220 relations: A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection, A Short History of Nearly Everything, Abiogenesis, Academia, Accademia dei Lincei, Addendum, Aldous Huxley, Alexander Oparin, Allele frequency, Ammonia, Animal migration, Anoxic event, Antheraea, Anthony Clifford Allison, Antic Hay, Apocrypha, Arthur C. Clarke, Atheism, Beetle, Bhubaneswar, Bill Bryson, Biochemistry, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Biology, Biostatistics, Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), Brave New World, British Army, C. S. Lewis, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Carbon dioxide, Charles Kay Ogden, Charlotte Haldane, Chicken, Cis–trans isomerism, Clan Haldane, Classics, Climate, Cloning, Coal, Color blindness, Communism, Communist Party of Great Britain, Conceptual metaphor, Conservative Party (UK), Coupling reaction, Cowpea, Creator deity, Daedalus; or, Science and the Future, Daily Worker, ..., Darwin (unit), Darwin Medal, Darwin–Wallace Medal, Dialectical materialism, Diving chamber, Dragon School, Dronamraju Krishna Rao, Eardrum, Ectogenesis, Elizabeth Haldane, Endemic (epidemiology), Energy economics, Enzyme, Eton College, Evolution, Experiments in the Revival of Organisms, Fellow, Feltrinelli Prize, Floral symmetry, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Gary Botting, Gas exchange, Gastritis, Gene, Gene map, Genetic linkage, Genetic resistance to malaria, Genetics, Genetics (journal), George Edward Briggs, Gerald Heard, Global citizenship, Government of France, Grafton Elliot Smith, Groff Conklin, Guinea pig, H. G. Wells, Haemophilia, Haldane's dilemma, Haldane's rule, Helen Spurway, Hemoglobin, Heterogametic sex, Hinduism, Hunger strike, Hybrid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen economy, I. A. Richards, In vitro fertilisation, India, Indian Statistical Institute, International law, Jay Gould, Jerzy Neyman, John Desmond Bernal, John Innes Centre, John Maynard Smith, John Scott Haldane, Joseph Stalin, Journal of Genetics, Julian Huxley, Kakinada, Kin selection, Kolkata, Lantana camara, Legion of Honour, Lennard-Jones potential, Leonor Michaelis, Liberal Party (UK), Linnean Society of London, List of Nobel laureates, Lysenkoism, Malaria, Mammal, Marxism, Mathematics, Maud Menten, Maximum likelihood, Mendelian inheritance, Miller–Urey experiment, Modern evolutionary synthesis, Molecular evolution, Mutation, Mutation rate, Naomi Mitchison, National Academy of Sciences, Nationalization, Natural selection, Neo-Darwinism, New College, Oxford, New Statesman, Nikolai Vavilov, Noah's Ark, Norman Pirie, Novartis Foundation, Odisha, Olaf Stapledon, On Being the Right Size, Oxford, Oxygen saturation, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Periclase, Peter Medawar, Philosopher, Physiology, Plant genetics, Pollination, Popular science, Population genetics, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Primordial soup, Quentin Blake, Rangaraya Medical College, Reader (academic rank), Renal function, Richard Dawkins, Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Robert the Bruce, Ronald Fisher, Ronald W. Clark, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Royal Institution, Royal Society, Russian language, Scientism, Secession, Second Spanish Republic, Secular humanism, Secularism, Self-experimentation, Self-replication, Sewall Wright, Sickle-cell disease, Socialism, Somersault, Spanish Civil War, Species, Statistics, Steady state, Sterility (physiology), Suez Crisis, Suresh Jayakar, Teleology, Thalassemia, The American Naturalist, The Causes of Evolution, The Selfish Gene, The Space Trilogy, Timeline of hydrogen technologies, Trinity College, Cambridge, Tropics, United States, University College London, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Vegetarianism, Vertebra, Vertebrate, Vladimir Lenin, Water vapor, Windmill, World War I, World War II, X chromosome, Y chromosome, Yellow-wattled lapwing. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection is the title of a series of scientific papers by the British population geneticist J.B.S. Haldane, published between 1924 and 1934.
A Short History of Nearly Everything by American author Bill Bryson is a popular science book that explains some areas of science, using easily accessible language that appeals more so to the general public than many other books dedicated to the subject.
Abiogenesis (Brit.: U.S.), or biopoiesis, is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.
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Academia is the internationally recognized establishment of professional scholars and students, usually centered around colleges and universities, who are engaged in higher education and research.
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The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.
An addendum, in general, is an addition required to be made to a document by its author subsequent to its printing or publication.
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Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, philosopher and a prominent member of the Huxley family.
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Alexander Ivanovich Oparin (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Опа́рин; in English, Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin) (in Uglich, Russia – April 21, 1980 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet biochemist notable for his untested theories about the origin of life, and for his book The Origin of Life.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
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Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individuals, usually on a seasonal basis.
Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (Anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area.
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Antheraea is a moth genus belonging to the family Saturniidae.
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Anthony Clifford Allison (21 August 1925 – 20 February 2014) was a South African geneticist and medical scientist who made pioneering study on the genetic resistance to malaria.
Antic Hay is a comic novel by Aldous Huxley, published in 1923.
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Apocrypha are works, usually written works, that are of unknown authorship, or of doubtful authenticity, or spurious, or not considered to be within a particular canon.
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Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS The award of Knight Bachelor carries the title of "Sir" and no post-nominal letters (see) meaning that the previous post-nominals, "CBE" are also still used.
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.
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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera.
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Bhubaneswar, also spelt Bhubaneshwar Bhubanēswara), is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha, formerly known as Orissa. The city has a history of over 3,000 years starting with the Mahamegha-bahana Chedi dynasty (around the 2nd century BCE) which had its capital at Sisupalgarh, nearby. Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord (Eeswar) of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Shiva. Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari ("City of Temples"). It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India. With many Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a 'Temple City of India' and with Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.Ramesh Prasad Mohapatra, Archaeology in Orissa, Vol I, Page 47, B. R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 1986, ISBN 81-7018-346-4 Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011. Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.
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William McGuire "Bill" Bryson, OBE, FRS (born December 8, 1951) is a best-selling American author of humorous books on travel, as well as books on the English language and science.
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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
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The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
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Biostatistics (or biometry) is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
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The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) was a Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 (as the Royal Highland Regiment (Black Watch)) until 2006.
Brave New World is a novel written in 1931 by Aldous Huxley and published in 1932.
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The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.
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Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
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Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
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Charles Kay Ogden (1 June 1889 – 20 March 1957) was an English linguist, philosopher, and writer.
Charlotte Haldane (née Franken, first married name Burghes; 27 April 1894 – 16 March 1969) was a British feminist author.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
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Cis/trans isomerism (geometric isomerism, configurational isomerism) is a term used in organic chemistry to refer to the stereoisomerism engendered in the relative orientation of functional groups within a molecule.
Clan Haldane is a Lowland Scottish clan.
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Classics (also Classical Studies) is the study of the languages, literature, laws, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other material culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; especially during Classical Antiquity (ca. BCE 600 – AD 600).
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Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.
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In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
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Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
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Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is the inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under normal lighting conditions.
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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
A coupling reaction in organic chemistry is a general term for a variety of reactions where two hydrocarbon fragments are coupled with the aid of a metal catalyst.
The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of several species of the widely cultivated genus Vigna.
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A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, (cosmos or universe).
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Daedalus; or, Science and the Future is a book by the British scientist J. B. S. Haldane, published in England in 1924.
The Daily Worker was a newspaper published in New York City by the Communist Party USA, a formerly Comintern-affiliated organization.
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The darwin (d) is a unit of evolutionary change, defined by J.B.S. Haldane in 1949.
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The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".
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The Darwin–Wallace Medal is a medal awarded by the Linnean Society of London for "major advances in evolutionary biology".
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union.
A diving chamber has two main functions.
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The Dragon School is a British coeducational, preparatory school in the English city of Oxford, founded in 1877 as the Oxford Preparatory School, or OPS.
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Dronamraju Krishna Rao (born January 14, 1937) is an Indian-born geneticist and president of the Foundation for Genetic Research in Houston, Texas.
In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods.
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Ectogenesis (from the Greek ecto, "outer," and genesis) is the growth of an organism in an artificial environment outside the body in which it would normally be found, such as the growth of an embryo or fetus outside the mother's body, or the growth of bacteria outside the body of a host.
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Elizabeth Sanderson Haldane, CH, JP (27 May 1862 – 24 December 1937) was an eminent public figure, author, biographer, philosopher, suffragist, nursing administrator, and social welfare worker.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
Energy economics is a broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Eton College, often informally referred to simply as Eton, is an English boys' independent boarding school located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.
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Experiments in the Revival of Organisms is a 1940 motion picture which documents Soviet research into the resuscitation of clinically dead organisms.
In academia, a fellow is a member of a group of learned people who work together as peers in the pursuit of mutual knowledge or practice.
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The Feltrinelli Prize (from the Italian "Premio Feltrinelli", also known as "International Feltrinelli Prize" or "Antonio Feltrinelli Prize") is an award for achievement in the arts, music, literature, history, philosophy, medicine, and physical and mathematical sciences.
Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower, in particular its perianth, can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts.
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Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins.
The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution were established by John 'Mad Jack' Fuller.
Gary Norman Arthur Botting (born 19 July 1943) is a Canadian legal scholar and criminal defense lawyer as well as a poet, playwright and critic of literature and religion, in particular Jehovah's Witnesses.
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Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface.
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Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
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A gene map is the descriptive representation of the structure of a single gene.
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Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
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Genetic resistance to disease, of which malaria is a specific example, is an inherited change in the genome of an organism that confers a selective survival advantage due to conferring or increasing resistance to disease.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.
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Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.
George Edward Briggs FRS (25 June 1893 – 7 February 1985) was Professor of Botany at the University of Cambridge.
Henry FitzGerald Heard (6 October 1889 – 14 August 1971), commonly called Gerald Heard, was a historian, science writer, educator, and philosopher.
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In broad usage, the term global citizenship or world citizenship typically defines a person who places their identity with a "global community" above their identity as a citizen of a particular nation or place.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in the French Republic.
Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, FRS FRCP (15 August 1871 – 1 January 1937) was an Australian-British anatomist and a proponent of the hyperdiffusionist view of prehistory.
Edward Groff Conklin (September 6, 1904 – July 19, 1968) was a leading science fiction anthologist.
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The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also called the cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
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Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946), known primarily as H. G. Wells,.
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Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken.
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Haldane's dilemma is a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution, first calculated by J. B. S. Haldane in 1957, and clarified further by later commentators.
Haldane's rule is an observation in the early stage of speciation.
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Helen Spurway (Helen Haldane) (c. 1917 – 15 February 1977, Hyderabad) was a biologist and the second wife of J. B. S. Haldane.
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Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
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Heterogametic sex (digametic sex) refers to the sex of a species in which the sex chromosomes are not the same.
Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
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Hybrid may refer to.
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Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.
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In vitro fertilization or fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro ("in glass").
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) is an academic institute of national importance as recognised by a 1959 act of the Indian parliament.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Jason "Jay" Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was a leading American railroad developer and speculator.
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Jerzy Neyman (April 16, 1894 – August 5, 1981), born Jerzy Spława-Neyman, was a Polish mathematician and statistician who spent the first part of his professional career at various institutions in Warsaw, Poland and then at University College London, and the second part at the University of California, Berkeley.
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John Desmond Bernal FRS (10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was one of the United Kingdom's best-known and most controversial scientists.
The John Innes Centre (JIC) located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, is an independent centre for research and training in plant and microbial science.
John Maynard SmithHis surname was Maynard Smith, not Smith, nor was it hyphenated.
John Scott Haldane CH FRS (2 May 1860 – 14/15 March 1936) was a Scottish physiologist famous for intrepid self-experimentation which led to many important discoveries about the human body and the nature of gases.
Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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The Journal of Genetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of genetics and evolution.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.
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Kakinada is a city and municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
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Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.
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Kolkata, formerly Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
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Lantana camara, also known as big-sage (Malaysia), wild-sage, red-sage, white-sage (Caribbean) and tickberry (South Africa), is a species of flowering plant within the verbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to the American tropics.
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The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 May 1802.
The Lennard-Jones potential (also referred to as the L-J potential, 6-12 potential, or 12-6 potential) is a mathematically simple model that approximates the interaction between a pair of neutral atoms or molecules.
Leonor Michaelis (January 16, 1875 – October 8, 1949) was a German biochemist, physical chemist, and physician, known primarily for his work with Maud Menten on enzyme kinetics and Michaelis–Menten kinetics in 1913.
The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.
The Linnean Society of London is a society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy and natural history.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
Lysenkoism (Russian: Лысе́нковщина), or Lysenko-Michurinism was the centralized political control exercised over genetics and agriculture by Trofim Lysenko and his followers.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).
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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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Maud Leonora Menten (March 20, 1879 – July 26, 1960) was a Canadian physician-scientist who made significant contributions to enzyme kinetics and histochemistry.
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In statistics, maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of a statistical model given data.
Mendelian inheritance is inheritance of biological features that follows the laws proposed by Gregor Johann Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
The modern evolutionary synthesis (known as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, millennium synthesis or the neo-Darwinian synthesis) is a 20th-century synthesis of ideas from several fields of biology that provides an account of evolution which is widely accepted.
Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.
In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time.
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Naomi Mary Margaret Mitchison, Lady Mitchison, CBE (née Haldane; 1 November 1897 – 11 January 1999) was a Scottish novelist and poet.
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The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private non-profit organization in the United States.
Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.
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Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.
Neo-Darwinism is the "modern synthesis" of Darwinian evolution through natural selection with Mendelian genetics, the latter being a set of primary tenets specifying that evolution involves the transmission of characteristics from parent to child through the mechanism of genetic transfer, rather than the "blending process" of pre-Mendelian evolutionary science.
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New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
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Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (a) (– January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants.
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Noah's Ark (תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God saves Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from the flood.
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Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie FRS (1 July 1907 – 29 March 1997), was a British biochemist and virologist who, along with Frederick Bawden, discovered that a virus can be crystallized by isolating tobacco mosaic virus in 1936.
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The Novartis Foundation (formerly known as the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development) is a non-profit organization and part of the corporate responsibility portfolio of Novartis.
Odisha (or Orissa)(odia:ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the east of India.
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William Olaf Stapledon (10 May 1886 – 6 September 1950) – known as Olaf Stapledon – was a British philosopher and author of influential works of science fiction.
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"On Being the Right Size" is a 1926 essay by J. B. S. Haldane which discusses proportions in the animal world and the essential link between the size of an animal and these systems an animal has for life.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
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Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.
Periclase occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.
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Sir Peter Brian Medawar (28 February 1915 – 2 October 1987) was a British biologist born in Brazil, whose work on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance was fundamental to the practice of tissue and organ transplants.
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A philosopher, in a broad sense, is someone who studies philosophy.
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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
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Plant genetics is a very broad term.
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Pollination is a process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction.
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Popular science (or pop-science) is interpretation of science intended for a general audience.
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Population genetics is the study of the distribution and change in frequency of alleles within populations, and as such it sits firmly within the field of evolutionary biology.
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis FRS (29 June 1893 – 28 June 1972) was an Indian scientist and applied statistician.
"Primordial soup" is a term introduced by the Soviet biologist Alexander Oparin.
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Sir Quentin Saxby Blake, CBE, FCSD, FRSL, RDI (born 16 December 1932) is an English cartoonist, illustrator and children's writer.
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Rangaraya Medical College is one of the old and premier Government Medical colleges in Andhra pradesh, established in 1958 and is located in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.
# Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in renal physiology.
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Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and writer.
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Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, KT, OM, PC, KC, FRS, FBA, FSA (30 July 1856 – 19 August 1928) was an influential British Liberal Imperialist and later Labour politician, lawyer and philosopher.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys, Early Scots: Robert Brus), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), known as R.A. Fisher, was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and eugenicist.
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Ronald William Clark (2 November 1916 – 9 March 1987) was a British author of biography, fiction and non-fiction.
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The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (RAI) is a long-established anthropological organisation, with a global membership.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or RI) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
The President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Scientism is belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most "authoritative" worldview or the most valuable part of human learning - to the exclusion of other viewpoints.
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Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity (a country), but also any organization, union or military alliance.
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The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.
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Self-experimentation refers to the very special case of single-subject scientific experimentation in which the experimenter conducts the experiment on him- or herself.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Sewall Green Wright (December 16, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
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Sickle-cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) and drepanocytosis, is a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying haemoglobin molecule in red blood cells.
Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.
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A somersault (also flip, heli, etc., from the obsolete French word sombresault, Occitan sobresaut; and Latin - supra, over, and saltus, jump, and in gymnastics a Salto) is an acrobatic exercise in which a person's body rotates 360° around a horizontal axis with the feet passing over the head.
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The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.
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Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
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In systems theory, a system in a steady state has numerous properties that are unchanging in time.
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Sterility is the physiological inability to effect sexual reproduction in a living thing, members of whose kind have been produced sexually.
The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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Suresh Dinakar Jayakar (21 September 1937, Bombay-21 January 1988) was an Indian biologist who pioneered in the use of quantitative approaches in genetics and biology.
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Teleology is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose or goal.
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Thalassemia (British English: thalassaemia) is a form of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorder characterized by abnormal formation of hemoglobin.
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The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.
The Causes of Evolution is a 1932 book on evolution by J.B.S. Haldane (1990 edition ISBN 0-691-02442-1), based on a series of January 1931 lectures entitled "A Re-examination of Darwinism".
The Selfish Gene is a book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, published in 1976.
The Space Trilogy or Cosmic Trilogy is a series of science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis, famous for his later series The Chronicles of Narnia.
Timeline of hydrogen technologies — A timeline of the history of.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California.
The University of CambridgeThe corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate animal.
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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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Water vapor, or water vapour or aqueous vapor, is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation. It is lighter than air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds. Water vapor is a relatively common atmospheric constituent, present even in the solar atmosphere as well as every planet in the Solar System and many astronomical objects including natural satellites, comets and even large asteroids. Likewise the detection of extrasolar water vapor would indicate a similar distribution in other planetary systems. Water vapor is significant in that it can be indirect evidence supporting the presence of extraterrestrial liquid water in the case of some planetary mass objects. Being a component of Earth's hydrosphere and hydrologic cycle, it is particularly abundant in Earth's atmosphere where it is also a potent greenhouse gas along with other gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Use of water vapor, as steam, has been important to humans for cooking and as a major component in energy production and transport systems since the industrial revolution.
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A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
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The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
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The yellow-wattled lapwing (Vanellus malabaricus) is a lapwing that is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent.