475 relations: Actias luna, Adaptive radiation, Afrotropic ecozone, Agasicles hygrophila, Agathiphaga, Agathiphaga queenslandensis, Agathiphaga vitiensis, Agathis, Agriculture, Alternanthera philoxeroides, American painted lady, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Amphibian, Amphiesmenoptera, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Andrey Vasilyevich Martynov, Animal navigation, Annual Reviews (publisher), Ant, Antarctica, Antenna (biology), Antheraea, Anthropomorphism, Aphrissa statira, Apollo (butterfly), Aposematism, Aquatic animal, Aquatic plant, Archaeolepis, Arcola malloi, Arctiinae (erebid moths), Argentina, Asphyxia, Asthma, Atopy, Attacus atlas, Australasian ecozone, Australia, Australian Faunal Directory, Autotroph, Aztec, Bagworm moth, Baltic amber, Bamboo, Basal (phylogenetics), Bat, Batesian mimicry, Bee, Beetle, ..., Beondegi, Biological interaction, Biological life cycle, Bird, Bird nest, Birdwing, Biscuit, Bleeding, Blepharipa, Bombycoidea, Bombyx mandarina, Bombyx mori, Bradypodicola, Brain, Bran, Breathing, Bumblebee, Butterfly, Butterfly gardening, Butterfly ranching in Papua New Guinea, Cactoblastis cactorum, Caddisfly, Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Canada, Carl Linnaeus, Carnia, Carnivore, Casein, Caterpillar, Celestial navigation, Censer, Central America, Chorion, Cicada, Circulatory system, Cladistics, Clasper, Cloaca, Coagulopathy, Coevolution, Commensalism, Comparison of butterflies and moths, Compsilura concinnata, Conjunctivitis, Coprophagia, Corpus allatum, Cosmopterigidae, Cossidae, Costa Rica, Cotton, CRC Press, Crepuscular, Cretaceous, Crop (anatomy), Cryptoses choloepi, Cydia deshaisiana, David Grimaldi (entomologist), Death's-head Hawkmoth, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Detritivore, Detritus, Diapause, Diffraction grating, Digestion, Ditrysia, Diurnality, Domestic pigeon, Dorset, Dragonfly, Dutch language, Early Jurassic, Earth's magnetic field, Ecdysis, Ecdysone, Ecozone, Edward Meyrick, Egg, Endocrine system, English language, Entomophagy, Entomophily, Eocene, Epimartyria, Epipyropidae, Eriocraniidae, Esophagus, Eupithecia, Eurema hecabe, Evolutionary arms race, External morphology of Lepidoptera, Eyespot (mimicry), Fairy, Family (biology), Feather, Ferdinand Ochsenheimer, Fiji, Fire, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Flour, Flower constancy, Flowering plant, Fly, Forest tent caterpillar moth, Fungus, Fur, Fur Formation, Galleria mellonella, Gamete, Gelechioidea, Geometer moth, Geometroidea, Georg Friedrich Treitschke, George Hampson, German language, Germination, Gill, Gland, Glossata, Glyptapanteles, Goblet cell, Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Gracillarioidea, Great tit, Gynaephora groenlandica, Hail Horror Hail, Hair, Hawaii, Heart and Dart, Hedylidae, Heliconius, Helicoverpa, Helicoverpa zea, Hemocyte, Hemolymph, Hepialidae, Herbivore, Heterobathmioidea, Heterotroph, Himalayas, History of silk, Holocene, Holometabolism, Honeycomb, Honeydew (secretion), Horizon, Hornet, Human digestive system, Hummingbird, Humus, Hymenoptera, Hyposmocoma molluscivora, Ignaz Schiffermüller, Imago, Indomalaya ecozone, Insect, Insect mouthparts, Insect physiology, Insect trap, Instar, Iowa State University, Jacob Hübner, Jaguar, Johan Christian Fabricius, Journal of Ethnobiology, Junonia coenia, Jurassic, Keratin, Kermes (insect), Kidney, Korean cuisine, Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things, Kyoto, Lafcadio Hearn, Larva, Lasiocampidae, Latin, Leaf, Leaf miner, Leafhopper, Lepidoptera genitalia, Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Lepidopterist, Lesser wax moth, Limenitidinae, Lineage (evolution), Linen, Lionel Jack Dumbleton, List of butterflies of Australia, List of butterflies of Great Britain, List of butterflies of India, List of butterflies of Minorca, List of butterflies of North America, List of butterflies of Taiwan, List of butterflies of Trinidad and Tobago, List of feeding behaviours, List of moths, Lizard, Lonomia, Luis Buñuel, Lycaenidae, Lymantria dispar dispar, Mach bands, Macrolepidoptera, Maggot, Maguey worm, Mandible (insect mouthpart), Marchantiophyta, Mating, Maya civilization, Müllerian mimicry, Mesoamerica, Mesothorax, Metabolism, Metamorphosis, Metathorax, Mexican jumping bean, Mexico, Michael Denis, Michael S. 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Expand index (425 more) » « Shrink index
The luna moth (Actias luna) is a lime-green, Nearctic Saturniid moth in the family Saturniidae, subfamily Saturniinae.
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In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
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The Afrotropic is one of the Earth's eight ecozones.
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Agasicles hygrophila is a species of leaf beetle known by the common name alligator weed flea beetle.
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Agathiphaga is a genus of moths in the family Agathiphagidae, known as kauri moths.
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Agathiphaga queenslandensis is a moth of the Agathiphagidae family.
Agathiphaga vitiensis, or the Fiji kauri moth, is a moth of the Agathiphagidae family.
Agathis, commonly known as kauri or dammar, is a relatively small genus of 21 species of evergreen tree.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Alternanthera philoxeroides, commonly known as alligator weed, is an emergent aquatic plant.
The American painted lady or American lady (Vanessa virginiensis)Marrku Savela's Website on Lepidoptera is a butterfly found throughout North America.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) is a non-profit organization of scientists, clinicians, students and program professionals whose longstanding mission is to promote global health through the prevention and control of infectious and other diseases that disproportionately afflict the global poor.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
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Amphiesmenoptera is an insect superorder, established by S. G. Kiriakoff, but often credited to Willi Hennig in his revision of insect taxonomy for two sister orders: Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and Trichoptera (caddisflies).
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Andrey V. Martynov (1879 – 1938) was a Russian entomologist and palaeontologist, a founder of the Russian palaeoentomological school.
Animal navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments.
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Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, is the non-profit publisher of a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.
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Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
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Antheraea is a moth genus belonging to the family Saturniidae.
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Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human form or other characteristics to beings other than humans, particularly deities and animals.
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The Statira Sulphur, Aphrissa statira, is a species of lepidoptera in the family Pieridae.
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The Apollo or Mountain Apollo (Parnassius apollo), is a butterfly of the Papilionidae family.
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Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σ̑ημα sema sign, coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890. Foldout "The Colours of Animals Classified According to Their Uses", after page 339.), perhaps most commonly known in the context of warning coloration, describes a family of antipredator adaptations where a warning signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators.
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An aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in water for most or all of its life.
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Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
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Archaeolepis mane is the earliest known Lepidopteran fossil.
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Arcola malloi (formerly Vogtia malloi) is a species of snout moth known as the alligator weed stem borer.
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The Arctiinae (formerly called the Arctiidae) are a large and diverse subfamily of moths, with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Asphyxia or asphyxiation (from Ancient Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart)) is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.
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Atopy Greek ἀτοπία - placelessness, out of place, special, unusual, extraordinary) or atopic syndrome is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy may have a hereditary component, although contact with the allergen must occur before the hypersensitivity reaction can develop. The term "atopy" was coined by Coca and Cooke in 1923. Many physicians and scientists use the term "atopy" for any IgE-mediated reaction (even those that are appropriate and proportional to the antigen), but many pediatricians reserve the word "atopy" for a genetically mediated predisposition to an excessive IgE reaction.
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The Atlas moth (Attacus atlas) is a large saturniid moth found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, and is common across the Malay archipelago.
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The Australasian zone is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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The Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) is an online catalogue of taxonomic and biological information on all animal species known to occur within Australia.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
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The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries.
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The Psychidae (bagworm moths, also simply bagworms or bagmoths) are a family of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).
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The Baltic region is home to the largest known deposit of amber, called Baltic amber or succinite.
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The bamboos are a subfamily (Bambusoideae) of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae.
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In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
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Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry typified by a situation where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator.
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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera.
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Beondegi (번데기) is a snack food in Korean cuisine.
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Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another.
In biology, a life cycle is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.
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A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
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Birdwings are butterflies in the Swallowtail family, that belong to the genera Trogonoptera, Troides, and Ornithoptera.
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Biscuit is a term used for a variety of baked, commonly flour-based food products.
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Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences), is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Blepharipa is a genus of flies in the family Tachinidae.
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Bombycoidea is the name of a superfamily of moths.
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Bombyx mandarina, the wild silkmoth, is an insect from the moth family Bombycidae.
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The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
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Bradypodicola hahneli is a sloth moth in the Pyralidae family that lives exclusively in the fur of the Pale-throated Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), a three-toed sloth found in South America.
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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
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Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
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Breathing is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs, or oxygen through other respiratory organs such as gills.
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A bumblebee, also written bumble bee, is a member of the bee genus Bombus, in the family Apidae.
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Butterflies are part of the class of insects in the order Lepidoptera, along with the moths.
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Butterfly gardening is designed to create an environment that attracts butterflies, as well as certain moths.
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Butterfly ranching in Papua New Guinea is a method for sustainable use of insect biodiversity endorsed and supported by the national government.
Cactoblastis cactorum, commonly known as the Cactus Moth, South American Cactus Moth, or Nopal Moth, is native to Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil.
The caddisflies are an order, Trichoptera, of insects with approximately 12,000 described species.
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The Cambridge Philosophical Society (CPS) is a scientific society at the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
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Carnia (Cjargne or Cjargna/Cjargno in local variants, Ciargna, Karnien) is a historical-geographic region in the northeastern Italian area of Friuli.
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A carnivore meaning 'meat eater' (Latin, caro meaning 'meat' or 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour') is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
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Casein (or, from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
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Caterpillar is the common name for the larvae of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
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Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient art and science of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
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Censers are any type of vessels made for burning incense.
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Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.
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In humans and most mammals, the chorion is one of the membranes that exist during pregnancy between the developing fetus and mother.
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The Cicadoidea, cicadas, are a superfamily of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (formerly part of the obsolete "Homoptera"), along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers.
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The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e. "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors.
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In biology, a clasper is a male anatomical structure found in some groups of animals, used in mating.
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In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animal species, opening at the vent.
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Coagulopathy (also called a clotting disorder) is a condition in which the blood’s ability to coagulate (form clots) is impaired.
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In biology, coevolution is "the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object".
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In ecology, commensalism is a class of relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it.
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A common classification of the Lepidoptera involves their differentiation into butterflies and moths.
Compsilura concinnata (tachinid fly; order Diptera) is a parasitoid native to Europe that was introduced to North America in 1906 to control the population of an exotic forest, univoltine, gypsy moth named Lymantria dispar.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids).
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Coprophagia or coprophagy is the consumption of feces.
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The corpus allatum (plural: corpora allata), in insect physiology, is an endocrine gland which generates juvenile hormone; as such, it plays a crucial role in metamorphosis.
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The Cosmopterigidae are a family of insects (cosmet moths) in the Lepidoptera order.
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Cossidae, the cossid millers or carpenter millers, make up a family of mostly large miller moths.
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Costa Rica (literally meaning, "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.
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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.
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Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (i.e., dawn and dusk).
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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.
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A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
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Cryptoses choloepi is a sloth moth in the snout moth family that lives exclusively in the fur of sloths, mammals found in South and Central America.
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Cydia deshaisiana or jumping bean moth is a moth from Mexico that is most widely known as its larva, where it inhabits the carpels of seeds from several species of the shrub genus Sebastiania (S. pavoniana or S. palmeri).
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David A. Grimaldi (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
The name Death's-head Hawkmoth refers to any one of the three moth species of the genus Acherontia (Acherontia atropos, Acherontia styx and Acherontia lachesis).
The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts was an Australian Government department that existed between December 2007 and September 2010.
Detritivores, also known as detritophages, detritus feeders, detritus eaters, or saprophages, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
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In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
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Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
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In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure, which splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.
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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
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The Ditrysia are a natural group or clade of insects in the Lepidopteran order containing both butterflies and moths.
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Diurnality is a plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day and sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
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The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is a pigeon that was derived from the rock pigeon.
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Dorset (or archaically, Dorsetshire), is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
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A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, suborder Anisoptera (from Greek ανισος anisos "uneven" + πτερος pteros, "wings", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
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Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period.
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Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior to where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates.
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Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands.
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An ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.
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Edward Meyrick FRS (24 November 1854 – 31 March 1938) was an English schoolmaster and amateur entomologist.
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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches.
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The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human consumption of insects as food: human insectivory.
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Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen or spores are distributed by insects.
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The Eocene (symbol E&thinsp) Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
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Epimartyria is a genus of small primitive metallic moths in the insect order Lepidoptera within the family Micropterigidae.
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The Epipyropidae comprise a small family of moths.
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Eriocraniidae is a family of moths restricted to the Holarctic region, with six extant genera.
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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
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Eupithecia is a large genus of moths of the family Geometridae.
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The Large Grass Yellow or Common Grass Yellow (Eurema hecabe) is a small pierid butterfly species found in Asia or Africa.
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In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is an evolutionary struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race, which could be, and often are, described as examples of positive feedback.
The external morphology of Lepidoptera is the physiological structure of the bodies of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, also known as butterflies and moths.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
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A fairy (also fay, fae, fair folk; from faery, faerie, "realm of the fays") is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.
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In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.
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Ferdinand Ochsenheimer (17 March 1767 – 2 November 1822) was a German actor and entomologist (lepidopterist).
Fiji (Viti; फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी Ripablik ăph Phījī), is an island country in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
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Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
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The Florissant Fossil Bed National Monument is a national monument located in Teller County, Colorado.
Flour is a powder made by grinding uncooked cereal grains or other seeds or roots (like cassava).
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Flower constancy or pollinator constancy is defined as the tendency of individual pollinators to exclusively visit certain flower species or morphs within a species, bypassing other available flower species that could potentially be more rewarding (i.e. contain more nectar).
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The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.
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True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di.
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The forest tent caterpillar moth (Malacosoma disstria) is a North American moth found throughout the United States and Canada, especially in the eastern regions.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.
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Fur is used in reference to the hair of animals, usually mammals, particularly those with extensive body hair coverage.
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The Fur Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (Lower Eocene Epoch, c. 56.0-54.5 Ma) age which crops out in the Limfjord region of Denmark from Silstrup via Mors and Fur to Ertebølle, and can be seen in many cliffs and quarries in the area.
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The greater wax moth or honeycomb moth (Galleria mellonella) is a moth of the family Pyralidae.
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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
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Gelechioidea (from the type genus Gelechia, "resting on the ground") is the superfamily of moths that contains the case-bearers, twirler moths, and relatives, also simply called curved-horn moths or gelechioid moths.
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The geometer moths or Geometridae (from Greek geo γη or γαια 'the earth' and metron μέτρων 'measure' — refers to the larvae, or inchworms, which appear to "measure the earth" as they move in a looping fashion) are a family of the order Lepidoptera.
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Geometroidea is the superfamily of geometrid moths in the Lepidoptera.
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Georg Friedrich Treitschke (29 August 1776 – 4 June 1842) was a German librettist, translator and lepidopterist.
Sir George Francis Hampson, 10th Baronet (14 January 1860 – 15 October 1936) was a British entomologist.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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Germination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed.
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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
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A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance such as hormones for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
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Glossata (Fabricius, 1775) is the suborder of the insect order Lepidoptera that includes all the superfamilies of moths and butterflies that have a coilable proboscis.
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Glyptapanteles is a genus of endoparasitoid wasp found in Central and North America.
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A goblet cell is a glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cell whose function is to secrete gel-forming mucins, the major components of mucus.
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Dr Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer (17 December 1799 – 14 April 1874) was a German entomologist and physician.
Gracillarioidea is a large superfamily containing four families of insects in the order Lepidoptera.
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The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.
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Gynaephora groenlandica, the Arctic woolly bear moth, is a lymantriid moth found within the Arctic circle, in Greenland and Canada.
Hail Horror Hail is an album by the band Sigh.
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Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis, or skin.
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Hawaii (locally,; Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959.
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The Heart and Dart (Agrotis exclamationis) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
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Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea.
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Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterfly commonly known as the longwings or heliconians. This genus is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World, from South America as far north as the southern United States. The larvae of these butterflies eat Passion flower vines (Passifloraceae). Adults exhibit bright wing color patterns to signal their distastefulness to potential predators. Brought to the forefront of scientific attention by Victorian naturalists, these butterflies exhibit a striking diversity and mimicry, both amongst themselves and with species in other groups of butterflies and moths. The study of Heliconius and other groups of mimetic butterflies allowed the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates, following his return from Brazil in 1859, to lend support to Charles Darwin, who had found similar diversity amongst the Galapagos Finches.
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Helicoverpa is a genus of moth in the Noctuidae family.
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Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.
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A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates.
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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.
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The Hepialidae are a family of insects in the lepidopteran order.
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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
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The Heterobathmioidea are a superfamily of the Lepidoptera, comprising the single family Heterobathmiidae, which itself contains only a single genus, Heterobathmia.
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A heterotroph (ἕτερος heteros.
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The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.
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The production of silk originates in China in the Neolithic (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BCE).
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The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years BP and continues to the present.
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Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages – as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult.
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A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.
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Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky liquid, secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap.
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The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.
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Hornets are insects, and the largest eusocial wasps.
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In the human digestive system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth (oral cavity).
The Hummingbirds are New World birds that constitute the family Trochilidae.
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In soil science, humus (coined 1790–1800; from the Latin humus: earth, ground) refers to the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly influences the bulk density of soil and contributes to moisture and nutrient retention.
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The Hymenoptera are the third largest orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants.
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Hyposmocoma molluscivora is a Hawaiian moth whose larvae are predators, capturing snails in their silk, much like a hunting spider's web, and then crawling inside the snail's shell to eat it alive.
Ignaz Schiffermüller (born 2 October 1727 in Hellmonsödt; died 21 June 1806 in Linz) was an Austrian naturalist mainly interested in Lepidoptera.
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In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.
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The Indomalaya ecozone is one of the eight ecozones.It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.
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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.
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Insects exhibit a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.
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Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.
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Insect traps are used to monitor or directly reduce populations of insects or other arthropods.
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An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.
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Iowa State University of Science and Technology, more commonly known as Iowa State University, Iowa State, or ISU, is a public land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Jacob Hübner (20 June 1761 – 13 September 1826, in Augsburg) was a German entomologist.
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The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas.
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Johan Christian Fabricius (7 January 1745 – 3 March 1808) was a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", which at that time included all arthropods: insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others.
The Journal of Ethnobiology is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering ethnobiology.
The common buckeye or simply, buckeye, (Junonia coenia) is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae.
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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) is a geologic period and system that extends from 201.3± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145± 4 Ma; from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous.
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Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins.
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Kermes is a genus of scale insects in the order Hemiptera.
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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
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Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.
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, often shortened to Kwaidan, is a book by Lafcadio Hearn that features several Japanese ghost stories and a brief non-fiction study on insects.
, formerly known as Meaco, is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu, Japan.
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Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (27 June 1850 – 26 September 1904), known also by the Japanese name, was an international writer, known best for his books about Japan, especially his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things.
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A larva (plural larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
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The Lasiocampidae are a family of moths also known as eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
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A leaf miner is the larva of an insect that lives in and eats the leaf tissue of plants.
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Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae.
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The study of the genitalia of Lepidoptera is important for Lepidoptera taxonomy in addition to development, anatomy and natural history.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta".
A lepidopterist or aurelian is a person who specialises in the study of Lepidoptera, members of an order encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies.
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Achroia grisella, the lesser wax moth, is a small moth of the snout moth family (Pyralidae), wherein it belongs to the subfamily Galleriinae.
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The Limenitidinae ares a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives.
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An evolutionary lineage is a sequence of species, that form a line of descent, each new species the direct result of speciation from an immediate ancestral species.
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Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum.
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Lionel Jack Dumbleton (1905 – 25 September 1976) was a New Zealand entomologist.
Australia has more than 400 species of butterfly, the majority of which are continental species, and more than a dozen endemic species from remote islands administered by various Australian territorial governments.
This is a list of butterflies of Great Britain, including extinct, naturalised species and those of dubious origin.
India has extremly diverse terrain, climate and vegetation, which comprises extremes of heat and butterfly is found inside volcanoes and under water and land cold, of desert and jungle, of low lying plains and the highest mountains, of dryness and dampness, islands and continental areas, widely varying flora, and sharply marked seasons.
Minorca is a small island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain, with a population of approximately 88,000.
This list includes all of the common and scientific names of butterflies of North America north of Mexico.
At least 377 species of butterfly have been recorded in Taiwan, with some reports putting the number at over 400.
The combined efforts of generations of resident and visiting naturalists have helped to make the butterfly fauna of Tobago well known.
Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food.
This is an incomplete list of species of Lepidoptera that are commonly known as moths.
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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with approximately over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
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The genus Lonomia is a moderate-sized group of fairly cryptic saturniid moths from South America, famous not for the adults, but for their highly venomous caterpillars, which are responsible for a few deaths each year, especially in southern Brazil, and the subject of hundreds of published medical studies.
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Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
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Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 5,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies.
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Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin.
Mach bands is an optical illusion named after the physicist Ernst Mach. It exaggerates the contrast between edges of the slightly differing shades of gray, as soon as they contact one another, by triggering edge-detection in the human visual system.
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Macrolepidoptera is a group within the insect order Lepidoptera.
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A maggot is the larva of a fly (order Diptera); it is applied in particular to the larvae of Brachyceran flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies, rather than larvae of the Nematocera, such as mosquitoes and Crane flies.
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The maguey worm, scientific name Aegiale hesperiaris, (gu'sanos de magei chinicuil), is one of two varieties of edible caterpillars that infest maguey (''Agave americana'') and Agave tequilana plants.
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Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular bryophyte land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
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In biology, mating is the pairing of opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
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Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more poisonous species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals.
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Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
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The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs.
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Mexican jumping beans (also known as frijoles saltarines in Spanish), native to Mexico, are seed pods that have been inhabited by the larva of a small moth (Cydia deshaisiana).
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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Johann Nepomuk Cosmas Michael Denis, also: Sined the Bard, (27 September 1729 – 29 September 1800) was an Austrian poet, bibliographer, and lepidopterist.
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Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.
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Microlepidoptera (micromoths) is an artificial (i.e., unranked and not monophyletic) grouping of moth families, commonly known as the 'smaller moths' (micro, Lepidoptera).
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Micropterigoidea is the superfamily of "mandibulate archaic moths", all placed in the single family Micropterigidae, containing currently about 20 living genera.
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Micropterix is a genus of small primitive metallic moths in the insect order Lepidoptera within the family Micropterigidae that is distributed across Europe south to North Africa and east as far as Japan.
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A micropyle is a pore in the membrane covering the ovum, through which a sperm enters.
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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.
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Midges are a group of insects that include many kinds of small flies.
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Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies.
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Mimallonoidea is the superfamily of sack bearer moths, containing the single family Mimallonidae.
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In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one species to another that protects one or both.
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Mnesarchaeoidea is a superfamily of "New Zealand primitive moths" containing one family, Mnesarchaeidae and a single genus, Mnesarchaea, endemic to New Zealand.
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The Moclay (Moclay.
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The Commander (Moduza procris), sometimes included in the genus Limenitis), is a medium-sized, strikingly coloured brush-footed butterfly found in Asia. It is notable for the mode of concealment employed by its caterpillar and the cryptic camouflage of its pupa.
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The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
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In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.
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The Monotrysia is a group of insects in the Lepidopteran order which is not currently considered to be a natural group or clade.
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Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
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The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.
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Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
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Moths are a group of insects related to butterflies belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
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A mucous membrane or mucosa (plural, mucosae or mucosas; Latin tunica mucosa) is a lining of mostly endodermal origin.
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A museum (/mjuˈziːəm/; ''myoo-'''zee'''-um'') is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.
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Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
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Myrmica is a genus of ants within the subfamily Myrmicinae.
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The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Natural History Museum in London is a museum exhibiting a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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Naturwissenschaften, The Science of Nature is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.
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The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones constituting the Earth's land surface.
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Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
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The Neotropic ecozone is one of the eight ecozones constituting the Earth's land surface.
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Nepticulidae is a family of very small moths with a worldwide distribution.
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Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds in the family Caprimulgidae, characterized by long wings, short legs and very short bills.
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The Noctuidae or owlet moths are a family of robustly built moths that includes more than 35,000 known species out of possibly 100,000 total, in more than 4,200 genera.
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Noctuoidea is the superfamily of noctuid (Latin "night owl") or "owlet" moths, and has more than 70000 described species, the largest number of for any Lepidopteran superfamily.
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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day.
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The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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Northumbrian was a dialect of the Old English language spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.
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Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 36 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).
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A noxious weed or injurious weed is a weed that has been designated by an agricultural authority as one that is injurious to agricultural or horticultural crops, natural habitats or ecosystems, or humans or livestock.
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The Nymphalidae are the largest family of butterflies with about 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world.
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Nymphalis antiopa, known as the Mourning Cloak in North America and the Camberwell Beauty in Britain, is a large butterfly native to Eurasia and North America.
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Ocybadistes walkeri, commonly known as the Greenish Grass-dart, Green Grass-dart, Southern Dart or Yellow-banded Dart, is a type of butterfly known as a Skipper found in eastern and southern Australia, with one subspecies found in the Northern Territory.
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Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English-language journal published by Springer since 1968 (some articles were published in German or French until 1976).
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.
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An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
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Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
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In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
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The osmeterium is a defensive organ found in all Papilionid larvae, in all stages.
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Osteochondritis is a painful type of osteochondrosis where the cartilage or bone in a joint is inflamed.
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Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
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The ovipositor is an organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs.
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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
The Cynthia group of colourful butterflies, commonly called painted ladies, comprises a subgenus of the genus Vanessa in the Family Nymphalidae.
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The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones constituting the Earth's surface.
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The Paleocene (or; symbol Pε&thinsp) or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geologic epoch that lasted from about.
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Panama (Panamá), officially called the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America situated between North and South America.
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The Giant African Swallowtail (Papilio antimachus) is a butterfly in the family Papilionidae.
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The common Mormon (Papilio polytes) is a common species of swallowtail butterfly widely distributed across Asia.
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The western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus) is a common swallowtail butterfly of western North America, frequently seen in urban parks and gardens, as well as in rural woodlands and riparian areas.
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The superfamily Papilionoidea (from the genus Papilio, meaning "butterfly") contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea.
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In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.
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Parasetigena is a genus of flies in the family Tachinidae.
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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
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A parasitoid is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host.
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The term parasitoid wasp refers to a large evolutionary grade of hymenopteran superfamilies, mainly in the Apocrita.
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Siberian Apollo Parnassius arcticus is a high altitude butterfly which is found in NE.
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Common Red Apollo Parnassius epaphus is a high altitude butterfly which is found in India and Nepal.
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Patterns in nature are visible regularities of form found in the natural world.
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The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.
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A pest is "a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns (as agriculture or livestock production)"; alternative meanings include organisms that cause nuisance and epidemic disease associated with high mortality (specifically: plague).
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Phalaena is an obsolete genus of Lepidoptera used by Carl Linnaeus to house most moths.
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The Phengaris rebeli (formerly Maculinea rebeli), common name Mountain Alcon Blue, is a species of butterfly in the Lycaenidae family.
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A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism that may be inherited, be environmentally determined or be a combination of the two.
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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
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A pheromone trap is a type of insect trap that uses pheromones to lure insects.
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Philipp Christoph Zeller (8 April 1808 – 27 March 1883) was a German entomologist.
A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.
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Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.
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The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies with about 76 genera containing about 1,100 species, mostly from tropical Africa and tropical Asia with some varieties in the more northern regions of North America.
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The large white, Pieris brassicae, also called cabbage butterfly, cabbage white, cabbage moth (erroneously), or in India the large cabbage white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae.
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Pierre André Latreille (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
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PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
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PLOS ONE (originally PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
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Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation.
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Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).
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Pollination is a process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction.
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A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
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Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (derived from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).
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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.
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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
The Prodoxidae are a family of moths, generally small in size and nondescript in appearance.
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Prodryas persephone is an extinct butterfly, known from a single specimen from the Chadronian-aged Florissant Shale Lagerstatte of Late Eocene Colorado.
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A proleg is a small, fleshy, stub structure found on the ventral surface of the abdomen of most larval forms of insects of the order Lepidoptera, though they can also be found on other larval insects such as sawflies and a few types of flies.
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Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered.
The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs.
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The Zebra Swallowtail (Protographium marcellus, formerly listed under genera Eurytides, Iphiclides, Graphium and Papilio by some authorities) is a swallowtail butterfly native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada.
A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation.
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The Pyralidae or snout moths are a family of Lepidoptera in the ditrysian superfamily Pyraloidea.
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The Pyraloidea (pyraloid moths) are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide (Munroe & Solis 1998), and probably at least as many more remain to be described.
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Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in Australia.
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Red-bodied swallowtails are butterflies in the Swallowtail family, that belong to the genera Atrophaneura, Byasa, Losaria, or Pachliopta.
The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.
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The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, Sakha Öröspǖbülükete) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
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Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Dalí de Pubol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
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Samuel Hubbard Scudder (April 13, 1837 – May 17, 1911) was an American entomologist and palaeontologist.
The friendly fly or large flesh fly, Sarcophaga aldrichi, is a fly that is a parasitoid of the forest tent caterpillar.
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In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
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The presence of scales on the wings of Lepidoptera, comprising moths and butterflies, characterises this order of insects.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
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A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.
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A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of daylight.
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Sebastiania is a genus of flowering plants in the family Euphorbiaceae first described in 1821.
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Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
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The Sesiidae or clearwing moths are a family of the Lepidoptera in most species of which the wings partially have hardly any of the normal lepidopteran scales, leaving them transparent.
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A sex organ or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any anatomical part of the body involved in sexual reproduction and constituting the reproductive system in a complex organism, especially the external sex organs; the external sex organs are also commonly referred to as the genitalia or genitals.
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Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species.
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Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where typically members of one gender choose mates of the other gender to mate with, called intersexual selection, and where females normally do the choosing, and competition between members of the same gender to sexually reproduce with members of the opposite sex, called intrasexual selection.
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is a Japanese extreme metal band from Tokyo, formed in 1989.
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Silene latifolia (formerly Melandrium album), or White Campion, is a dioecious flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to most of Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa.
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Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
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The Silver Y (Autographa gamma) is a migratory moth of the family Noctuidae which is named for the silvery Y-shaped mark on each of its forewings.
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A skipper or skipper butterfly is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae.
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Sloths are medium-sized mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae (two-toed sloth) and Bradypodidae (three-toed sloth), classified into six species.
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A sloth moth is a coprophagous moth which has evolved to exclusively inhabit the fur of sloths and to use sloth dung as a substrate for the early stages of reproduction.
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Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (also known as SEL) is the European society for the study of moths and butterflies and for the conservation of these insects and their natural habitats.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
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The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions, immortal essence of a living thing.
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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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The Sphingidae are a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths, and hornworms; it includes about 1,450 species.
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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
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A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word coppe, meaning "spider") is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets.
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A spinneret is a silk-spinning organ of a spider or the larva of an insect.
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Spodoptera is a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae.
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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
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The stigma is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
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Structural coloration is the production of colour by microscopically structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments.
Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, and include over 550 species.Though the majority are tropical, members of the family inhabit every continent except Antarctica.
Symbiosis (from Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species.
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Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
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The Polka-Dot Wasp Moth (Syntomeida epilais) is a species of moth thought to be native to the Caribbean.
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(sometimes written with the ligature æ) was one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
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was a samurai in the Heian period of Japan, who led a rebellion against the central government of Kyoto.
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In biological classification, rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
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Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
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Tegeticula is a genus of moths of the Prodoxidae family, one of three genera known as Yucca moths; they are mutualistic pollinators of various Yucca species.
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In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.
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Teotihuacan, also written Teotihuacán (Spanish), was an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
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Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or some crabs).
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A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.
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The Canadian Entomologist is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of entomology.
The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 American thriller film that blends elements of the crime and horror genres.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
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Thymelicus is a Palearctic genus in the skipper butterfly family, Hesperiidae.
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Tinea is a genus of the fungus moth family, Tineidae.
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The case-bearing clothes moth (Tinea pellionella) is a species of tineoid moth in the family Tineidae, the fungus moths.
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Tineidae is a family of moths in the order Lepidoptera.
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Tineoidea is the superfamily of moths that includes clothes moths, bagworms and relatives.
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Tineola bisselliella, known as the common clothes moth, webbing clothes moth, or simply clothing moth, is a species of fungus moth (family Tineidae, subfamily Tineinae).
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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red berry-type fruit of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
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Tornatellides is a genus of minute, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial gastropod mollusks, or micromolluscs in the family Achatinellidae.
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Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
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Tortricidae is a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths or leafroller moths, in the order Lepidoptera.
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The trachea, colloquially called windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
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Transverse orientation, keeping a fixed angle on a distant source of light for orientation, is a proprioceptive response displayed by some insects such as moths.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from roughly 250 to 200 Mya (to million years ago), an interval of 51.04 million years.
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Trichophaga tapetzella, the tapestry moth or carpet moth, is a moth of the Tineidae family.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
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A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in North Central Florida.
The University of Minnesota Twin Cities (Minnesota; locally known as the U of M or simply the U) is a public research university located in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota.
The Urania Swallowtail Moth (Urania fulgens) is a day-flying moth of the Uraniidae family.
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The Uraniidae are a family of moths containing four subfamilies, ninety genera, and roughly seven-hundred species.
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Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, "nettle" from urere, "to burn"), commonly referred to as hives, is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps.
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The Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) is a well-known colourful butterfly, found in temperate Europe, Asia and North America.
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Vanuatu (or; Bislama), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is an Oceanian island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
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The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico.
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Voltinism is a term used in biology to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year.
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Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
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A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
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Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures.
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Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide.
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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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Emil Hans Willi Hennig (April 20, 1913 – November 5, 1976) was a German biologist who is considered the founder of phylogenetic systematics, also known as cladistics.
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A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid.
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Yponomeutoidea is a superfamily of Ermine moths and relatives.
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Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae.
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The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
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Zenodochium is a genus of moth in the Blastobasidae family.
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The Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of zoology published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Linnean Society.
The ZW sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including komodo dragons.
Zygaena is a genus of moths in the Zygaenidae family.
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The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.