454 relations: Acehnese language, Acronym, Affricate consonant, Africa, Afrikaans, Agan Tavas, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Alphabetical order, Alsatian dialect, Alveolar flap, Alveolar trill, American English, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Saxon runes, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Arbëresh language, Aspirated consonant, Asturian language, Athabaskan languages, Austria, Austronesian languages, Aymara language, Ḏāl, Ü, Bambara language, Bantu languages, Bari language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Belgium, Beta, Bezoar, Bindaetteok, Boa, Bohorič alphabet, Bouyei language, Breathy voice, Breton language, British English, Burro, C, Cameroon, Cantonese, Cantonese Pinyin, Castilian Spanish, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, ..., Ch (digraph), Chamorro language, Chechen language, Chinese language, Chipewyan language, Chuuk Lagoon, Classical Nahuatl language, Click consonant, Close front unrounded vowel, Close-mid back rounded vowel, Cnidaria, Coaxial, Colloquial Welsh morphology, Consonant gradation, Consonant mutation, Cornish language, Coronal consonant, Creaky voice, Cusco, Cyrillic script, Czech, Czech language, D, Daighi tongiong pingim, Dalmatian language, Danish language, Dž, Devanagari, Dialect, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Double articulation, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dz (digraph), E, Ealdorman, Ear (rune), Eastern Romance languages, Edward Lhuyd, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, English language, English orthography, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Etymology, Europe, Faroese language, Faroese orthography, Fief, Final-obstruent devoicing, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, French language, French orthography, Front vowel, Fula language, Gaels, Galician language, Gallo language, Gemination, General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages, Genitive case, Geodesy, Geoduck, German language, German orthography, German orthography reform of 1996, Germanic languages, Germany, Gh (digraph), Gheg Albanian, Gilbertese language, Gje, Glottal stop, Glottalization, Gogo language, Goidelic languages, Great Vowel Shift, Greek language, Greenlandic language, Grimm's law, Guinea, Guinean languages alphabet, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Hadza language, Han-u, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hepburn romanization, Heteronym (linguistics), Hexagraph, Hmong language, Hoppang, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian language, Hungarian ly, I before E except after C, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Igbo language, IJ (digraph), Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-Aryan languages, Indonesian language, Interjection, Interlingua, International auxiliary language, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interrogative word, Inuktitut, Iraqw language, Irish initial mutations, Irish language, Irish orthography, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italo-Western languages, J, Japanese language, Jasper Fforde, John Boehner, Jyutping, Kabyle language, Kalahari Desert, Kaph, Kashubian alphabet, Kashubian language, Kernewek Kemmyn, Kernowek Standard, Kesva an Taves Kernewek, Kha (Cyrillic), Khoekhoe language, Kkakdugi, Kongo language, Korean language, Kosraean language, L, Labial consonant, Labial-velar nasal, Labialization, Labialized velar consonant, Labiodental flap, Lakota language, Laminal consonant, Language, Languages of Africa, Languages of Oceania, Lateral clicks, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin epsilon, Latin script in Unicode, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Latinism, Latvian language, Lecanvey, Leet, Lenition, Limburgish language, Lingala, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, List of Latin-script digraphs, List of Latin-script letters, List of Latin-script trigraphs, Lithuanian language, Lje, Ljudevit Gaj, Ll, Loanword, Lombard language, Long s, Luba-Kasai language, Luxembourgish language, Macedonian alphabet, MacLeod, Malagasy language, Malay language, Maltese language, Mandarin Chinese, Matt Groening, Matthäus, Matthew (name), Māori language, Meerschaum, Meru language, Mi'kmaq language, Mid central vowel, Middle English, Middle High German, Modern Standard Arabic, Monophthong, Mpumpong language, Mu (letter), Nahuatl, Nambikwara language, Naro language, Nasal clicks, Nasal release, Nasal vowel, Navajo language, Nephew and niece, Netherlands, Nh (digraph), Nje, Noah Webster, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Nuosu language, Ny (digraph), Oaths of Strasbourg, Occidental language, Occitan language, Oedipus, Old English, Old High German, Old Irish, Open O, Open-mid back unrounded vowel, Ossetian language, Palatal approximant, Palatal clicks, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Palatal nasal click, Palatalization (phonetics), Palatalization (sound change), Papua New Guinea, Pashto, Pentagraph, Persian alphabet, Pharyngealization, Phi, Philippine languages, Philippines, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Pi (letter), Piedmontese language, Pinyin, Pitjantjatjara dialect, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Polish orthography, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Pre-stopped consonant, Prenasalized consonant, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Pterosaur, Pular language, Purépecha language, Quechuan languages, Question, Rangi language, Redruth, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Retroflex flap, Revised Romanization of Korean, Rheinische Dokumenta, Romance languages, Romani alphabets, Romanian alphabet, Romanization of Arabic, Romanization of Macedonian, Romanized Popular Alphabet, Rose ffrench, 1st Baroness ffrench, Rowlock, S with swash tail, Sagñay, Camarines Sur, Sandawe language, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Sephardi Hebrew, Serbo-Croatian, Seri language, Sh (digraph), Shona language, Sibilant, Sj-sound, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Sorbian alphabet, South America, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish orthography, Spelling reform, Standard Written Form, Standard Zhuang, Stephen, Stress (linguistics), Sundanese language, Swahili language, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Switzerland, Sz (digraph), Taa language, Tagalog language, Tainan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tamil language, Taranaki, Tenuis alveolar click, Tenuis dental click, Tenuis lateral click, Tenuis palatal click, Tetragraph, Th (digraph), Thai language, Tibetan pinyin, Tlingit alphabet, Tlingit language, Tongan language, Tongyong Pinyin, Transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages, Transliteration, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Tsar, Tsunami, Tswana language, Tteokbokki, Tuvaluan language, Typographic ligature, Unicode equivalence, Upper Arrernte language, Uzbek language, Vassal, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Velarization, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolar implosive, Voiced alveolar lateral fricative, Voiced alveolar stop, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced bilabial implosive, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced glottal fricative, Voiced labial–velar stop, Voiced palatal stop, Voiced palato-alveolar affricate, Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant, Voiced retroflex affricate, Voiced retroflex sibilant, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless epiglottal trill, Voiceless labial–velar stop, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voiceless palatal affricate, Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate, Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant, Voiceless pharyngeal fricative, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Voiceless uvular fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, Wade–Giles, Walloon language, Warlpiri, Warlpiri language, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, West Africa, West Germanic languages, Westport, County Mayo, William Jordan (writer), Wolof language, Wuhan, X, Xhosa language, Y, Yale romanization of Cantonese, Yale romanization of Mandarin, Yanyuwa language, Yele language, Yeoman, Yogh, Z with swash tail, Zapotecan languages, Zhuang languages, Zulu language. 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Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Agan Tavas (Our Language) is a society which exists to promote the Cornish language and is represented on the Cornish Language Partnership.
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (literally Alsatian German); Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a region in eastern France which has passed between French and German control four times since 1871.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arbëreshë (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is an ethnolect spoken by the Arbëreshë, the Albanian ethnic and language group in Italy.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Asturian (autonym: asturianu,Art. 1 de la. or bable) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese subgroup, spoken in Asturias (Spain).
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.
The Austronesian languages is a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members on continental Asia.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and Ü ·
The Bambara (Bamana) language, Bamanankan, is a lingua franca of Mali spoken by perhaps 15 million people, 4 million Bambara people and about 10 million second-language users.
The Bantu languages, technically the Narrow Bantu languages, constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages.
Bari is the Nilotic language of the Karo people, spoken over large areas of Central Equatoria state in South Sudan, across the northwest corner of Uganda, and into the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
Beta (or; uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bḗta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system (Gastrolith, usually in the stomach), though it can occur in other locations.
Bindaetteok (also called nokdujeon or nokdu jijim; literally "mung bean pancake") is a variety of jeon, a Korean style pancake.
Boa, BoA, or BOA may refer to.
The Bohorič alphabet (bohoričica) was an orthography used for Slovene between the 16th and 19th centuries.
The Bouyei language (autonym: Haausqyaix also spelled Buyi, Buyei, or Puyi;, tiếng Bố Y or tiếng Giáy) is a language spoken by the Bouyei ethnic group of southern Guizhou Province in mainland China.
Breathy voice (also called murmured voice, soughing, or susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are held further apart, so that a larger volume of air escapes between them.
Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.
British English is the English language as spoken and written in Great Britain or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles.
In the Iberian Peninsula and the Americas, a burro is a small donkey.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and C ·
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
Cantonese Pinyin (also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Yu Bingzhao (余秉昭) in 1971, and subsequently modified by the Education Department (merged into the Education and Manpower Bureau since 2003) of Hong Kong and Zhan Bohui (詹伯慧).
In English, Castilian Spanish usually refers to the variety of European Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
Central Alaskan Yup'ik or just Yup'ik (also called Yupik, Central Yup'ik, or indigenously Yugtun) is one of the languages of Yupik family, in turn a member of the Eskimo–Aleut language group, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
Chamorro (Chamorro: Finu' Chamorro or Chamoru) is a Malayo-Polynesian language (Austronesian) spoken by about 47,000 people (about 35,000 people on Guam and about 12,000 in the Northern Mariana Islands).
The Chechen language (Нохчийн Мотт / Noxčiyn Mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
Chuuk Lagoon, also known as Truk Lagoon, is a sheltered body of water in the central Pacific.
Classical Nahuatl (also known as Aztec, and simply Nahuatl) is any of the variants of the Nahuatl language that were spoken in the Valley of Mexico — and central Mexico as a lingua franca — at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Clicks are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of southern Africa, and in three languages of East Africa.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English—although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong) – a purer sound is heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
In geometry, coaxial means that two or more three-dimensional linear forms share a common axis.
The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton.
Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation, in which consonants alternate between various "grades".
Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.
Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Czech may refer to.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
D (named dee) is the 4th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and D ·
Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
ǅ (titlecase form; all-capitals form Ǆ, lowercase ǆ) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Bosnian, Croatian, and Montenegrin, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and Dž ·
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
In linguistics, the term double articulation, first introduced by the French linguist André Martinet, or duality of patterning refers to the way in which the stream of speech can be divided into meaningful signs, which can be further subdivided into meaningless elements.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, Polish, Kashubian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Slovak, and Hungarian to represent.
E (named e, plural ees) is the 5th letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and E ·
An ealdorman (from Old English ealdorman, lit. "elder man"; plural: "ealdormen") is the term used for a high-ranking royal official and prior magistrate of an Anglo-Saxon shire or group of shires from about the ninth century to the time of King Cnut.
The Ear rune of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc is a late addition to the alphabet.
The Eastern Romance languages, in their narrow conception, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local variant of Vulgar Latin.
Edward Lhuyd (usually rewritten as Llwyd in recent times) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh language, also known as Fulani (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul) is a non-tonal language spoken as various closely related dialects, in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries of West and Central Africa.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.
Galician (or; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
In phonetics, gemination or consonant elongation happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant.
The General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages was created in the late 1970s as an orthographic system for all Cameroonian languages.
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.
Geodesy, — also known as geodetics or geodetics engineering — a branch of applied mathematics and earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space.
The Pacific geoduck ("gooey duck"), scientific name Panopea generosa, is a species of very large, edible, saltwater clam in the family Hiatellidae.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) was an attempt to simplify the spelling of the German language and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to all living users of the language.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
Gheg (or Geg) (Gegë) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
Taetae ni Kiribati or Gilbertese, also Kiribati (sometimes Kiribatese), is a Micronesian language of the Austronesian language family.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Gogo is a Bantu language spoken by the Gogo people of Dodoma Region in Tanzania.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha, cànanan Goidhealach, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1700.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
GreenlandicA minority of English language sources, primarily dated, have used the form "Greenlandish" influenced by the archaic Danish and Norwegian form "Grønlandisk".
Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country in West Africa.
Following independence, the government of Guinea adopted rules of transcription for the languages of Guinea based on the 26-letter basic Latin alphabet.
Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.
Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by fewer than a thousand Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.
Han-u (한우 in Korean, also Hanu, Hanwoo, or Korean native cattle) refers to a breed of cattle raised in Korea, Bos taurus coreanae, which may be a hybrid derived from the cross-breeding of ("Bos taurus") and ("Bos indicus").
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 35 million people, and as a second language by 15 million in Nigeria, and millions more in other countries, for a total of at least 50 million speakers.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
The is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887.
A heteronym (also known as a heterophone) is a word that is written identically but has a different pronunciation and meaning.
A hexagraph (from the ἕξ, héx, "six" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of six letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Hoppang is a warm snack sold throughout Korea.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Ly is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, used in Hungarian.
"I before E, except after C" is a mnemonic rule of thumb for English spelling.
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelt and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh archaically Ibo) (Igbo: Asụsụ Igbo), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
The IJ (lowercase ij) is the digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itself – although in most fonts that have a separate character for ij the two composing parts are not connected, but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people.
Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
In grammar, an interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions).
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, why and how.
Inuktitut (Inuktitut, syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk person + -titut like, in the manner of), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuit, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Iraqw is a Cushitic language spoken in Tanzania in the Arusha and Manyara Regions.
Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations.
Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
Italo-Western is, in some classifications, the largest branch of the Romance languages.
J is the 10th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and J ·
is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jasper Fforde (born 11 January 1961) is a British novelist.
John Andrew Boehner (born, 1949) is the 61st and current Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
Kabyle or Kabylian (native names: Taqbaylit,, Tamaziɣt Taqbaylit, or Tazwawt) is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kalahari Desert (in Afrikaans: Kalahari-woestyn) is a large semi-arid sandy savannah in:southern Africa extending, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia (previously South West Africa), and South Africa.
Kaph (also spelled kaf) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
The Kashubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a language variety of the Lechitic group, of the Slavic languages.
Kernewek Kemmyn (Common Cornish or "KK") is a variety of the revived Cornish language.
Kernowek Standard (KS, Standard Cornish) is a variety of revived Cornish.
Kesva an Taves Kernewek (Cornish for Cornish Language Board) is an organisation that promotes the Cornish language.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
Kkakdugi is a variety of kimchi in Korean cuisine.
Kongo or Kikongo, is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo and Bandundu people living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
Kosraean, sometimes rendered Kusaiean, is the language spoken on the islands of Kosrae (Kusaie), Caroline Islands, and Nauru.
L (named el) is the 12th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and L ·
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The labial–velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A labialized velar is a velar consonant that is labialized, that is, that has an /w/-like secondary articulation.
The labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu.
Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
There are 1,250 to 2,100 and by some counts over 3,000 languages spoken natively in Africa, in several major language families.
Native languages of Oceania fall into three major geographic groups.
The lateral clicks are a family of click consonants found only in African languages.
A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
Latin epsilon or open e (majuscule:, minuscule) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet, based on the lowercase of the Greek letter epsilon (ε).
Many Unicode characters belonging to the Latin script are encoded in the Unicode Standard.
Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin, from Old Latin to the present.
A Latinism (also called Latinity) is an idiom, structure, or word in a language other than Latin derived from, or suggestive of, the Latin language.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is the official state language of Latvia.
Lecanvey or Leckanvy is a seaside village in County Mayo, Ireland, between Westport and Louisburgh, about 2 km west of Murrisk.
Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language that is used primarily on the Internet.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous (vowel-like).
Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic (Limburgish: Limburgs Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois), is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, along the Dutch–Belgian–German border.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
This is a list of letters of the Latin script.
A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script, most of these used especially in Irish orthography.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ljudevit Gaj (8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872), born Ludwig Gay,According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and Ll ·
A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.
Lombard (lumbaart, or lengua lumbarda) is a member of the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group within the Romance languages.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is a form of the minuscule letter s, which was formerly used where s occurred in the middle or at the beginning of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" "sinfulness").
Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa, and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a Moselle Franconian variety of West Central German that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
MacLeod and McLeod are surnames in the English language.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Matthew Abram "Matt" Groening (born February 15, 1954) is an American cartoonist, writer, producer, animator, and voice actor.
Matthäus is a given name or surname, and may refer to.
Matthew is a given name that ultimately comes from the Hebrew name Matityahu.
Maori or Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Meerschaum (or, German for foam of the sea), also known as sepiolite, is a soft white mineral, often used to make smoking pipes.
Meru is the language spoken by the Meru people (Ameru) who live on the Eastern and Northern slopes of Mount Kenya, Kenya, Africa and on the Nyambene ranges.
The Mi'kmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically and now often Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Mi'kmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.
Middle High German (Mittelhochdeutsch), abbreviated MHG (Mhd.), is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Mpumpong (Mpongmpong) is a Bantu language of Cameroon.
Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ, Modern Greek μι or μυ) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known informally as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica. Nahuatl has been spoken in Central Mexico since at least the 7th century AD. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history. During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Aztec Empire had expanded to incorporate a large part of central Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Nahuatl also became a literary language, and many chronicles, grammars, works of poetry, administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of the Americas. Today Nahuatl varietiesSee Mesoamerican languages#Language vs. Dialect for a discussion on the difference between "languages" and "dialects" in Mesoamerica. are spoken in scattered communities, mostly in rural areas throughout central Mexico and along the coastline. There are considerable differences among varieties, and some are mutually unintelligible. Huasteca Nahuatl, with over 1 million speakers, is the most-spoken variety. They have all been subject to varying degrees of influence from Spanish. No modern Nahuatl languages are identical to Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closely related to it than those on the periphery. Under Mexico's Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas ("General Law on the Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples") promulgated in 2003, Nahuatl and the other 63 indigenous languages of Mexico are recognized as lenguas nacionales ("national languages") in the regions where they are spoken, enjoying the same status as Spanish within their region.By the provisions of Article IV: Las lenguas indígenas...y el español son lenguas nacionales...y tienen la misma validez en su territorio, localización y contexto en que se hablen. ("The indigenous languages...and Spanish are national languages...and have the same validity in their territory, location and context in which they are spoken.") Nahuatl languages exhibit a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination. Through centuries of coexistence with the other indigenous Mesoamerican languages, Nahuatl has absorbed many influences, coming to form part of the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. Many words from Nahuatl have been borrowed into Spanish, and since diffused into hundreds of other languages. Most of these loanwords denote things indigenous to central Mexico which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl names. English words of Nahuatl origin include "avocado", "chayote", "chili", "chocolate", "atlatl", "coyote", "peyote", "axolotl" and "tomato".
The Nambikwara language (Southern Nambikwara or Kitãulhu, contrasting with Northern Nambikwara or Mamaindé; also spelled Nambikuára, Nhambikwara or Nambiquara) is an indigenous language of Brazil, spoken by about 1200 Nambikwara people in the Mato Grosso state.
Naro, also Nharo, is a Khoe language spoken in Ghanzi District of Botswana and in eastern Namibia.
Nasal clicks are click consonants pronounced with nasal airflow.
In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a stop consonant into a nasal.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Native American language of the Athabaskan branch of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
A nephew is a son of one's sibling or half-sibling, and a niece is a daughter of one's sibling or half-sibling.
The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Nh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of N and H. Together with lh and the interpunct, it is a typical feature of Occitan, a language illustrated by medieval troubadours.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Noah Webster, Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843), was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
Nuosu (or Nosu) (Nuosu: Pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Hungarian and Malay.
The Oaths of Strasbourg, were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Oedipus (or; Οἰδίπους Oidípous meaning "swollen foot") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes, the son and killer of Laius, son and consort of Jocasta, and father and sibling of Polynices, Eteocles, Antigone, and Ismene.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050 AD.
Old Irish (Goídelc) (sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Open o (majuscule:, minuscule) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet.
The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic (endonym: Ирон æвзаг, Iron ævzag), is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
In linguistics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
In historical linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of these.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
A pentagraph (from the πέντε, pénte, "five" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of five letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system based on the Arabic script.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase or; ϕεῖ, pheî,; modern φι, fi,; English) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a 1991 proposal by Robert Blust that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.
The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.
A phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
Pi (Greek:, uppercase Π, lowercase π) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing.
Piedmontese (piemontèis or lenga piemontèisa) is a Romance language spoken by over 1 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy.
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
Pitjantjatjara is a dialect of the Western Desert language traditionally spoken by the Pitjantjatjara people of Central Australia.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
In linguistics, pre-stopping, also known as pre-occlusion or pre-plosion, is a phonological process involving the historical or allophonic insertion of a very short stop consonant before a sonorant, such as a short before a nasal or a lateral.
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or a non-nasal sonorant) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Pterosaurs (meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria.
Pular is a Fula language spoken primarily by Fula people in the Fouta Jalon area in Guinea.
Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), more popularly known as Tarascan (Spanish Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family spoken by a quarter million Purépecha people in the highlands of the Mexican state of Michoacán.
Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
Rangi or Langi (there is no distinction between and; also known as Irangi, Kilaangi, etc.) is a Bantu language of spoken by the Rangi people of Kondoa District in the Dodoma Region of Central Tanzania.
Redruth (Resrudh) is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Rheinische Dokumenta is a phonetic writing system developed in the early 1980s by a working group of academics, linguists, local language experts, and local language speakers of the Rhineland.
The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romani language has for most of its history been an entirely oral language, with no written form in common use.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
Rose ffrench, 1st Baroness ffrench (died 8 December 1805) was an Irish peeress.
A rowlock, sometimes spur (due to the similarity in shape and size), oarlock (US) or gate (AUS) is a brace that attaches an oar to a boat.
(lowercase) is a Latin letter s with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7E for uppercase and U+023F for lowercase) that was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent the sound.
Sagñay is a third class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines.
Sandawe is a click language spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Seri (Seri: cmiique iitom) is a language isolate spoken by between 716 and 900 Seri people in Punta Chueca and El Desemboque, two villages on the coast of Sonora, Mexico.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
Shona, or chiShona, is a Bantu language, native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
Sibilance is a manner of articulation of fricative and affricate consonants, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant, or a strident.
In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound (sj-ljudet) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.
Slovak (slovenský jazyk,; slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
The Sorbian alphabet is based on the ISO basic Latin alphabet but uses diacritics such as the acute accent and the caron, making it similar to the Czech and Polish alphabets.
South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish language in the Americas refers to the Spanish language spoken in the Americas, as opposed to Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
Stephen or Steven is a masculine first name, derived from the Greek name Στέφανος (Stéfanos), in turn from the Greek word "στέφανος", meaning "wreath, crown, honour, reward", literally "that which surrounds or encompasses".
In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.
Sundanese (Basa Sunda, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is the language of about 39 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
Taa, also known as !Xóõ (ǃKhong, ǃXoon – pronounced), is a Khoisan language notable for its large number of phonemes, perhaps the largest in the world.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tainan (臺南 or 台南; literally "Taiwan South"), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality located in southern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taiwanese Hokkien (Tâi-lô: Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí / Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gú), commonly known as Taiwanese (Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí / Tâi-gú 臺語), is a variant of Hokkien spoken by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, administered by the Taranaki Regional Council.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis (post)alveolar click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis dental click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis lateral click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis palatal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
Thai, also known precisely as Siamese or Central Thai, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people and the vast majority of Thai Chinese.
Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.
The Tlingit language has been recorded in a number of orthographies over the two hundred years since European contact.
The Tlingit language (English:,; Tlingit: Lingít) is spoken by the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
Tongyong Pinyin was the official Romanization of Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) (Taiwan) between 2002 and 2008.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Australian Aboriginal languages had been purely spoken languages, and had no writing system.
Transliteration is the conversion of a text from one script to another.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three letters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tsar (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь (usually written thus with a tilde) or цар, цaрь; also Czar or Tzar in Latin alphabet languages) is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.
A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from 津波, lit. "harbor wave"; English pronunciation), also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The Tswana language, Setswana, is a language spoken in southern Africa by about five million people.
Tteokbokki (떡볶이; also known as teokbokki, ddeokbokki, topokki, and dukboki) is a popular Korean snack food made from soft rice cake, fish cake and sweet red chili sauce; gochujang.
Tuvaluan is a Polynesian language of or closely related to the Ellicean group spoken in Tuvalu.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode equivalence is the specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character.
Arrernte or Aranda, or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan.
A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiced labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant fricative or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, also analyzed as a fricative, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, including English.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that was spoken as a primary language in large portions (70%) of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century.
The Warlpiri are a group of Indigenous Australians, many of whom speak the Warlpiri language.
The Warlpiri language is spoken by about 3,000 of the Warlpiri people in Australia's Northern Territory.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.
Westport (historically anglicised as Cahernamart) is a town in County Mayo in Ireland.
William Jordan (fl. 1611), Cornish dramatist, lived at Helston in Cornwall, and is supposed to have been the author of the Cornish language mystery or sacred drama Gwreans an Bys: the Creacon of the World.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and X ·
The Xhosa language (or; Xhosa: isiXhosa) is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and next-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
New!!: List of Latin-script digraphs and Y ·
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Parker Po-fei Huang and Gerald P. Kok and published in 1970.
The Yale romanization of Mandarin was developed in 1943 by the Yale sinologist George Kennedy to help prepare American soldiers to communicate with their Chinese allies on the battlefield.
The Yanyuwa (also Yanyula, Anyula) language is spoken by the Yanyuwa people around the settlement of Borroloola (Yanyuwa burrulula) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Yele language, or Yélî Dnye, is the language of Rossel island, the easternmost island in the Louisiade Archipelago off the eastern tip of Papua New Guinea.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
The letter yogh (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: yoȝ) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.
(lowercase) is a Latin letter z with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7F for uppercase and U+0240 for lowercase) was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent a voiced labio-alveolar fricative.
The Zapotecan languages are a group of related Oto-Manguean languages which descend from the common proto-Zapotecan language spoken by the Zapotec people during the era of the dominance of Monte Albán.
The Zhuang languages (autonym: (pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮), from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.
Zulu or isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
'B (digraph), 'D (digraph), 'Y (digraph), A' (digraph), Aa (digraph), Ae (digraph), Ah (digraph), Ai (digraph), Am (digraph), An (digraph), Ao (digraph), Aq (digraph), Au (digraph), Au (letter), Aw (digraph), Ay (digraph), Aí (digraph), Aî (digraph), Aû (digraph), Aŋ (digraph), A’ (digraph), Bb (digraph), Bd (digraph), Bh (digraph), Bp (digraph), Bz (digraph), Cc (digraph), Cg (digraph), Ci (digraph), Ck (digraph), Cn (digraph), Cs (digraph), Ct (digraph), Cu (digraph), Cx (digraph), Cz (digraph), Cö, Cö (digraph), Dc (digraph), Dd (digraph), Dg (digraph), Dh (digraph), Dj (digraph), Dl (digraph), Dm (digraph), Dn (digraph), Dp (digraph), Dq (digraph), Dr (digraph), Dt (digraph), Dx (digraph), Dx (letter), Dy (digraph), Dł (digraph), Dź, Dź (digraph), Dż, Dż (digraph), E' (digraph), Ea (digraph), Ee (digraph), Eh (digraph), Ei (digraph), Em (digraph), En (digraph), Eo (digraph), Eq (digraph), Eu (digraph), Ew (digraph), Ey (digraph), Eá (digraph), Eî (digraph), Eû (digraph), E′ (digraph), Ff (digraph), Fh (digraph), Fx (digraph), Gb (digraph), Gb (letter), Gc (digraph), Ge (digraph), Gg (digraph), Gi (digraph), Gj (digraph), Gj (letter), Gk (digraph), Gl (digraph), Gm (digraph), Gn (digraph), Go (digraph), Gq (digraph), Gr (digraph), Gu (digraph), Gv (digraph), Gw (digraph), Gx (digraph), Gy (digraph), Gñ (digraph), Gü (digraph), Gʻ, G̱w (digraph), Hh (digraph), Hj (digraph), Hl (digraph), Hm (digraph), Hn (digraph), Hr (digraph), Hs (digraph), Hu (digraph), Hungarian cs, Hungarian gy, Hungarian ty, Hungarian zs, Hv (digraph), Hw (digraph), Hx (digraph), I' (digraph), Ie (digraph), Ig (digraph), Ih (digraph), Ii (digraph), Il (digraph), Im (digraph), In (digraph), Io (digraph), Iq (digraph), Iu (digraph), Ix (digraph), Iú (digraph), Iŋ (digraph), I′ (digraph), Jh (digraph), Jj (digraph), Jx (digraph), Jö, Jö (digraph), Kg (digraph), Kh (digraph), Kj (digraph), Kk (digraph), Kl (digraph), Km (digraph), Kn (digraph), Kp (digraph), Kp (letter), Kr (digraph), Ku (digraph), Kv (digraph), Kw (digraph), Kx (digraph), Ky (digraph), Kz (digraph), LJ (digraph), LJ (letter), Latin digraphs, Lh (digraph), List of Latin digraphs, List of Latin script digraphs, List of digraphs, List of digraphs in Latin alphabets, Lj (digraph), Lj (letter), Lv (digraph), Lw (digraph), Lx (digraph), L·l (digraph), Mb (digraph), Mb (letter), Md (digraph), Mf (digraph), Mg (digraph), Mh (digraph), Ml (digraph), Mm (digraph), Mn (digraph), Mp (digraph), Mp (letter), Mt (digraph), Mv (digraph), Mw (digraph), Mx (digraph), N' (digraph), N- (digraph), ND (digraph), Nb (digraph), Nc (digraph), Nd (digraph), Nd (letter), Nf (digraph), Ng (character), Ng (digraph), Ng (letter), Ng’ (digraph), Nj (digraph), Nj (letter), Nk (digraph), Nk (letter), Nm (digraph), Nn (digraph), Np (digraph), Nq (digraph), Nr (digraph), Ns (digraph), Ns (letter), Nt (digraph), Nt (letter), Nv (digraph), Nw (digraph), Nx (digraph), Nz (digraph), Nz (letter), N͠g (digraph), N’ (digraph), O' (digraph), Oa (digraph), Oe (digraph), Oh (digraph), Oi (digraph, Oi (digraph), Om (digraph), On (digraph), Oo (digraph), Oq (digraph), Or (Digraph), Or (digraph), Ou (digraph), Ow (digraph), Oy (digraph), Oê (digraph), Oí (digraph), Oî (digraph), Oû (digraph), Oŷ (digraph), Oʻ, O͞o, O′ (digraph), Pf (digraph), Ph (digraph), Pl (digraph), Pm (digraph), Pn (digraph), Pp (digraph), Ps (digraph), Pt (digraph), Pw (digraph), Qg (digraph), Qh (digraph), Qk (digraph), Qo (digraph), Qq (digraph), Qu (digraph), Qv (digraph), Qw (digraph), Qy (digraph), Rd (digraph), Rh (Digraph), Rh (digraph), Rl (digraph), Rm (digraph), Rn (digraph), Rp (digraph), Rr (digraph), Rr (letter), Rs (digraph), Rt (digraph), Rw (digraph), Rz (digraph), S-c (digraph), S-cc (digraph), S-g (digraph), S-gg (digraph), SH (digraph), Sc (digraph), Sg (digraph), Si (digraph), Sj (digraph), Sk (digraph), Sl (digraph), Sp (digraph), Sr (digraph), Ss (digraph), St (digraph), Sv (digraph), Sx (digraph), Sy (digraph), Sç (digraph), Tc (digraph), Tg (digraph), Ti (digraph), Tj (digraph), Tl (digraph), Tm (digraph), Tn (digraph), Tp (digraph), Tr (digraph), Ts (digraph), Ts (letter), Ts̃ (digraph), Tt (digraph), Tw (digraph), Tx (digraph), Ty (digraph), Tz (digraph), Tł (digraph), U' (digraph), Uc (digraph), Ue (digraph), Ug (digraph), Uh (digraph), Ui (digraph), Um (digraph), Un (digraph), Uo (digraph), Uq (digraph), Ur (digraph), Uu (digraph), Uw (digraph), Ux (digraph), Uí (digraph), Uŋ (digraph), U′ (digraph), Vg (digraph), Vh (digraph), Vk (digraph), Vn (digraph), Vv (digraph), Wh (digraph), Wr (digraph), Wu (digraph), Ww (digraph), Wx (digraph), Xg (digraph), Xh (digraph), Xh (letter), Xi (digraph), Xk (digraph), Xu (digraph), Xw (digraph), Xx (digraph), Xy (digraph), Xö, Xö (digraph), X̱w (digraph), Yh (digraph), Yi (digraph), Yk (digraph), Ym (digraph), Yn (digraph), Yr (digraph), Yu (digraph), Yw (digraph), Yx (digraph), Yy (digraph), Zh (digraph), Zh (letter), Zs (digraph), Zv (digraph), Zz (digraph), Ái (digraph), Âm, Âm (digraph), Ân (digraph), Ãe (digraph), Ãi (digraph), Ão, Ão (digraph), Än (digraph), Äu (digraph), Ån (digraph), Éa (digraph), Éi (digraph), Ém (digraph), Én (digraph), Êm (digraph), Ên (digraph), Ím (digraph), Ín (digraph), Ío (digraph), În (digraph), Ñg (digraph), Òi (digraph), Ói (digraph), Ôm (digraph), Ôn (digraph), Õe (digraph), Ön (digraph), Øy, Øy (digraph), Úi (digraph), Úm (digraph), Ún (digraph), Ün (digraph), Čh (digraph), Ńg (digraph), Ńm (digraph), Ŋv (digraph), Œu (digraph), ŞH (digraph), Ɔn (digraph), Ɛn (digraph), ǀg (digraph), ǀh (digraph), ǀn (digraph), ǁg (digraph), ǁh (digraph), ǁn (digraph), ǂg (digraph), ǂh (digraph), ǂn (digraph), ǃg (digraph), ǃh (digraph), ǃn (digraph), Ǉ, Ǉ (digraph), ǈ, Ǌ, ǋ, Ǥw (digraph), Ḵw (digraph), Ḷḷ (digraph), ’B (digraph), ’D (digraph), ’Y (digraph), ’b (digraph), ’d (digraph), ’y (digraph).