworth Garden City, is a town in Hertfordshire, England, with a population of 33,600.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning and transaction processing.

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Marconi Company

The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that technically existed under that rubric from 1963-1987, derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes, mergers and acquisitions.

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Massively parallel (computing)

In computing, massively parallel refers to the use of a large number of processors (or separate computers) to perform a set of coordinated computations in parallel (simultaneously).

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Michael Edwardes

Sir Michael Edwardes (born 11 October 1930) is a British-South African business executive.

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Middleware

Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system.

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Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government, and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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Mintimer Shaimiev

Mintimer Şərip uğlı Şəymiyev (Mintimer Şərip uğlı Şəymiyev; Минтиме́р Шари́пович Шайми́ев) (born January 20, 1937) was the first to hold title of President of Tatarstan, a republic within Russia.

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Native (computing)

In computing, software or data formats that are native to a system are those that the system supports with minimal computational overhead and additional components.

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NCR Corporation

The NCR Corporation (formerly National Cash Register) is a US-based computer hardware, software and electronics company that provides products and services that enable businesses to connect, interact and transact with their customers.

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Nokia

Nokia Corporation (Nokia Oyj) is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic.

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Nottingham

Nottingham is a city in Nottinghamshire, England, south of Sheffield and north of Leicester.

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Odra (computer)

Odra was a line of computers manufactured in Wrocław, Poland.

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Old Windsor

Old Windsor is a large village and civil parish in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire which adjoins the River Thames.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Oracle Database

Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

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Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is the "order of chivalry of British democracy", rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations and public service outside the Civil Service.

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Outsourcing

In business, outsourcing involves the contracting out of a business process to another party (compare business process outsourcing).

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is a historically influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.

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Personal computer

A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities and original sale price make it useful for individuals, and is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator.

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Peter Bonfield

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield, CBE, FREng(born 3 June 1944) is a business executive who has led a number of companies in the fields of electronics, computers and communications.

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Post Office Ltd

Post Office Ltd, (Oifis a'phuist, Swyddfa’r Post), is a retail post office company in the United Kingdom that provides a wide range of products including postage stamps and banking to the public through its nationwide network of post office branches.

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Powers-Samas

Powers-Samas was a British company which sold unit record equipment.

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Prestel

Prestel (abbrev. from press telephone), the brand name for the UK Post Office's Viewdata technology, was an interactive videotex system developed during the late 1970s and commercially launched in 1979.

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Privately held company

A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.

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Program evaluation and review technique

The program (or project) evaluation and review technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a statistical mathematics tool, used in General project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.

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Punched card

A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contained either commands for controlling automated machinery or data for data processing applications.

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Pune

Pune is the ninth-most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after the state capital city of Mumbai.

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Putney

Putney is a district in south-west London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth.

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Putney Wharf Tower

Putney Wharf Tower is a tall apartment building at Putney Wharf, Putney, London SW15 2JX, on the river Thames, close to Putney Bridge.

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Queen's Awards for Enterprise

The Queen's Awards for Enterprise is an awards programme for British businesses and other organizations who excel at international trade, innovation or sustainable development.

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RCA

RCA Corporation, founded as the Radio Corporation of America, was an American electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986.

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RCA Spectra 70

The RCA Spectra 70 was a line of electronic data processing (EDP) equipment manufactured by the Radio Corporation of America’s computer division beginning in April 1965.

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Reading, Berkshire

Reading is a large town and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England.

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Regnecentralen

Regnecentralen, or RC for short, was the first Danish computer company, founded on October 12, 1955.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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S3 (programming language)

S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language.

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Saab Group

Saab Group (originally Svenska Aeroplan AB, later SAAB and Saab AB) is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich.

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Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme

Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, AG (SNI) was formed in 1990 by the merger of Nixdorf Computer and the Siemens Data Information Services (DIS) division.

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Singer Corporation

Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac Merritt Singer with New York lawyer Edward Clark.

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Singer System 10

The Singer System Ten was a small-business computer manufactured by the Singer Corporation.

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Software

Computer software or simply software is any set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer's processor to perform specific operations.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Standard Telephones and Cables

Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications and related equipment R&D manufacturer.

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Stephen Fry

Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.

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Stevenage

Stevenage is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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System programming language

A system programming language usually refers to a programming language used for system programming; such languages are designed for writing system software, which usually requires different development approaches when compared with application software.

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Taplow

Taplow is a village and civil parish in the South Bucks district in Buckinghamshire, England.

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Tatarstan

The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Tatarstan Cömhüriäti) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the Volga Federal District.

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Teletype Model 33

The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.

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Tony Benn

Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn or Wedgwood Benn (and colloquially as Wedgie Benn), but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician who was a Member of Parliament (MP) for 47 years between 1950 and 2001 and a Cabinet minister under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan in the 1960s and 1970s.

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UNIVAC

UNIVAC is the name of a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation.

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University of Manchester

The University of Manchester (UoM) is a public research university in the city of Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (est. 1824) and the Victoria University of Manchester (est. 1851).

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University of Southampton

The University of Southampton (occasionally abbreviated as Soton) is a public research university located in Southampton, England.

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Utica, New York

Utica (pronounced) is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.

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Videotex

Videotex (or "interactive videotex") was one of the earliest implementations of an end-user information system.

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Western Electric

Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company, the supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.

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Winsford

Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.

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Dataskil, Executive (operating system), ICL 2903, ICL 2903 series, ICL 2904, ICL 2905, ICL Concurrent Machine Environment, ICL ME29, ICL Transaction Machine Environment, ICL operating systems, ICL programming languages, IDMS/X, IDMSX, International Computers, International Computers Ltd, International Computers Ltd., J (operating system), MultiJob, Querymaster, System 25, TME (operating system).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Computers_Limited

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