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The General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (short form: GCE Advanced Level), or more commonly, the A Level, is a school leaving qualification offered by educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.
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Shāh Abbās the Great (or Shāh Abbās I; شاه عَباس بُزُرگ; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid king (Shah) of Iran, and is generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
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Abbas Kiarostami (عباس کیارستمی; born 22 June 1940) is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, photographer and film producer.
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The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Abdolhossein Sepanta (June 4, 1907 – March 28, 1969) was a noted Iranian film director and producer.
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Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim Khorasani or al-Khurasani (أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني, c. 700 – 755), born Vehzādān Pūr-i Vandād Hormoz (وهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد), was a general in service of the Abbasid dynasty, who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad dynasty.
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The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards of Merit, or Oscars, handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.
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The Academy of Gondishapur (in Modern دانشگاه گندیشاپور, Dânešgâh-e Gondišâpur), was one of the three Sasanian centers of education (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) and academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur, Iran during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sasanian Empire.
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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
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Afghan refugees are Afghanistan nationals who fled their country as a consequence of the long-going Afghan conflict, lasting since 1978.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation.
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Ahwaz or Ahvaz (اهواز Ahvāz) is a city in the south of Iran.
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Ahwazi Arabs are an Arab community in Iran which resides mostly in the Khuzestan Province in southern Iran, bordering Iraq.
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Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی), or Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی), born 25 August 1934) is an influential Iranian politician and writer, who was the fourth president of Iran. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 till 2011 when he decided not to nominate himself for the post. He is also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. During the Iran–Iraq War Rafsanjani was the de facto commander-in-chief of the Iranian military. Rafsanjani was elected chairman of the Iranian parliament in 1980 and served until 1989. Rafsanjani also served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997. He played an important role in the choice of Ali Khamenei as Supreme Leader. In 2005 he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but ultimately losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off round of the 2005 election. Rafsanjani has been described as a centrist and a pragmatic conservative. He supports a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries, and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West. In 1997 during the Mykonos trial in Germany, it was declared that Hashemi Rafsanjani (the then president of Iran) alongside of Ayatollah Ali Khameni (supreme leader), Ali-Akbar Velayati (the then foreign minister) and Ali Fallahian (Intelligence Minister) has had role in assassination of Iran's opposition activists in Europe. He is considered to be the richest person in Iran. On 11 May 2013, Rafsanjani entered the race for the June 2013 presidential election, but on 21 May he was disqualified by the Guardian Council.
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Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (4/5 September 973 – 13 December 1048), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was a PersianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236-1238.
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Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.
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Alborz (البرز), also written as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.
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Alborz Province (استان البرز, Ostan-e Alborz) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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The Algiers Accords were a set of agreements between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis, brokered by the Algerian government and signed in Algiers on January 19, 1981.
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Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rezā (علي بن موسى الرضا) also called abu al-Hasan is commonly known as Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) also commonly known in Persia as Imam Reza (Persian: امام رضا), was a descendant of Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shia Imam after his father Musa al-Kadhim and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad; and was an Imam of knowledge according to the Zaydi (Fiver) Shia school and Sufis.
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Ali Javan (علی جوان - Ali Javān, Azerbaijani:; born December 26, 1926) is an Iranian-American physicist and inventor at MIT.
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Sayyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (fa; born 17 July 1939) is the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran and a Muslim cleric.
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Alvand or Alvand Kuh (الوند) is a subrange of the Zagros Mountains in western Iran located 10 km south of the city of Hamedan in Hamedan Province.
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Amesha Spenta (Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism, and literally means "Bounteous Immortal" (in reverse word order)The noun is amesha "immortal", and spenta "furthering, strengthening, bounteous, holy" is an adjective of it.
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Amol (آمل –;; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city in and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
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The Amu Darya (آمودریا, Āmūdaryā; Amyderýa; Ceyhun; Uzbek: Amudaryo; Амударё; د آمو سيند, da Āmú Sínd; Ὦξος, Oxos; '"Oxus"'; वक्षु, Vakṣu), also called Amu River, is a major river in Central Asia.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era.
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Antiquity is an academic journal dedicated to the subject of archaeology.
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An apricot is a fruit or the tree that bears the fruit of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
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The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either a forced conquest of a non-Arab area and migration of Arab settlers into the new domain or a growing Arab influence (either forced or voluntary) on non-Arab populations, causing a gradual adoption of Arabic language and/or incorporation of Arab culture and Arab identity.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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The Aras (ارس.), also known as Araks or Arax (Արաքս), Yeraskh (Երասխ), Rakhsi (Old Georgian: რახსი), Araxes (Αράξης), Aras (in Turkish and Kurdish), Araz (in Azerbaijani), is a river in and along the countries of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
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Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχή τέχνη – arkhḗ tékhnē – composed by ἀρχή "origin" and τέχνη "art, craft") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures.
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Ardabil (.اردبیل, Ərdəbil, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in north-western Iran.
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Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
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An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
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The Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی. /, or Sepāh for short), often called Revolutionary Guards, in U.S. media often Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps ("IRGC"), is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian revolution on 5 May 1979.
The Arsacid dynasty known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
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The Arsacid Dynasty was a dynasty of Parthian origin, which ruled the kingdom of Caucasian Albania from the 1st to the 5th century AD.
The Iberian Arsacids (არშაკიანი, Aršakiani, or არშაკუნიანი, Aršakuniani), a branch of the eponymous Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Georgian kingdom of Iberia from c. 189 until 284 AD, when they were succeeded by the Chosroid Dynasty.
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Arthur Upham Pope (1881–1969) is best known as a pioneering American expert on Persian/Iranian art and the editor of the authoritative Survey of Persian Art. He was also a university professor of philosophy and aesthetics, archaeologist, photographer, political activist, museum director and planner, pianist, interior designer, and founder of an international scholarly organization.
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An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart.
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"Aryan" is a loanword derived from the Sanskrit ārya ('noble').
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Asghar Farhadi (اصغر فرهادی,; born 7 May 1972) is an internationally and critically acclaimed Iranian film director and screenwriter.
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The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a Pancontinental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.
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The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as the Iranian cheetah, is a critically endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
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The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), also known as the Indian lion or Persian lion, is a lion subspecies that exists as a single population in India's Gujarat state.
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The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts of the Leadership) of Iran (مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e Khobregan or Majles-e Khebregan-e Rahbari), also translated as Council of Experts, is a deliberative body of Mujtahids (Islamic theologians) that is charged with electing and removing the Supreme Leader of Iran and supervising his activities.
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An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, bachelor's degree–granting colleges, and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years.
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, ("Sword")) ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia (by Ottoman troops) during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2010, 2007, pp. 237–77, 293–294.Khosoreva, Anahit. "The Assyrian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire and Adjacent Territories" in The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2007, pp. 267–274. ISBN 1-4128-0619-4. The Assyrian civilian population of upper Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin region, the Hakkâri, Van, and Siirt provinces of present-day southeastern Turkey, and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by the Muslim Ottoman (Turkish) army, together with other armed and allied Muslim peoples, including Kurds, Chechens and Circassians, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias. The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context as the Armenian and Greek genocides. Since the Assyrian genocide took place within the context of the much more widespread Armenian genocide, scholarship treating it as a separate event is scarce, with the exceptions of the works of David Gaunt and Hannibal Travis, who have classified the genocide as a systematic campaign by the Young Turk government. Other scholars, such as Hilmar Kaiser, Donald Bloxham and Taner Akçam have differing opinions with regards to the extent of governmental involvement and systematic nature of the genocide, asserting a less systematic policy and different treatment in comparison to the Armenians. Unlike the Armenians, there were no orders to deport Assyrians. The attacks against them were not of standardized nature and incorporated various methods of massacre; in some cities, all Assyrian men were slain and the others were forced to flee. These massacres were often carried out upon the initiatives of local politicians and Kurdish tribes, and Assyrian collaboration with Russians prompted some of them. Exposure, disease and starvation during the flight of Assyrians increased the death toll, and women were subjected to widespread sexual abuse in some areas. Estimates on the overall death toll have varied. Providing detailed statistics of the various estimates of the Churches' population after the genocide, David Gaunt accepts the figure of 275,000 deaths as reported by the Assyrian delegation at the Treaty of Lausanne and ventures that the death toll would be around 300,000 because of uncounted Assyrian-inhabited areas, leading to the elimination of half of the Assyrian nation.David Gaunt,, Assyrian Genocide Research Center, 2009 Rudolph Rummel gives the number of Christian deaths in Assyrian-populated regions of Turkey as 102,000 and adds to this the killing of around 47,000 Assyrians in Persia. In 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) reached a consensus that "the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks. The IAGS referred to the work of Gaunt and Travis in passing this resolution. Gregory Stanton, the President of the IAGS in 2007–2008 and the founder of Genocide Watch, endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety-year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians.".
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Assyrians in Iran (آشوریان در ایران), or Iranian Assyrians, are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iran.
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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης – Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Akkadian: Ištumegu) was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585 BCE-550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by his own grandson, Cyrus the Great.
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Atar (Avestan ātar) is the Zoroastrian concept of holy fire, sometimes described in abstract terms as "burning and unburning fire" or "visible and invisible fire" (Mirza, 1987:389).
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Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
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An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
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The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
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Avestan, formerly also known as "Zend", is an Iranian language of the Eastern Iranian division, known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta, from which it derives its name.
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Avicenna (Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (پور سینا / ابن سینا; ابن سینا), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā (Arabic: أبو علي الحسين ابن عبد الله ابن سينا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath and jurist who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia. which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics and poetry.
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Ayatollah (or; آيتالله ayatollah from آية الله, āyatu allah "Sign of Allah") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
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The Azadi Tower (برج آزادی Borj-e Āzādī, literally the "Freedom Tower" or "Liberty Tower"), formerly known as the Shahyad Tower (برج شهیاد Borj-e Shahyād, meaning "King's Memorial Tower"), is a monument in Tehran City, the capital of Iran, marking the west entrance to the city, and one of the symbols of the city.
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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
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Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also Iranian Azerbaijan, is a region in northwestern Iran.
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The Azerbaijan People's Government (APG; Azərbaycan Demokratik Hökuməti, آذربایجان میلّی حکومتی, -ruАзербайджанское народное правительство, Azerbajdzhanskoe narodnoe pravitel'stvo) was a short-lived government in northern Iran from November 1945 to November 1946.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.
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Azerbaijanis (Azərbaycanlılar, آذربایجانلیلار) or Azeris are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group living mainly in the country of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan in the Caucasus.
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The bağlama (bağlama, from bağlamak, "to tie") is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, and Central Asia regions.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Judahites of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
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A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalarius) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
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Badab-e Surt (باداب سورت) is a natural site in Mazandaran Province in northern Iran, south of the city of Sari, and west of Orost village.
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The Bahá'í Faith (fa Bahá'iyyat, بهائية Bahá'iyya In English, "Bahá'í" is pronounced with two syllables according to the on the Bahá'í World News Service Website (Bahá'í: Ba-HIGH). In Persian, بهائی is pronounced with three syllables. The exact realization of the English pronunciation varies. The Oxford English Dictionary has, Merriam-Webster has, and the Random House Dictionary has, all with three syllables. See and – A Guide to Pronunciation part 1 and 2, for more pronunciation instructions.) is a monotheistic religion which emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind.
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A bakhsh (بخش) is a type of administrative division of Iran.
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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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A ballistic missile is a missile (rocket) that follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
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The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
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Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language.
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Bamshad (in Persian: بامشاد) was one of the four most famous and skilled musicians (with Barbad, Nagisa (Nakisa), and Ramtin) who lived in the Persian Sassanid dynasty when Xusro Parviz was in power (591-628).
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Bandar-e Anzali Anzali Port بندرانزلی, also Romanized as Bandar-e Anzalī; before the Islamic-Communist Anti Iranian Revolution, known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (Persian: بندر پهلوی), also Romanized as Bandar-e Pahlavī, Bandar Pahlavi, and Bandar Pahlevi, or simply as Pahlavī) is a city, Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 109,687, in 32,424 families. Bandar-e Anzali (Anzali Port) is a harbour town ("Bandar" means "port") on the Caspian Sea, close to Rasht. Bandar-e Anzali is one of the most important seaports in the north of Iran. It consists of an island called Mianposhteh and the surrounding lands. Tourist attractions include a clock tower called Manareh, the long harbour promenade, and the water-logged delta of and beach along the Sefid River. Bandar-e Anzali is the port where the Polish Anders Army disembarked, in an operation that lasted from April 1 until October, 1942, after evacuating from the USSR. The Polish Cemetery in the city was created the same year.
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Barbad (بربد) or Barbad the JahromiBorhan-e Ghate', By Mohammad Hossein ibn-khalaf Tabrizi (باربد جهرمی / باربد / باربذ) was a Persian musician of the Sassanid era, who lived during the rule of Khosrau II, 590 to 628.
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The barbat (بربط) or barbud was a lute of possibly Central Asian origin.
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The Basij (بسيج), full name Sâzmân-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed") is a paramilitary volunteer militia established in 1979 by order of the Islamic Revolution's leader Ayatollah Khomeini.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Persia, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia.
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The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
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A bazaar is a The term originates from the Persian word bāzār, from Middle Persian wāzār, from Old Persian vāčar, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana.
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BBC Persian Television (تلویزیون فارسی بیبیسی) is the BBC's Persian language news channel that was launched on 14 January 2009.
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Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae.
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Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
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The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), also called the Berlinale, is one of the most reputable media events and one of the world's "Big Three" film festivals (along with Venice and Cannes).
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.
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The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.
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Bonyads are charitable trusts in Iran that play a major role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP, and channeling revenues to groups supporting the Islamic Republic.
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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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A brouhaha, from French brouhaha (possibly from a corruption of Hebrew בָּרוּךְ הַבָּא; barúkh habá, “welcome”, literally “blessed is he who comes”), is a state of social agitation when a minor incident gets out of control, sometimes referred to as an uproar or hubbub.
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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
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Bundahishn, meaning "Primal Creation", is the name traditionally given to an encyclopædiaic collections of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi.
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Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanized as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir, and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanized as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 161,674, in 40,771 families. Bushehr lies in a vast plain running along the coastal region on the Persian Gulf coast of southwestern Iran, it is built near the ancient port city of Rishahr/Reshire (Sassanian, Riv Ardasher). It was the chief seaport of the country and is the administrative centre of its province. Its location is about south of Tehran. The local climate is humid. Bushehr was the main trade center of Iran in the past centuries. The city structures are traditional in style, modest in proportion and cost. Due to its lack of rail connection to the interior of the country and its shallow anchorage, it has lost its position as the primary port of Iran.
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The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (نیروگاه اتمی بوشهر) is a nuclear power plant in Iran southeast of the city of Bushehr, between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf.
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The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Muslim dynasty which originated from Lahijan in Dailam.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Persia.
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanid dynasty of the Persian Empire.
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Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Cambyses I or Cambyses the Elder, (via Latin from Greek Καμβύσης, from Old Persian Kambūǰiya-; Kanbuziya, Kambuziya, Aramaic Knbwzy) was king of Anshan from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), younger son of Cyrus I, and brother of Arukku.
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A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
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The Cannes Festival (French: Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from around the world.
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A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
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The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, is an area of lush lowland and montane forests covering about near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea of Iran and Azerbaijan.
The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata), also known as the Hyrcanian tiger, the Mazandaran tiger, the Persian tiger and the Turan tiger, is an extinct tiger subspecies that had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s, and formerly inhabited the sparse forest habitats and riverine corridors west and south of the Caspian Sea, from Turkey, Iran and east through Central Asia into the Takla Makan desert of Xinjiang, China.
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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
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The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include the Greater Caucasus Range, which extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, aligned west-northwest to east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea; and the Lesser Caucasus, which runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland, which at their western end converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia in the far north east of Turkey. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of above sea level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
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Caviar is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured fish-eggs of the Acipenseridae family.
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
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The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; fa, aka Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran) is the central bank of Iran.
(Kurdish Ezidi Çarşemba Sor occurs on the Wednesday of the 3rd week in April).
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"Chapar Khaneh" or "Chapar-Khaneh" is a term in Persian, meaning the "house of courier" as "Chapar" means "courier", referring to the postal service used during the Achaemenid era.
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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
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Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures.
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Chogha Bonut (Persian Choghā bonut) is an archaeological site in southwestern Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province (Susiana Plain).
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Tappeh-ye Choghā Mīsh (Persian language; ČOḠĀ MĪŠ) dating back to 6800 BC, is the site of a Chalcolithic settlement in Western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province on the Susiana Plain.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith.
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Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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The Cimmerians or Kimmerians (Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC.
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Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a dialect continuum of the North Caucasus.
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The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
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City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran.
Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilians killed, injured, or imprisoned by military personnel or combatants.
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A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
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Clergy are some of the formal leaders within certain religions.
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Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.
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In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
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Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
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Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plants in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
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The terms common people, commoners, or the masses denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither the nobility nor the priesthood.
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Iran’s telecommunications industry is almost entirely state-owned, dominated by the Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI).
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A concession or concession as an agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
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The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on October 24, 1979, and went into force on December 3 of that year, replacing the Constitution of 1905.
A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
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Corruption remains a serious problem in Iran.
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The counties of Iran, also called shahrestan (شهرستان), are administrative divisions of larger provinces (ostan).
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A country is a region that is identified as a distinct entity in political geography.
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Ctesiphon was the capital city of the Parthian and Sasanian Empires (247 BC–224 AD and 224–651 respectively).
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The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
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Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran.
The culture of Africa is varied and manifold.
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The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout the almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
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The culture of India is the way of living of the people of India.
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The culture of Iran is one of the oldest in the Middle East.
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Cumrun Vafa (کامران وفا,; born 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian-American leading string theorist from Harvard University, which he first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow.
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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
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Cyaxares or Hvakhshathra (12 Uvaxštra, Κυαξάρης; r. 625–585 BC), the son of King Phraortes, and according to Herodotus was the third and most capable king of Media.
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The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, written around 370 BC by the Athenian gentleman-soldier, and student of Socrates, Xenophon of Athens.
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The Cyrus Cylinder (منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great.
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Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بُزُرگ Kurosh-e Bozorg  ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
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Daf (dap) (Persian, Khowar dialect: دف, from dap) is a large Persian frame drum used in popular and classical music.
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The Republic of Dagestan (or; Респу́блика Дагеста́н, Respublika Dagestan), also spelled Daghestan, is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
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Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
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Dariush Mehrju'i (داریوش مهرجویی., born 8 December 1939 in Ilam), also spelled as Mehrjui, Mehrjoui, and Mehrjuyi, is an Iranian director, screenwriter, producer, and film editor.
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Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير, 'desert of salt-marsh'), also known as Kavir-e Namak ('salt-marsh of salt') and the Great Salt Desert, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau.
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Dasht-e Lut (دشت لوت, "Emptiness Desert"), also spelled Dasht-i-Lut and known as the Lut Desert, is a large salt desert in Kerman Province, Iran and is the world's 25th largest desert.
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Phoenix dactylifera (date or date palm) is a flowering plant species in the palm family Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
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The Day of Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Aşure Günü) is on the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram. Shiite celebrations of the Day of Ashura have traditionally included masochistic rituals which have been condemned by many religious authorities recently under the claim that such practices are wrong or unislamic. This day is commemorated by Sunni Muslims (who refer to it as The Day of Atonement) as the day on which the Israelites were freed from the Pharaoh (called 'Firaun' in Arabic) of Egypt. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrates that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, “What is this?” They said, “This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day.” He said, “We are closer to Musa than you.” So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast.Sahih Bukhari Book 31 Hadith 222, Book 55 Hadith 609, and Book 58 Hadith 279,; Sahih Muslim Book 6 Hadith 2518, 2519, 2520 Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan,, Al-Mawrid However, Shi'a Muslims reject these stories and maintain that Ashura is a day of great sorrow due to the tragic events of Karbala. It is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). The massacre of Husayn with small group of his companions and family members had great impact on the religious conscience of Muslims. Especially Shia Muslims have ever remembered it with sorrow and passion. Mourning for Husayn and his companions began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala, by his survivor relatives and supporters. Popular elegies were made by poets to commemorate Battle of Karbala during Umayyads and Abbasids era. The earliest public mourning rituals happened in 963 CE during Buyid dynasty. Nowadays, in some countries such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Pakistan, the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and most ethnic and religious communities participate in it. Even in a predominantly Hindu majority but secular country like India, Ashura (10th day in the month of Muharram) is a public holiday due to the presence of a significant Indian Shia Muslim population (2-3% of total population, 20-25% of Indian Muslim population).
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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").
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Deioces, Diako, Deyaco, Diyako or Deiokes (Greek Δηιόκης) was, according to Herodotus, the first king of the Medes although this is contested.
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The Deipnosophistae is the Latin title of an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
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Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 75 million by 2011.
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The Dēnkard or Dēnkart (Middle Persian: "Acts of Religion") is a 10th-century compendium of the Mazdaen Zoroastrian beliefs and customs.
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The Iranian Department of Environment is a governmental organization, under the supervision of the president, that is responsible for matters related to safeguarding the environment.
A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
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Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate that does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate, and in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub.
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Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
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A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state.
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The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government official – subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President – required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
Disability is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or some combination of these.
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Dizin is one of the largest Iranian ski resorts in the Alborz mountain range, near Tehran and also the city of Karaj.
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A Doctor of Philosophy degree (often abbreviated Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil) or a Doctorate of Philosophy, from the Latin Doctor Philosophiae, is a type of doctorate awarded by universities in many countries.
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Domestic tourism is tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that country.
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The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus), is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
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A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.
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The dutar (دوتار, дутор, Duttar, dutor, Chinese: 都塔尔) (also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia.
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Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other.
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Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Ebrahim Hamedi (ابراهیم حامدی, born June 19, 1949.), known better by his stage name Ebi (ابی), is an Iranian singer.
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The Economic Cooperation Organisation or ECO (سازمان همکاری اقتصادی, اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم, Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı, Экономикалық ынтымақтастық ұйымы, Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti, İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı, Tajik: Ташкилоти ҳамкории иқтисодӣ) is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
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Education in Iran is centralized and divided into K-12 education and higher education.
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Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
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Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
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Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
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Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
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Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
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Elamite cuneiform was a logo-syllabic script used to write the Elamite language.
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Elamite is an extinct language spoken by the ancient Elamites.
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An electric guitar is a guitar that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical impulses.
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Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
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Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
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The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
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An eponym is a person, a place, or thing for whom or for which something is named, or believed to be named.
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Eram Garden (باغ ارم - Bāq e Eram) is a historic Persian garden in Shiraz, Iran.The garden, and the building within it, are located at the northern shore of the Khoshk River in the Fars province.
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Esfand (Persian: اسفند) is the twelfth and final month of the Iranian calendar.
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Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi (fa, born 10 January 1957) is an Iranian politician and first vice president of Hassan Rouhani's government.
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The Ethnic cleansing of Circassians refers to the massive displacement (muhajirism) and expulsion of the indigenous Circassians of historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed major part of the North Caucasus and all along the northeast shore of the Black Sea, into the Ottoman Empire and to a lesser extent Qajar Persia following the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world.
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The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to Scandinavia, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Siberia and East Asia.
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The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
The Iranian-made Fajr-3 (فجر-۳, meaning "dawn") is believed to be a medium-range ballistic missile with an unknown range (estimated 2,000 km, 1,250 miles).
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A falcon is any one of 37 species of raptors in the genus Falco, widely distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica.
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Faramarz Aslani (فرامرز اصلانی, born July 13, 1954), is an Iranian guitarist, songwriter, Persian pop and Folk singer and Producer.
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Farhad Mehrad (فرهاد مهراد), (January 20, 1944 - August 31, 2002) widely known in Iran as Farhad was an award winning Iranian rock singer, songwriter, guitarist, pianist and icon.
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Fars Province (استان فارس Ostân e Fârs), is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran.
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Fateh-110 (فاتح-۱۱۰, "conqueror") is a single-stage solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile with at least a 200 km range, and it is produced domestically within Iran by the Aerospace Industries Organization, including the solid fuel propellant.
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The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
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Hakim Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi (935–1025 CE), or Firdawsi, was a highly revered Persian poet and the author of the epic of Shahnameh (the Persian "Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Iran and the Persian-speaking world.
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Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) (Persian: دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد) is the largest research university in Northeastern Iran named after the great epic poet and historian of Iranian national history Ferdowsi, whose Shahnameh (The Book of Kings) is a chef-d'oeuvre in Persian literature.
The FIBA Asia Championship for Men (formerly Asian Basketball Confederation Championship) is an international basketball tournament which takes place every two years between men's national teams of Asia.
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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
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A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
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Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
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The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
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A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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In computing, FLOPS or flops (an acronym for FLoating-point Operations Per Second) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific calculations that make heavy use of floating-point calculations.
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Football is the most popular sport in Iran, with wrestling and volleyball as close contenders.
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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) are assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority, usually in various reserve currencies, mostly the United States dollar, and to a lesser extent the euro, the pound sterling, and the Japanese yen, and used to back its liabilities—e.g., the local currency issued, and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or by financial institutions.
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Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
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Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the Canidae family.
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A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
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Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
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In mathematics, fuzzy sets are sets whose elements have degrees of membership.
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Ganj Par (گنج پر) is a Lower Paleolithic site located in the Gilan province in northern Iran.
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A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.
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Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons such as gasoline or diesel fuel.
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The Gathas (Gāθās) are 17 hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself.
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A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
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The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is a subject specific family of academic qualifications that awarding bodies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Crown dependencies and a few Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka and Singapore, confer on students.
Genghis Khan (often pronounced;; c. 1162 18 August 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise.
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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman empire of Greek descent.
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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
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George Braziller (born February 12, 1916) is an American book publisher and the founder of George Braziller, Inc., a firm known for its literary and artistic books and its publication of foreign authors.
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Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
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Georgians (tr) are an indigenous Caucasian nation and ethnic group.
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Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.
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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, much of Transoxiana, and North India from 977–1186.
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The Gilaki language is a Caspian language, and a member of the northwestern Iranian language branch, spoken in Iran's Gīlān Province.
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The Gilani people or Gilaks (Gilaki:گیلک) are an Iranian people native to the northern Iran province of Gilan.
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Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān), also Latinized as Guilan is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
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The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also HbA1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time.
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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
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The Golden Globe Award is an American accolade bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.
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The Golestan Palace (کاخ گلستان - Kāx e Golestān), literally the Roseland Palace, is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.
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In religion, ethics, and philosophy, "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
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Faegheh Atashin (Faiqə Atəşin, born May 5, 1950 in Tehran) also known by her stage name Googoosh (Ququş), is an Iranian singer and actress.
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A government budget is a government document presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
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The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
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Greater Iran (fa, Irān-e Bozorg, fa, Irānzamīn) refers to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various Iranian and Persian empires (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajar Empire), having considerable aspects of Persian culture in their own culture due to extensive contact with the various Empires based in Persia (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranian people who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and China).
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Khorasan, also written as Khurasan (Khwarāsān, خراسان بزرگ, or خراسان کهن), is a historical region lying in the northeast of Persia.
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The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia (modern day Iran) and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.
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The Group of 15 (G-15)The adopts the "G-15" orthography (with a hyphen) in order to distinguish an abbreviated reference to this group -- contrasts with other similarly named entities.
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The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.
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The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
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The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shora-ye Negahban-e Qanun-e Assassi) is an appointed and constitutionally-mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
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Guardianship of the Jurist or Providence of the Jurist (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al Faqih) is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1998 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous U.S. editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
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The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf, except for Iraq.
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The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان—Ḫalīdj ʾUmān; alternatively known as خليج مکران—, Ḫalīdj Makrān; in Persian: دریای عمان Daryā-ye Ommān, or دریای مکران Daryā-ye Makrān, or دریای پارسDaryā-ye Pārs; in خلیج عمان Khaleej Oman) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.
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Gondēshāpūr was the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire and the home of the Academy of Gundishapur.
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Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (خواجه شمسالدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ Hāfiz; 1325/26–1389/90), was a Persian poet who "laud the joys of love and wine also targeted religious hypocrisy".
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The harp is a stringed musical instrument which has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard, which are plucked with the fingers.
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Hassan Rouhani (fa,; born Hassan Fereydoun on 12 November 1948) is the seventh President of Iran, in office since 2013.
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Hayedeh (هایده), also transcribed as Haideh or Haydeh, born Ma'soumeh Dadehbala (معصومه دده بالا, April 10, 1942 – January 20, 1990) was a popular singer of Persian classical and pop music with a contralto vocal range.
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Healthcare in Iran is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and NGOs.
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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
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Hellenistic art is the art of the Classical period dating from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the emergence of ancient Rome as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt in 30 BC.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).
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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
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A high school diploma is the academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation.
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Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the USA, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
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The Hindu Kush (Pashto, Persian and هندوکش), also known in Sanskrit as Pāriyātra Parvata and in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), is an mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region (HKH). It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir or Terichmir at in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the east, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan. The mountain range separates Central Asia from South Asia.
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The history of Eastern art includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions.
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The history of Islam concerns the religion of Islam and its adherents, Muslims.
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Hoot (حوت; Whale) is an Iranian supercavitation torpedo claimed to travel at approximately, several times faster than a conventional torpedo.
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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
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The Hotak dynasty or the Hotaki dynasty was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavids overlords in Kandahar.
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Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Хүлэгу хаан; ہلاکو; هولاکو خان; 旭烈兀; 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia.
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Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.
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Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
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The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilkhanan; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
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The Imam Reza Shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.
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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface.
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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
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Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Aryans from their self-designation, are a grouping of ethnic groups consisting of the Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani peoples; that is, speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
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Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults (IIDCYA, كانون پرورش فكری كودكان و نوجوانان., Kanoon-e Parvaresh-e Fekri-e Koodakan va Nojavanan, better known as Kanoon) is an Iranian institution with a wide range of cultural and artistic activities in the field of mental and cultural development of children and young adults among its tasks.
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB) is a research institute in Iran founded in 1976 to conduct research in biological sciences and related fields.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, founded in 1968.
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The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
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The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle, OIPC - ICPO), or INTERPOL, is an intergovernmental organization facilitating international police cooperation.
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An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof.
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Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe') is a term for the formal installation of an incumbent as the insignia can include the formal dress and adornment (robes of state, headdress etc.) which the etymology refers to, but it extends to other regalia and to a throne or other seat of office.
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The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.
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The name of Iran derives immediately from 3rd-century Sassanian Middle Persian, Pahlavi ʼyrʼn, where it initially meant "of the Iranians", but soon also acquired a geographical connotation in the sense of "(lands inhabited by) Iranians".
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The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Iran-Azerbaijan Crisis, followed the end of World War II and stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances.
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The Iran hostage crisis, was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States.
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The Iran hostage crisis negotiations were negotiations in 1980-1 between the US Government and the Iranian Government to end the Iranian hostage crisis.
The Iran men's national volleyball team is the national men's volleyball team of Iran.
The Iranian national basketball team represents Iran in international basketball competitions, and is controlled by the IR Iran Basketball Federation.
Iran national football team (تیم ملی فوتبال ایران) represents Iran in international football competitions and is controlled by the Iran Football Federation.
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Iran national amateur freestyle wrestling athletes represents Iran in regional, continental, and world tournaments and matches sanctioned by the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA).
Iran Standard Time (IRST) or Iran Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran.
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Iran's National Orchestra (Persian: ارکستر ملی ایران) was founded in 1998 under the conduction of Farhad Fakhreddini and dissolved in October 2012.
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The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war.
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Because there are no formal diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America, instead of exchanging ambassadors, Iran maintains an interests section at the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, D.C., while the United States has maintained a corresponding interests section at the Swiss Embassy in Tehran (since 1980).
Iranian-Americans (also referred as Persian-Americans), are Americans of Iranian ancestry or people possessing Iranian and American dual citizenship.
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Iranian Arabs (عرب إيران `Arab Īrān, عربان ايرانی Arabān Irānī) are the Arab and/or Arabic-speaking peoples of Iran.
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Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայ iranahay), sometimes called Persian Armenians (պարսկահայ parskahay), are Iranian citizens who are ethnically Armenian.
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Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry.
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The Iranian calendars (گاهشماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).
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A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 28 July 1989, alongside presidential elections.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 2 and 3 December 1979.
The Imperial crown jewels of Iran (also known as the Imperial crown jewels of Persia) include elaborate crowns, thirty tiaras, and numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejeweled swords and shields, a number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems, and several other more unusual items (such as a large golden globe with the oceans made of emeralds and the latitudes and longitudes marked in diamonds) collected by the Iranian monarchy from the 16th century (Safavid dynasty) on.
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Iranians abroad or Iranian diaspora are Iranian people living outside of Iran and their children born abroad.
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Iranian folklore, including jokes, legends, games, folklore heroes and beliefs is sophisticated and complex.
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Jamaran is lead ship of the Iranian s launched in early 2010 in Bandar-e-Abbas, Iran.
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Iranian hip hop, also called Persian hip hop, is a style of hip hop music developed in Iran.
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A referendum on creating an Islamic Republic was held in Iran on 30 and 31 March 1979.
Iranian Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.
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Iranian labor law describes the rules of employment in Iran.
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The Iranian languages or Iranic languages form a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family.
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A cursory glance at the history of art reveals that social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles.
Iranian mythology or Iranic mythology may involve in the mythology of Iranian peoples, a branch of Indo-Europeans.
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Iranian nationalism refers to nationalism among the people of Iran and individuals whose national identity is Iranian.
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The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of Iranian languages.
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Iranian philosophy or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings.
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The Persian Plateau, or Iranian Plateau, is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
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Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
Iranian Reformists (اصلاحطلبان) is a political movement by a group of political parties and organizations in Iran who supported President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the system to include more freedom and democracy.
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The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;, Iran Chamber., MS Encarta. October 31, 2009., PDF. Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements. and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121 and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracyInternational Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261 based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath). Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.
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The Iranian rial (in fa; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.
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The Iranian targeted subsidy plan (طرح هدفمندسازی یارانهها) also known as the subsidy reform plan was passed by the Iranian Parliament on January 5, 2010.
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The Iranian University Entrance Exam also known as the Concours (from the French; Konkoor, Konkour, and Konkur are transliterations of the Persian) is a standardized test used as one of the means to gain admission to higher education in Iran.
Iranian.com, also known as The Iranian and The Iranian Times, is an online English self-described "community site for the Iranian diaspora".
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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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Iran is reported by The Washington Post to be among the seven countries where atheism can attract capital punishment.
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Isfahan (اصفهان), also Romanized as Esfahān; historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
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Isfahan province (استان اصفهان Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
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The Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.
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Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day.
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The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 days.
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The Islamic Consultative Assembly (مجلس شورای اسلامی Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), or the People's House (خانه ملت), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
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Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
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Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania.
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The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) (نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the aviation branch of the Iranian armed forces.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (IRIA) is the ground forces of the Military of Islamic Republic of Iran.
After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the Imperial Iranian Navy was named Islamic Republic of Iran Navy (IRIN).
Islamic Revolutionary Court (also Revolutionary Tribunal, Dadgah-ha-e EnqelabBakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.59-61) is a special court in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Iranian government.
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The Islamization of Iran occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia.
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Ismail I, (July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil, (شاه اسماعیل; full name: Abū l-Muzaffar Isma'il bin Haydar as-Safavī; بیرینجی شاه اسماعیل; Şah İsmayıl Xətai), was Shah of Iran (Persia) (1501)Woodbridge Bingham, Hilary Conroy, Frank William Iklé, A History of Asia: Formations of Civilizations, From Antiquity to 1600, Iranian Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelver Shia militant religious order, and unified all of Iran by 1509.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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The jackal is a small omnivorous mammal of the genus Canis, which also includes the wolf and dog.
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Jafar Panahi (جعفر پناهی; born 11 July 1960) is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, and film editor, commonly identified with the Iranian New Wave film movement.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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James Earl Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and author who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
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A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in what is now Iran's Sistan and Kermān Provinces.
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Jizya or jizyah (جزية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a religiously required per capita tax levied by a Muslim state on non-Muslim subjects permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law.
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Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
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The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) (برنامه جامع اقدام مشترک, known in Iran by the Persian acronym BARJAM, برجام) is an international agreement on the nuclear program of Iran signed in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.
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The Ka'ba-ye Zartosht (alt: Kaba-ye Zardusht, Kaba-ye Zardosht, کعبه زرتشت), meaning the "Cube of Zoroaster," is a 5th century B.C.E. Achaemenid-era tower-like construction at Naqsh-e Rustam, an archaeological site just northwest of Persepolis, Iran.
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Kamancheh (also kamānche or kamāncha) (کمانچه), is an Iranian bowed string instrument, used also in Armenian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Turkish music and related to the rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed Byzantine lyra, ancestor of the European violin family.
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Karaj (کرج - Karaj) is the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran.
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Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Lurish and Persian: کریم خان زند, also Romanized as Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), was the founder of the Kurdish Zand Dynasty, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
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Kashafrud Basin is an archaeological site in Iran, known for the Lower Palaeolithic artifacts collected there; these are the oldest-known evidence for human occupation of Iran., There are some collections of simple core and flake stone artifacts collected by C. Thibault in 1974-75.
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Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.
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K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve") is a term for the sum of primary and secondary education.
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Khaju Bridge (پل خواجو Pol-e Khāju) is a bridge in the province of Isfahan, Iran, which has been described as the finest in the province.
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The Khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani (Azeri) khanates were various principalities established by Persia (Iran) on their territories in the Caucasus, (modern-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan) from the late Safavid to the Qajar dynasty.
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Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.
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Khosrow Sinai (خسرو سینایی., born 19 January 1941 in Sari, Iran) is an Iranian film director.
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Khuzestan Province (fa, Ostān-e Khūzestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
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Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khuzestan.
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The Khwarazmian dynasty (or; also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:.
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Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
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The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state of Greek and Persian origin,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus they may even have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
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Kowsar (or Kosar) is a medium-range, land-based anti-ship missile made by Iran.
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Kul-e Farah (or "Kul-e Fara") is the site of six Elamite rock reliefs that are located in a gorge on the plain's east side.
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The Kura–Araxes culture (Kür-Araz mədəniyyəti, Կուր-արաքսյան մշակույթ, მტკვარ-არაქსის კულტურა) or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from 3400 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end, but it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.
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Kurdistan Province or Kordestan Province or Kurdestan Province (استان کردستان) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan.
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Kurdish (کوردی, Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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Laleh Mehree Bakhtiar (July 29, 1938, in New York City, USA) is an Iranian-American Muslim author, translator and clinical psychologist.
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The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
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Lari, also known as Larestani (لارستانی), is a southwestern Iranian language related to Luri and Persian.
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Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.
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Laton Waterfall is located in the Astara city.
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A launch pad is an above-ground platform from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched.
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A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is defined as either a non-ordained member of a church, or a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima - English: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the liturgical calendar of many Christian denominations that begins on Ash Wednesday and covers a period of approximately six weeks before Easter Sunday.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
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Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
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Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
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The following is a list of notable Iranian scholars, scientists and engineers around the world from the contemporary period.
This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.
This is a selective list of known major famines, ordered by date.
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This is a list of topics related to Iran (Persia) and Persian culture.
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This is a list of Iranian officials with their titles.
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This is a list of power stations in Iran.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iran from the creation of the office in 1906 during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, until 1989 when the post was abolished after the constitutional referendum.
Lor Girl, (دخترِ لُر; Dokhtar-e Lor), also known as The Iran of Yesterday and the Iran of Today, was the first sound film ever to be produced in the Persian language.
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Lorestan Province (also Luristan; Luri:لورسو, Lurisô; fa) is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
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Lotfali Askar Zadeh (Lütfəli Rəhimoğlu Əsgərzadə; born February 4, 1921), better known as Lotfi A. Zadeh, is a mathematician, computer scientist, electrical engineer, artificial intelligence researcher and professor emeritus of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley.
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The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
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Luri also Lurish is a Western Iranian dialect continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.
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Lurs (also Lors, Lurish: لور, Persian:لُر) are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran.
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Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
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Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (fa, Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king, also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
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Mandaeans (מנדעניא, الصابئة المندائيون aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
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Mandana of Media was a princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great, ruler of the Persia's Achaemenid Empire.
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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin e Māni) was a major religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes; 216–276 AD) in the Sasanian Empire.
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The Maranjab Desert is located in Isfahan province, Iran.
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Marcos Grigorian (Persian: مارکو گريگوريان, Armenian: Մարկոս Գրիգորեան; December 5, 1925 – August 27, 2007) was a notable Iranian-Armenian artist and a pioneer of Iranian modern art.
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Maryam Mirzakhani (مریم میرزاخانی; born May 1977) is an Iranian mathematician working in the United States.
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Mashhad (مشهد) is the second most populous city in Iran and capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
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Masoud Kimiai (مسعود کیمیایی., born 29 July 1941 in Tehran) is an Iranian director, screenwriter and producer.
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A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities upon completion of a course of study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
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The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness on intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus (آرامگاه هالیکارناسوس; Μαυσωλείο της Αλικαρνασσού; Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his wife and his sister.
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Mawali or mawālá (موالي) is a term in Classical Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims.
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Mazandaran Province (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān).
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Mazanderani (مازندرانی) or Tabari (طبری) is an Iranian language of the Northwestern branch, spoken mainly in Iran's Mazandaran, Tehran and Golestan provinces.
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The Mazanderani people or Tabari people are an Iranian peopleAcademic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294 whose homeland is the North of Iran (Tabaristan).
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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (North-western Iran) and who spoke the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryan tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC). This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed Vassal Treaties upon the Median rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria. An alliance with the Medes and rebelling Babylonians, Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra spread in western Iran. Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey, south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes: The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran, the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran. It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.
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The Media of Iran are privately and publicly owned but is subject to censorship.
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In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine, Greco-Arabic and Greco-Islamic refer to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.
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Mehr (Persian: مهر) is the seventh month of the Iranian calendar.
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Mehrgân (alternatively: Mihragān, مهرگان or Jashn-e Mehr جشن مهر Mehr Festival) is a Zoroastrian and Persian (Iranian) festival celebrated since the pre-Islamic era to honor the Yazata of "Mehr" (مهر), which is responsible for friendship, affection and love.
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In 2007, Mr.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
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The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant, commonly known as the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, was built during the 1970s, only 36 kilometres west of the Armenian capital of Yerevan in the town of Metsamor.
The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Middle Persian or Sassanian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224–654 CE) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
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Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Plato's philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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The Mihranids were an Iranian family which ruled several regions of Caucasus from 330 to 821.
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Mining in Iran is underdeveloped, yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral-rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reserves worth $770 billion in 2014.
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The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Ministry of Education (وزارت آموزش و پرورش ایران) established in 1964, is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of K-12 education in Iran.
Ministry of Industries and Mines of Iran (وزارت صنایع و معادن ایران), is the main organ of Iranian Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors.
The Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Iran (وزارت کشور جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, and policing, among other responsibilities related to the interior.
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The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology is the government ministry of science, research and technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (میرحسین موسوی خامنه,, Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
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Mirza Ebrahim Khan Rahmani (Akkas Bashi) (1874–1915) was the royal photographer of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, the king of Persia.
Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhafbashi was a pioneering Iranian photographer and cinematographer.
In modern usage, a missile is a self-propelled precision-guided munition system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
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Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to armed services personnel and other combatants who are reported missing during wartime.
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Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça) is the Zoroastrian angelic Divinity (yazata) of Covenant and Oath.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
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Mixed nuts are a snack food consisting of any mixture of mechanically or manually combined nuts.
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Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the Shah of Persia (Today's Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
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Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf or Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician, professor, a former IRGC Air Force and a Pilot of Iran Air and police commander.
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Āghā Moḥammad Khān Qājār (1742–1797; آغا محمد خان قاجار)‎ was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
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Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (fa,; born 29 September 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and Reformist politician.
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Mohammad Mosaddegh or Mosaddiq (مُحَمَد مُصَدِق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967), was an Iranian politician.
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Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (mohæmˈmæd reˈzɒː ˈʃɒːhe pæhlæˈviː; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1982) was the king of Iran (Shah of Iran) from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution on 11 February 1979.
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Mongol invasions and conquests progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which, by 1300, covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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Mount Damāvand (دماوند), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East as well as the highest volcano in Asia (the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet has a higher elevation than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains).
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A mountain range (also mountain barrier/belt/chain/system) is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains.
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The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering.
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Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, (Mozafar Ŝāhe Qājār,; 23 March 1853 – 3 January 1907) was the fifth Qajar king of Persia.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran.
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The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line (دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام Dânešjuyân Mosalmân Piru Xatt Emâm), also called the Muslim Students of the Imam Khomeini Line, was an Iranian student group that occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979.
The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
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Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.
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Nabopolassar (Akkadian: Nabû-apal-uṣur; 658 BC – 605 BC) was a king of Babylonia and a central figure in the fall of the Assyrian Empire.
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Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 1688 or August 6, 1698 – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Persia (1736–47) and was one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history.
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Emperor Nadir Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and founder of the Afsharid dynasty, invaded the Mughal Empire with a fifty-five thousand strong army, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.
The conflict between the Persian Empire & the Dagestan people was intermittently fought through the mid-1730s during Nader's first campaign in the Caucasus until the very last years of his reign and assassination in 1747.
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Nagisa (from Persian negin,(Negin-Sa) alternately Nakisa) was a master harpist and composer of the royal court of King Khosrau II of Persia (died 628 AD).
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The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Namarestagh is a region in Mazandaran Province of Iran.
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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
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Naqsh-e Jahan Square (میدان نقش جهان Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: "Image of the World Square"), known as Imam Square (میدان امام), formerly known as Shah Square (میدان شاه), is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran.
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Naqsh-e Rustam (Naqŝe Rostam) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran.
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Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.
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Khawaja Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن الحسن طوسی) (born 17 February 1201 in Ṭūs, Khorasan – died on 25 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah district of metropolitan Baghdad), better known as Nasīr al-Dīn Tūsī (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: An architect, astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed.
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The national anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran (سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران) was composed by Hassan Riyahi, with words written by Saed Bagheri.
National security is a concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of power projections, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might, and so on.
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A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
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Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.
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According to the Iran Petroleum Ministry, the proved natural gas reserves of Iran are about or about 15.8% of world's total reserves, of which 33% are as associated gas and 67% is in non associated gas fields.
The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.
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Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic, languages are varieties of Aramaic that are spoken vernaculars in the medieval to modern era, evolving out of Middle Aramaic dialects around AD 1200 (conventional date).
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New America, formerly the New America Foundation, is a nonpartisan think tank in the United States.
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The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
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New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
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New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
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The ney (نی / نای), is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music.
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Nizami Ganjavi (نظامی گنجوی, Nezāmi-ye Ganjavi; Nîzamî Gencewî; Nizami Gəncəvi) (1141 to 1209) (6th Hejri century), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
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The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
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A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business.
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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The North Caucasus (or Ciscaucasia; p) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and within European Russia.
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Nowruz (نوروز,, meaning " New Day") is the name of the Iranian New Year.
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The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
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A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.
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Proved oil reserves in Iran, according to its government, rank fourth largest in the world at approximately as of 2014, although it ranks third if Canadian reserves of unconventional oil are excluded.
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An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
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Old Aramaic refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, taken to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sassanid Empire in 224 CE).
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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Omar Khayyám; born (غیاثالدین ابوالفتح عمر ابراهیم خیام نیشابورﻯ,; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131), was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, who is widely considered to be one of the most influential scientists of all time.
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Omid (امید, meaning "Hope") was Iran's first domestically made satellite Omid is a data-processing satellite for research and telecommunications, Iran's state television reported that it was successfully launched on 2 February 2009.
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), is an international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
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Operation Eagle Claw (or Operation Evening Light or Operation Rice Bowl) was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by US President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 diplomats held captive at the embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.
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The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique, OCI)Upon the groups's renaming, some sources provided the English-language translation "Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation", but and have since indicated the preferred English translation omits the "the".
The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Hotaki, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries.
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The location of Afghanistan An enlargeable map of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Afghanistan: Afghanistan – landlocked sovereign country located in Central Asia.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Armenia: Armenia – landlocked mountainous country, located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan – largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, and one of the most progressive and secular Islamic societies.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iran: Iran – sovereign country located in Southwest Asia and the Middle East.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iraq: Iraq – sovereign country located in Western Asia.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kuwait: Kuwait – sovereign emirate located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in Southwest Asia and the Middle East.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Pakistan: Pakistan – sovereign country located in South-central Asia.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkey: Turkey – sovereign Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Southwest Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) at the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkmenistan: Turkmenistan is a sovereign Turkic country located in Central Asia.
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Ovanes Ohanian (October 1896 - 1960) was an Armenian-Iranian, was a filmmaker, inventor, founder, doctor, scientist with PhD in medicine, film, science and languages.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
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The P5+1 is a group of six world powers which, in 2006, joined together in diplomatic efforts with Iran with regard to its nuclear program.
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In antiquity, Paeonia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες).
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The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
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Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals is the name inscribed by UNESCO for varzesh-e pahlavani (آیین پهلوانی و زورخانهای, "heroic sport") or varzesh-e bastany (ورزش باستانی; varzeš-e bāstānī, "ancient sport"), a traditional Iranian system of athletics originally used to train warriors.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base).
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Palestine (فلسطين.,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
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The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
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Panthera is a genus within the Felidae family that was named and first described by the German naturalist Oken in 1816.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Parmenion (also Parmenio) (Παρμενίων; c. 400 – Ecbatana, 330 BC) was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, who was assassinated on a false charge of treason.
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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
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Partridges are birds in the pheasant family, Phasianidae.
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Pasargadae (from Πασαργάδαι from Persian: fa Pāsārgād), capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC) and also the location of his tomb, was a city in ancient Persia, located near the city of Shiraz (in Pasargad County) and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh), is an important, biblically derived Jewish festival.
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This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
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Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world.
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Persepolis (Old Persian: Pārśa, New Persian: تخت جمشيد Takht-e Jamshid or پارسه Pārseh), literally meaning "city of Persians", was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
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The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements at northern Persian Azerbaijan and western Persia between the British Empire, Russian Empire and Armenian and Assyrian forces against the Ottoman Empire, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. The Russian operations were halted by the Russian Revolution on February 23, 1917 when the Russian Caucasus Army was replaced with Armenian units and an Allied force named Dunsterforce.
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The Persia Constitution of 1906 was Persia's first constitution that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Hassan Pirnia, Hossein Pirnia and Ismail Mumtaz among others.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution or Iranian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh) (also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1907.
The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.
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The Persian Cossack Brigade was a Cossack-style elite cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).
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Redirection to .P Persia.
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There are a number of Khuzestani Persian dialects unique to the province of Khuzestan in southwestern Iran.
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
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Persian Jews or Iranian Jews (یهودیان ایرانی) (יהודים פרסים) are Jews historically associated with Iran, traditionally known as Persia in Western sources.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی) is one of the world's oldest literatures.
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The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.
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Persian pop music (also known as Iranian pop music or Parsipop) refers to pop music with songs in the Persian language or other regional languages of Iran.
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The Persian Revolt, as it is known, was the first time the unified province of ancient Persis, after voluntary submission to the Assyrians and Medes two times earlier, declared its independence, and commenced its revolution as it later separated from the Median Empire.
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Persianization or Persianisation is a sociological process of cultural change in which something non-Persian becomes Persianate.
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Iran is an energy superpower and the Petroleum industry in Iran plays an important part in it.
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Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
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Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
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A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada or generically as gherkins in the United Kingdom) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.
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A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
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The pistachio, (-, پسته; Pistacia vera) a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
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In geography, a plain is a flat area.
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A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.
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In geology and earth science, a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
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Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις) literally means city in Greek.
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The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy in a format of Syncretic politics that is guided by an Islamist ideology.
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Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
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The pomegranate, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between tall.
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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up potterywares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
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The President of Iran (رئیسجمهور ایران) is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
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A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
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Press TV (stylised PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English language news and documentary network, affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
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Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
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According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005-2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange.
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The Proto-Elamite period is the time from ca.
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The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), a reconstructed prehistoric language of Eurasia.
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Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family, and as such, the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others.
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Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces (استان Ostān, plural استانها Ostānhā), each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: Markaz) of that province.
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Prunus cerasus (sour cherry, tart cherry, dwarf cherry, or wild cherry) is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia.
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Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.
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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word פור pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.
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The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Qacarlar) was a PersianizedAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3 royal family of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
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The kanun (قانون, qānūn, pl. qawānīn; κανονάκι, kanonaki; քանոն, k’anon; fa, qānūn; qanun; kanun) is a string instrument played in much of the Middle East, Central Asia, and southeastern Europe.
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Qashqai (pronounced; also spelled Qeshqayı, Ghashghai, Ghashghay, Gashgai, Gashgay, Kashkai, Qashqay, Qashqa'i and Qashqai: قشقایی) are a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, mostly Turkic, but also Arab, Kurdish, and Luri.
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Qavam House (also widely called "Narenjestan e Ghavam") is a traditional and historical house in Shiraz, Iran.
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Qeysar (Qeysar, "Caesar"), also written as Gheisar, Kaiser and Gheysar, is a 1969 film by acclaimed Iranian filmmaker Masoud Kimiai.
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Qom (قم), also spelled as Qum or Ghom; is the 8th largest city in Iran.
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The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).
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Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236 – 1311) (قطبالدین محمود بن مسعود شیرازی) was a 13th-century Persian polymathSayyed ʿAbd-Allāh Anwār, Encyclopedia Iranica, "QOṬB-AL-DIN ŠIRĀZI, Maḥmud b. Żiāʾ-al-Din Masʿud b. Moṣleḥ", and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.
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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
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Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
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Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also transliterated Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
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The Rashidun Caliphate (الخلافة الراشدة, c. 632–661) is the collective term comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون)—in Islamic history and was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar).
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Razavi Khorasan Province (استان خراسان رضوی, Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Rażavī) is a province located in northeastern Iran.
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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction.
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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.
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In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
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Historically and geographically Iran has been divided into a number of different regions.
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Relief, or relievo rilievo, is a sculptural technique.
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According to the CIA World Factbook, around 90–95%.
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Repatriation is the process of returning a person to their place of origin or citizenship.
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The Republic of Mahabad (کۆماری مەھاباد; جمهوری مهاباد), was a short-lived self-governing state in present-day Iran.
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Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: رضا شاه پهلوی) (15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944), was the Shah of Iran (Persia) from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
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Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.
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Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.
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Iranian rock, also called Persian Rock, is a form of rock music that is largely produced in Europe and Tehran.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
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The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sassanid.
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Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
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The tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab forms part of the 10th-century Persian epic Shahnameh by the Persian poet Ferdowsi.
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Rostam and Sohrab is an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian.
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The Royal Road was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century BC.
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Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Stem Cell Biology and Technology is a leading Iranian biomedical research center involved in stem cell technology and regenerative medicine.
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Rūhollāh Khāleqi (1906, Kerman, Iran – 12 November 1965, Salzburg, Austria) (روحالله خالقی.), also spelled as Khaleghi, was a prominent Iranian musician, composer, conductor and author.
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Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini (روحالله خمینی,, 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989) was an Iranian Ayatollah, revolutionary, politician, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mawlānā/Mevlânâ (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
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The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian and Persian Empires.
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The Russo-Persian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
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Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (ابومحمد مصلح الدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saʿdī (سعدی) or simply Saadi, was one of the major Persian poets and literary men of the medieval period.
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The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam against the onslaughts of Sunni Islam, and the repository of Persian cultural traditions and self-awareness of Iranianhood, acting as a bridge to modern Iran.
The Safavid dynasty (سلسلهٔ صفويان; Səfəvilər sülaləsi, صفويلر سولالهسى) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia (modern Iran) after the fall of the Sasanian Empire - following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D., and "is often considered the beginning of modern Persian history".
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The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
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The Safir (سفیر, meaning "ambassador") is the name of the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit.
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A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
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The Samanid dynasty (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanid Empire, Samanid Amirate, or simply Samanids (819–999), was a Sunni Persian Empire in Khorasan and Transoxiana.
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Samuel Rahbar (May 12, 1929 - November 10, 2012) was an Iranian scientist who discovered the linkage between diabetes and HbA1C, a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify plasma glucose concentration over time.
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Numerous governments and multinational entities impose sanctions against Iran.
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The santur (also santūr, santour, santoor) (fa) is a hammered dulcimer of Iranian origin The term Santur originated with meaning "100 strings.
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Sarkash is the least renowned of the three most influential musicians of the Sassanids.
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The term Sasanian art, or Sassanid art, refers to the art prevalent under the Sasanian dynasty of Iran which ruled from the 3rd to 7th centuries AD.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.
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The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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SAVAK (Persian: ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, Organization of Intelligence and National Security) was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service established by Iran's Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the United States' Central Intelligence Agency (the CIA) and Israel.
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Iran has made considerable advances in science and technology through education and training, despite international sanctions in almost all aspects of research during the past 30 years.
Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) was the science developed and practiced in the medieval Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age (8th century CE –, sometimes considered to have extended to the 15th or 16th century).
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR indicator) is a measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from.
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The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
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A 'secular state' is a concept of secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.
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The Sejil missile (Persian: سجیل, meaning "Baked Clay" (see Surat al-Fil of the Quran)), also known as Sejjil, is a family of Iranian solid-fueled ballistic missiles.
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The Seleucid Empire or Seleucia was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.
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The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks.
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A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely.
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The Semnani languages are a group of Northwestern Iranian languages, spoken in Semnan province of Iran that share many linguistic features and structures with Caspian languages.
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Sepandārmazgān (سپندارمذگان) is a Zoroastrian festival.
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Sepiddasht (سپيددشت, also Romanized as Sepīd Dasht; also known as Īstgāh-e Sepīd Dasht and Sefīd Dasht) is a city in and capital of Papi District, in Khorramabad County, Lorestan Province, Iran.
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Setar (سهتار, from seh, meaning "three" and tār, meaning "string") is a Persian musical instrument used across Greater Iran and Central asia.
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The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World refers to remarkable constructions of classical antiquityAnon.
Shadow play or also known as shadow puppetry is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated figures (shadow puppets) to create cut-out figures which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim.
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Shah (Šâh) (شاه,, "king") is a title given to the emperors/kings and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
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The Shah Mosque (Persian: مسجد شاه), also known as Imam Mosque (Persian: مسجد امام), renamed after the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, and Jaame' Abbasi Mosque, is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran, standing in south side of Naghsh-e Jahan Square.
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The Shahab-3 (Ŝahāb 3; shahâb means "meteor") is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Iran and based on the North Korean Nodong-1.
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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
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Shahr-e Sūkhté (شهر سوخته, meaning " Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.
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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, "Stream of the Arabs") or Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, "Swift River") is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
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Shazdeh Garden (باغ شازده Bāgh-e Shāzdeh) meaning Prince’s Garden is a historical Persian garden located near (6km away from) Mahan in Kerman province, Iran.
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Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock.
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Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (مسجد شیخ لطف الله) is one of the architectural masterpieces of Safavid Iranian architecture, standing on the eastern side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran.
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Shemshak (شمشک) is a city in Rudbar-e Qasran District, Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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Shikand-gumanic Vichar is a Zoroastrian theology book of 9th century Iran, written by Mardan-Farrukh.
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Shiraz (شیراز, Šīrāz) is the sixth most populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pârsâ).
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Shu'ubiyyah (الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah.
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Allāhverdi Khan Bridge (پل اللهوردیخان), popularly known as Si-o-seh pol (پل اللهوردیخان;, “The bridge of thirty-three spans”) is one of the eleven bridges of Isfahan, Iran and the longest bridge on Zayandeh River with the total length of.
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Sistan and Baluchestan Province (استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Sizdah Be-Dar (also romanized as Sizdahbedar and Sizdah Bedar, frequently stylized as "13 Bedar") (سیزده به در, literally: 13th in outdoors) is a festival in the Iranian culture, and part of the Nowruz new year celebration rituals, held on the 13th of Farvardin (the 1st month of the Iranian calendar), during which people spend time picnicking outdoors.
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Social justice is "justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society".
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Social security is a concept enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
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The Solar Hijri calendar (گاهشماری هجری خورشیدی, لمريز لېږدیز کلیز), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.
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Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
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Spoken language, is language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language.
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The Saint Thaddeus Monastery (Azeri: Qara-Kilisa; قره کلیسا / Ghara Kelisa, literally "The Black Church") is an ancient Armenian monastery located in the mountainous area of Iran's West Azerbaijan Province, about 20 kilometers from the town of Maku.
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State ownership, also called public ownership, government ownership or state property, are property interests that are vested in the state, rather than an individual or private entity.
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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.
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The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) has existed since humanity could use and make tools - creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth.
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Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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The Strait of Hormuz تنگه هرمز Tangeh-ye Hormoz, مَضيق هُرمُز Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. It is the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. On the north coast is Iran, and on the south coast is the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. At its narrowest, the strait is wide. About 20% of the world's petroleum, and about 35% of the petroleum traded by sea, passes through the strait making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.
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In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
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A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.
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Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse (حمام سلطان امیر احمد., Hammam-e Sultan Amir Ahmad), also known as the Qasemi Bathhouse, is a traditional Iranian public bathhouse in Kashan, Iran.
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Sultan Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (شاه سلطان حسین) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid Shah of Iran (Persia).
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The Sultanate of Rum (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti, meaning "Anatolian Seljuk State"; سلجوقیان روم Saljūqiyān-i Rūm), was a medieval Turko-Persian, Sunni Muslim state in Anatolia.
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In political science, sultanism is a form of authoritarian government characterized by the extreme personal presence of the ruler in all elements of governance.
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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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The Supreme Leader of Iran (ولی فقیه ایران,, lit. Guardian Jurist of Iran, or رهبر انقلاب,, lit. Leader of the Revolution), officially in Iran, the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
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Surena (سورنا) is an Iranian humanoid robot, named after the Parthian General Surena.
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Susa (fa Shush;; Hebrew שׁוּשָׁן Shushān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Shush; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Elamite, First Persian Empire and Parthian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
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Suzerainty is a situation in which a powerful region or people controls the foreign affairs of a tributary vassal state while allowing the subservient nation internal autonomy.
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A symbol is an object that represents, stands for or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action or material entity.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa, (تعزية, تعزیه, تعزیہ) means comfort, condolence.
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Tabriz (تبریز,; تبریز, Təbriz) is the most populated city in the northwest of Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran, and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province.
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The Tahirid dynasty (طاهریان) was a dynasty, of PersianThe Tahirids and Saffarids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol.
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The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also written Tekbir or Takbeer, is the term for the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "Allah is great", "Allah is greatest", "God is great" or "God is greatest".
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Takht-e Soleymān (تخت سلیمان) (Təxti Süleyman), also known as Shiz or Azar Goshnasp, literally "the Fire of the Warrior Kings", is an archaeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran.
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The Talysh language (Tolışi / Толыши / تالشی زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
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Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).
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The term Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor) can refer to various long-necked, string instrument originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "terminology presents a complicated situation. Nowadays the term tanbur (or tambur) is applied to a variety of distinct and related long-necked string instruments used in art and folk traditions in India, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey, Tajikestan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. Similar or identical instruments are also known by other terms.".
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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Taq wa San or Taq-e Bostan (تاق وه سان, "arch of stone")(طاق بستان, "arch of the garden") is a site with a series of large rock relief from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD.
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Craftsmanship and performance of the tar and the skills related to this tradition play a significant role in shaping the cultural identity of Azerbaijanis.
Tar (تار) is a Persian.
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Taste of Cherry (..., Ta’m-e gīlās...) is a 1997 film by the Iranian filmmaker Abbas Kiarostami.
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Tati (Tati: Tâti Zobün) is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to the Talysh language, spoken by the Tat people of Iran.
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The fiscal year begins on March 21 and ends on March 20 of the next year.
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Tbilisi (თბილისი), formerly known as Tpilisi and Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mtkvari River with a population of roughly 1.5 million inhabitants.
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Tehran (also Romanized as Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
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The Tehran Symphony Orchestra (TSO, ارکستر سمفونیک تهران), founded in 1933, is Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra.
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Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران) is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran.
Telecommunication Company of Iran, or TCI (شرکت مخابرات ایران) is the Fixed-line incumbent operator in Iran offering services in Fixed telephony, DSL and Data services for both residential and business customers, all throughout the country.
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The Cow (گاو, Gāv or Gāāv) is a 1969 Iranian film directed by Dariush Mehrjui, written by Gholam-Hossein Saedi based on his own play and novel, and starring Ezzatolah Entezami as Masht Hassan.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy is a 1994 dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn, published by Oxford University Press.
The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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Theocracy, according to the dictionary, is the "government of a state by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided." The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition.
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Thrace (demonym Thracian; Θρᾴκη, Thrāikē; modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakija; Trakya; in Antiquity also referred to as Europe prior to extending the meaning for the whole continent) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.
Timur (تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Temur; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia.
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The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
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The Timurid Empire (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Syria, India, Anatolia.
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Tir (Persian: تیر) is the fourth month of the Iranian calendar.
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Tirgan (تیرگان – Tirgān), is a mid summer Iranian festival, celebrated annually on Tir 13 (July 3, 4, or 5).
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Tishtrya (Tištrya) is the Avestan language name of an Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility.
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Mount Tochal (Persian: توچال Tochāl) is a mountain in the Alborz range and a ski resort adjacent to metropolitan Tehran, Iran.
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Tofy Mussivand (Persian:توفیق موسیوند), born c. 1943 in Varkaneh, Hamadan Province, Iran) is an Iranian-Canadian medical engineer who invented an Artificial Cardiac Pump, a device that pumps blood and takes over the function of breathing during a heart surgery. He is currently Professor of Surgery and Engineering at the University of Ottawa and Carleton University; Chair and Director, Cardiovascular Devices Division of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute (UOHI); and Medical Devices Program of both the University of Ottawa and Carleton University. He is an honorary member of the Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences. Mussivand was born to Kurdish parents in the village of Varkaneh in Hamedan. Before leaving Varkaneh to study at Tehran, he was a goat herder. He studied engineering at Tehran University and University of Alberta.http://www.ottawaheart.ca/content_documents/Tofy-Mussivand-CV.pdf He has worked for the Canadian government, crown corporations, and the private sector. Mussivand went on to receive his doctorate in Medical Engineering and Medical Sciences at the University of Akron and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Thereafter, Mussivand joined the Cleveland Clinic Hospital and Research Foundation. In 1989, Mussivand returned to Canada. The Artificial Cardiac Pump temporarily takes over the function of breathing and pumping blood for a patient. It has two parts, the pump and the aerator. Cardiac pumps are most often used in heart surgery, so that a patient's heart can be disconnected from the body for longer than the twenty minutes or so it takes for a prepared patient to die.
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The Tomb of Daniel is the traditional burial place of the biblical prophet Daniel.
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The Tompak (official Persian name) (تنپک, تنبک, دنبک، تمپک), also tombak, donbak, dombak or zarb (ضَرب or ضرب) is a goblet drum from Persia (ancient Iran).
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The landscape of Iran is diverse, providing a range of activities from hiking and skiing in the Alborz mountains, to beach holidays by the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.
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Transcaucasia (Закавказье) or the South Caucasus is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia.
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Transport in Iran is inexpensive because of the government's subsidization of the price of gasoline.
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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
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The Treaty of Constantinople (Константинопольский договор) Russo-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia (Iran Mukasemenamesi) was a 1724 treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, dividing large portions of the territory of mutually neighbouring Safavid Iran between them.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trak'tati) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
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The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full scale Russo-Persian War.
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The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (modern day Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28).
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Tu BiShvat (ט״ו בשבט) is a Jewish holiday occurring on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Shevat (in 2015, Tu BiShvat begins at sunset on 3 February and ends at nightfall on 4 February).
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.
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The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.
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The Turkic term oğuz or oğur (in z- and r-Turkic, respectively) is a historical term for "military division, clan, or tribe" among the Turkic peoples.
Turkmen or Torkoman (Türkmençe, türkmen dili, түркменче, түркмен дили, تورکمن تیلی,تورکمنچه), is a Turkic language spoken by 3½ million people in Turkmenistan, where it is the official state language, as well as by around 2 million people in northeastern Iran and 1½ million people in northwestern Afghanistan.
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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan) is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
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The Turkmens or Turkomans (Türkmen/Түркмен, plural Türkmenler/Түркменлер) are a Turkic people located primarily in Central Asia, in the states of Turkmenistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan, and in the North Caucasus (Stavropol Krai).
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The composite Turko-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 was a variant of Islamic culture.
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Twelver (اثنا عشرية, Athnā‘ashariyyah or Ithnā‘ashariyyah; شیعه دوازدهامامی) Shia Islam or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
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A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Arab Emirates (دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates or the UAE,الامارات is a country located in the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea borders with Qatar and Iran.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 598 S/RES/0598 (1987), (UNSC resolution 598) adopted unanimously on 20 July 1987, after recalling Resolution 582 and 588, called for an immediate ceasefire between Iran and Iraq and the repatriation of prisoners of war, and for both sides to withdraw to the international border.
Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.
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The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
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A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (also known as tertiary preparation and usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, tertiary prep, or prep school) is a secondary school, either public or private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
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Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
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Urartu (Ուրարտու - Urartu, Assyrian: māt Urarṭu; Babylonian: Urashtu), corresponding to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat (Արարատյան Թագավորություն) or Kingdom of Van (Վանի Թագավորություն, Urartian: Biai, Biainili) was an Iron Age kingdom centered on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
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UrmiaVariously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh (Urmu, Urmiyə, ارومیه, Ûrmiye, Ուրմիա, ܐܘܪܡܝܐ) is the second largest city in the north-west of Iran, is a city in and the capital of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
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In theoretical physics, the Vafa–Witten theorem, named after Cumrun Vafa and Edward Witten, is a theorem that shows that vector-like global symmetries (those that transform as expected under reflections) such as isospin and baryon number in vector-like gauge theories like QCD cannot be spontanteously broken as long as the theta angle is zero.
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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.
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The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale"), founded in 1932, is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.
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The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Iranian constitution, as anyone appointed by the President to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
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Vigen or Viguen, born Vigen Derderian (Persian: Vigen Derderiān - ویگن دردریان; Armenian: Վիգեն Դէրդէրեան) (November 23, 1929 - October 26, 2003), known as "King of Iranian pop" and the "Sultan of Jazz", was an immensely popular Iranian pop music singer and actor, well known throughout the Near East.
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A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen"), is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a noncitizen to enter and temporarily remain within that country.
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A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
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Warwasi is a Paleolithic rockshelter site located at north of Kermanshah in western Iran.
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The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
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Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, family Cucurbitaceae) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa.
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Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
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The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
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The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swineHeptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
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The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a widespread species of goat, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and the Middle East.
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Winter solstice is an astronomical phenomenon marking the shortest day and the longest night of the year.
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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
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World government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or people.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
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Xenophon (Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC), son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
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Yafteh is an Upper Paleolithic cave located at the foot of Yafteh Mountain, north-west of Khoramabad, Western Zagros, Iran.
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Shab-e Chella(-ye bozorg) ("night of (the great) forty", شب چلّه) or Shab-e Yaldā ("Yalda night" شب یلدا) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the "longest and darkest night of the year," that is, in the night of the Northern Hemisphere's winter solstice.
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The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.
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Yazd (یزد) is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture.
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The Yazidis (also Yezidi, Êzidî) are a Kurdish religious community whose syncretic but ancient religion Yazidism (a kind of Yazdânism) is linked to Zoroastrianism and ancient Mesopotamian religions, however Yazidis form a distinct and independent religious community and have their own culture.
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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
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The Zagros Mountains (رشته كوه زاگرس, زنجیرهچیاکانی زاگرۆس; Çiyayên Zagrosê, Lurish: کو یه لی زاگروس, جبال زغروس Aramaic: ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and Eastern Turkey.
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The Zandiyeh dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was a Iranian dynasty of Lurish or Kurdish origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
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Zayandeh River Culture (تمدن زاینده رود, literally "Zāyandé-Rūd Civilization") is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is theorized to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 6th millennium BC.
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Zāyandé-Rūd or Zāyanderūd (زاینده رود, from زاینده “life giver” and رود “river”), also spelled as Zayandeh-Rood or Zayanderood, was the largest river in the central plateau of Iran.
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Zelzal (زلزال-۱, meaning "Earthquake") is a series of artillery rockets developed by Iran.
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Zoroaster (or, from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 (Zaraθuštra); زرتشت Zartosht, زردشت Zardosht), or as Zarathushtra Spitama, was the founder of Zoroastrianism.
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Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism is the religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, whose Supreme Being was Ahura Mazda.
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Zoroastrians in Iran are the oldest religious community of the nation, with a long history.
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.ir is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Iran.
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The 10th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Mesolithic and Epipaleolithic periods, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch.
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1921 Persian coup d'état (کودتای ۳ اسفند ۱۲۹۹) refers to several major events in Iran (Persia) in 1921, which eventually led to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty as the ruling house of the country in 1925.
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The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project).
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The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of the OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) proclaimed an oil embargo.
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The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1, 1974 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran, Iran.
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The 1979 Khuzestan uprising was one of the nationwide uprisings in Iran, which erupted in the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution.
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1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution, and became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in Iran against the new regime and one of the most intense Kurdish rebellions in modern Iran.
Protests (۱۳۸۸ تظاهرات انتخابات ''Tazahorat-e-Entekhabat-e-Hezar-o-Seesad Hashdad-o-hasht''.) against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi) occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into 2010.
The 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship was held in Poland from 30 August to 21 September 2014.
The 2014 FIVB Volleyball World League was the 25th edition of the annual men's international volleyball tournament, played by 28 countries from 23 May to 20 July 2014.
The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age.
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The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 44° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture.
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The meridian 64° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans.
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In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture became widely practised in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia.
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Historical Names of Iran, Historical names of Iran, I.R. Iran, I.R. of Iran, I.R.Iran, IR Iran, IR of Iran, IRAN, IRan, ISO 3166-1:IR, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iran (Persia), Iran blockade, Iran consumption expenditure, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Iranian Republic, Irañ, Irán, Irân, Irãn, Irān, Islamic Govermnet of Iran, Islamic Iran, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Persia, Islamic State of Iran, Islamic republic of Iran, Jomhuri Ye Islami Ye Iran, Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān, La Perse, Naval blockade of iran, PERSIA, Persia, Persia (Iran), Persian Region, Persian State of Iran, Republic of Iran, Shi'ite Republic of Iran, Shia Republic of Iran, The Islamic Republic of Iran, What language do they speak in Persia?, إيران, ایران, جمهوری اسلامی ايران, جمهوری اسلامی ایران.