219 relations: Aelius Aristides, Aerarium, Alan Cameron (classical scholar), Alec Guinness, Alexander of Abonoteichus, Alexander of Cotiaeum, Alexander the Great, Alsium, Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina, Annia Cornificia Faustina, Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor, Antonine Plague, Antoninus Pius, Appius Annius Atilius Bradua, Aquileia, Arethas of Caesarea, Artaxata, Arulenus Rusticus, Arval Brethren, Auctoritas, Augustan History, Augustus, Aulus Platorius Nepos, Avidius Cassius, Baiae, Bakur, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Bill Clinton, Bithynia, Brindisi, Britannicus, Caelian Hill, Caligula, Campania, Campus Martius, Capitoline Museums, Cappadocia, Carpathian Mountains, Cassius Dio, Castel Sant'Angelo, Castra Praetoria, Córdoba, Andalusia, Chatti, Chinese language, Cicero, Cirta, Classical Latin, Claudius, Cleanthes, Codicil (will), ..., Column of Marcus Aurelius, Comes, Commodus, Consul, Corset, Costoboci, Cousin marriage, Ctesiphon, Cyrrhus, Cyzicus, Dacia, Denarius, Diadochi, Domitia Lucilla, Domitian, Edessa, Egypt (Roman province), Eloquence, Encomium, Ephesus, Epigraphy, Espejo, Spain, Etruria, Eusebius, Fadilla, Faustina the Younger, Flamen, Frederick the Great, Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Gaius Caesar, Galen, Gaul, Germania Superior, Germanic peoples, Gladiator (2000 film), Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus, Hadrian, Hadrian's Villa, Hadrian's Wall, Han dynasty, Herodes Atticus, Hispania Baetica, Homer, Iain King, Iliad, Imperator, Imperium, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Stuart Mill, Julian (emperor), Junius Rusticus, Justin Martyr, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Lanuvium, Laodicea in Syria, Lateran Palace, Legatus legionis, Legio I Minervia, Legio II Adiutrix, Legio III Gallica, Legio IX Hispana, Legio V Macedonica, Legio X Gemina, Libo Rupilius Frugi, Limes Germanicus, List of governors of Roman Egypt, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman emperors, Lombards, Lorium, Lucilla, Lucius Aelius, Lucius Caesar, Lucius Catilius Severus, Lucius Coelius Antipater, Lucius Verus, Macedonia (Roman province), Marcomanni, Marcomannic Wars, Marcus Annius Verus, Marcus Annius Verus (praetor), Marcus Annius Verus Caesar, Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Marcus Sedatius Severianus, Marcus Statius Priscus, Marius Maximus, Matthew Arnold, Mausoleum, Measles, Meditations, Military tribune, Moesia, Moravia, Musée Saint-Raymond, Nero, Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Nicaea, Numismatics, Oderzo, Osroene, Palaestra, Pandemic, Pannonia, Parthian Empire, Patrician (ancient Rome), Philosopher king, Pliny the Younger, Pontifex Maximus, Pozzuoli, Praetor, Praetorian Guard, Praetorian prefect, Punitive expedition, Quadi, Quaestor, Raetia, Ravenna, Richard Harris, Roman currency, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Senate, Roman triumph, Roman–Parthian War of 161–166, Roman–Persian Wars, Romans in Slovakia, Rome, Ronald J. Mellor, Rupilia, Sack of Rome (410), Salonina Matidia, Sarmatians, Second Sophistic, Seleucia, Seleucid Empire, Seneca the Younger, Sestertius, Sidonius Apollinaris, Sino-Roman relations, Sirmium, Smallpox, Sohaemus of Armenia, Stoicism, Suda, Taunus, Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Temple of Marcus Aurelius, The Fall of the Roman Empire (film), Tiber, Tiberius, Tiberius Gemellus, Tisza, Titus Clodius Vibius Varus, Titus Statilius Maximus, Tivoli, Lazio, Toulouse, Tribune, Triumvir Monetalis, Vatican Library, Vibia Aurelia Sabina, Vibia Sabina, Vienna, Vindobona, Visigoths, Vologases IV, Wen Jiabao, William O. Stephens, Zeno of Citium. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus (Αἴλιος Ἀριστείδης; 117–181 CE) was a Greek orator and author considered to be a prime example of the Second Sophistic, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE.
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Aerarium (from Latin "aes", in its derived sense of "money") was the name (in full, "aerarium stabulum" - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances.
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Alan Douglas Edward Cameron (born 13 March 1938) is a British classicist and academic.
Sir Alec Guinness, CH, CBE (2 April 19145 August 2000) was an English actor.
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Alexander of Abonoteichus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀβωνοτειχίτης), also called Alexander the Paphlagonian (c. 105-c. 170 CE), was a Greek mystic and oracle, and the founder of the Glycon cult that briefly achieved wide popularity in the Roman world.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος; 70–80 AD – 150 AD) of Cotiaeum was a Greek grammarian, who is mentioned among the instructors of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
Alsium (Ἄλσιον; modern: Palo) was an ancient city on the coast of Etruria, between Pyrgi and Fregenae, at the distance of from the Portus Augusti (mod. Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber (Itin. Ant. p. 301.), on the Via Aurelia, by which it is about 35 km from Rome.
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Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina (30 November 147-after 165) was the eldest child of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger.
Annia Cornificia Faustina (122/123-between 152-158) was the youngest child and only daughter to the praetor Marcus Annius Verus and Domitia Lucilla.
Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor (Minor Latin for the younger, 160–212) was a daughter of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger.
The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD—also known as the Plague of Galen, who described it—was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
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Antoninus Pius (Titus Fulvus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius;Weigel, Antoninus Pius born 19 September, 86 AD – died 7 March, 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161.
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Appius Annius Atilius BraduaPomeroy, The murder of Regilla: a case of domestic violence in antiquityBirley, The Roman government of Britain p. 114 was a Senator of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea,bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia, Aglar) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
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Arethas of Caesarea (Ἀρέθας; born c. 860 AD) became Archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (modern Kayseri, Turkey) early in the 10th century, and is considered one of the most scholarly theologians of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.
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Quintus Junius Arulenus Rusticus (c. 35 – 93 AD), is more usually called Arulenus Rusticus, but sometimes also Junius Rusticus.
In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren (Fratres Arvales, "Brothers of the Fields") or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests.
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Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English "authority".
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The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Aulus Platorius Nepos was a Roman politician of the early 2nd century AD.
Gaius Avidius Cassius (c. 130 – July 175 AD) was a Roman general and usurper who briefly ruled Egypt and Syria in 175.
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Baiae (in modern Italian Baia), a frazione of the comune of Bacoli in the Campania region of Italy, was a Roman seaside resort on the Bay of Naples.
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Bakur, also known as Pacorus or Aurelius Pacorus (Bakur Բակուր., Latinized: Bacurius, Aurelius Pacorus Αύρήλιος Πάκορος.) was a Parthian Prince who served as one of the Kings of Armenia in the 2nd century.
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Barthold Georg Niebuhr (27 August 1776 – 2 January 1831) was a Danish-German statesman, banker, and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography.
William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
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Bithynia (Greek Βιθυνία Bithynia) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
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Brindisi (in the local dialect: Brìnnisi; Brundisium) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, off the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
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Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 February AD 41 — 11 February AD 55) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.
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The Caelian Hill (Collis Caelius; Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome.
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Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37–41).
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Campania is a region in southern Italy.
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The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.
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The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a group of art and archeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Kapadokya, Καππαδοκία Kappadokía, Գամիրք (Gamirq), from Καππαδοκία, from Katpatuka) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
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The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly long across Central Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Lucius (or Claudius) Cassius Dio (alleged to have the cognomen Cocceianus; Δίων Κάσσιος Κοκκηϊανός Dion Kassios Kokkeianos, c. AD 155–235), known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio, was of Greek origin, Roman consul and noted historian who wrote in Greek.
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The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo (English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy.
Castra Praetoria were the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome.
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Córdoba, also called Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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Marcus Tullius Cicero (Κικέρων, Kikerōn; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist.
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Cirta (from Berber: KRTN or Kirthan, Tzirta) was the capital city of the Berber Kingdom of Numidia in northern Africa (modern Algeria).
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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
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Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and the successor to Zeno as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.
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A codicil is a testamentary document similar but not necessarily identical to a will.
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The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Columna Centenaria Divorum Marci et Faustinae, Colonna di Marco Aurelio) is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy.
Comes, plural comites, is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus, especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. The word comes derives from com- "with" + ire "go.".
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Commodus (Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus; 31 August 161 AD – 31 December 192 AD), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192.
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Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire.
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A corset is a garment worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing it or with a more lasting effect).
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The Costoboci (Costoboci, Costobocae, Castabocae, Coisstoboci, Κοστωβῶκοι, Κοστουβῶκοι or Κοιστοβῶκοι) were an ancient people located, during the Roman imperial era, between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Dniester.
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Cousin marriage is marriage between people with a common grandparent or between people who share another relatively recent ancestor.
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Ctesiphon was the capital city of the Parthian and Sasanian Empires (247 BC–224 AD and 224–651 respectively).
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Cyrrhus (Κύρρος Kyrrhos) was a city in ancient Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals.
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Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
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In the Roman currency system, the denarius (plural: denarii) was a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War.
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The Diadochi (from Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors") were the rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
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Domitia Lucilla Minor (Minor, Latin for the Younger), sometimes known as Domitia Calvilla or Lucilla (died 155–161), was a noble Roman woman who lived in the 2nd century.
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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
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Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; ܐܘܪܗܝ; Եդեսիա or Ուռհա) was an ancient city in upper Mesopotamia, refounded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator, and is now Şanlıurfa, Turkey.
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The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking.
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Encomium is a Latin word deriving from the Classical Greek ἐγκώμιον (enkomion) meaning "the praise of a person or thing." Encomium also refers to several distinct aspects of rhetoric.
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Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; ultimately from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
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Epigraphy (from the ἐπιγραφή epi-graphē, literally "on-writing", is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
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Espejo is a municipality in the province of Córdoba, Spain.
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Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
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Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος, Eusébios; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a Roman historian, exegete, and Christian polemicist of Greek descent.
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Annia Aurelia Fadilla, most commonly known as Fadilla (159-died after 211) was an influential Roman Princess and was one of the daughters born to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger.
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Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (16 February between 125 and 130 – 175) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder.
In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic.
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Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia 1740 until 1786.
Lucius Fulvius Gaius Bruttius Praesens Laberius Maximus Polyonymus (c. 119 – after 180) was a prominent Roman senator and twice consul during the reigns of Roman emperors Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.
Gaius Julius Caesar (20 BC – 21 February AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar or Caius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.
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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; AD 129 – /), better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Germania Superior ("Upper Germania"), so called because it lay upstream of Germania Inferior, was a province of the Roman Empire.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Gladiator is a 2000 epic historical drama film directed by Ridley Scott, starring Russell Crowe, Joaquin Phoenix, Connie Nielsen, Ralf Möller, Oliver Reed (in his final film role), Djimon Hounsou, Derek Jacobi, John Shrapnel, and Richard Harris.
Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus (113-after 176) was a Roman Senator and philosopher who lived in the Roman Empire.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus;In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.As emperor his name was Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus. 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain) is often considered his birthplace, his place of birth remains uncertain. However, it is generally accepted that he comes of a family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. Trajan never officially designated an heir, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan's wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well-disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian traveled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism and led to the creation of one of the most popular cults of ancient times. He spent extensive amounts of his time with the military; he usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, and even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 136 an ailing Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his heir, but the latter died suddenly two years later. In 138, Hadrian resolved to adopt Antoninus Pius if he would in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Aelius' son Lucius Verus as his own eventual successors. Antoninus agreed, and soon afterward Hadrian died at Baiae.
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The Hadrian's Villa (Villa Adriana in Italian) is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy.
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Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in 122 AD during the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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Herodes Atticus (Ηρώδης ο Αττικός Iródis o Attikós; 177) or Atticus Herodes was a distinguished and rich Greek aristocrat and sophist who served as a Roman senator.
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Hispania Baetica was one of three Imperial Roman provinces in Hispania, (modern Iberia).
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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
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Iain Benjamin King is a British writer.
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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
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The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic.
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Imperium is a Latin word which, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
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The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a free online encyclopedia on philosophical topics and philosophers founded by James Fieser in 1995.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant.
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Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
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Quintus Junius Rusticus (lived c. 100 – c. 170 AD), probably a grandson of Arulenus Rusticus, was one of the teachers of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, and the most distinguished Stoic philosophers of his time.
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Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin (100 – 165 AD), was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
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Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (access-date; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, later Civita Lavinia, modern Lanuvio) is an ancient city of Latium (Lānŭuĭum or Lānĭuĭum), some southeast of Rome, a little southwest of the Via Appia.
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Laodicea was a colonia of the Roman empire in ancient Syria.
The Lateran Palace (Palatium Lateranense), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Palatium Apostolicum Lateranense), is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence in southeast Rome.
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Legatus legionis was a title awarded to legion commanders in Ancient Rome.
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Legio I Minervia ("Minerva's First Legion" i.e. "devoted to the goddess Minerva") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 82 by emperor Domitian (r. 81-96), for his campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti.
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Legio secunda adiutrix ("Rescuer Second Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian (r. 69-79), originally composed of Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis.
Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against the conservative Republicans led by Pompey.
Legio nona Hispana ("Spanish Ninth Legion"), also Legio VIIII Hispana or Legio IX Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army which existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120.
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Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion.
Legio decima Gemina ("The Twins' Tenth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
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Libo Rupilius Frugi (flourished 1st century, died 101), whose full name was Lucius Scribonius Libo Rupilius Frugi Bonus, was a Roman suffect consul and an ancestor to Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.
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During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.
This is a list of Roman consuls, the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic and a high office of the Empire.
The Roman Emperors and Empresses were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.
The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
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Lorium was an ancient village of Etruria, Italy, on the Via Aurelia, 19 km west of Rome.
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Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla or Lucilla (March 7, 148 or 150–182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger and an elder sister to future Roman Emperor Commodus.
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Lucius Aelius Caesar (January 13, 101 – January 1, 138) became the adopted son and intended successor of Roman Emperor Hadrian (January 24, 76 AD – July 10, 138 AD), but never attained the throne.
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Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC – 20 August AD 2), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.
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Lucius Catilius Severus was Roman consul twice, in the years 110 CE (as consul suffectus) and 120 CE.
Lucius Coelius Antipater was a Roman jurist and historian.
Lucius Verus (lvcivs avrelivs vervs avgvstvs; 15 December 130 – 169) was the Roman Emperor from 161 to 169.
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The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation, probably related to the Buri or the Suebi.
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The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, "German and Sarmatian War") were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about AD 166 until 180.
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Marcus Annius Verus (50 – 138 AD) was a Roman man who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries.
Marcus Annius Verus (died 124) was a distinguished Roman politician who lived in the 2nd century, served as a praetor and was the biological father of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Marcus Annius Verus Caesar (after May 162 – 10 September 169) was one of the thirteen children born to Faustina, the wife of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), Roman grammarian, rhetorician and advocate, was born at Cirta in Numidia.
Marcus Sedatius Severianus (Latin. Marcus Sedatius C. f. Severianus Julius Rufinus, 105-161/162) was a Roman Gaul who became consul suffectus in 153 and was governor of Cappadocia at the start of the Roman war with Parthia.
Marcus Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus (M. Statius M. f. Cl. Priscus Licinius Italicus)The name M. Statius M. f. Cl.
Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus (more commonly known as Marius Maximus) (c. AD 160 – c. AD 230) was a Roman biographer, writing in Latin, who in the early decades of the 3rd century AD wrote a series of biographies of twelve Emperors, imitating and continuing Suetonius.
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Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
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A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
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Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.
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Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally " to himself") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 CE, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.
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A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.
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Moesia (or; Latin: Moesia; Μοισία) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River.
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Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a large region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
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The Musée Saint-Raymond (in English, Saint-Raymond museum) established in 1891, is a museum located in Toulouse, France, specializing in antiquities.
Nero (Latin: Nerō Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
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The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
Nicaea or Nicea (İznik Νίκαια) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
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Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
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Oderzo (Opitergium) is a town and comune in the province of Treviso, Veneto, northern Italy.
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Osroene, also spelled Osrohene and Osrhoene (Ὀσροηνή; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom located in Upper Mesopotamia, which enjoyed semi-autonomy to complete independence from the years of 132 BC to AD 244.
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The palaestra (or; also (chiefly British) palestra; παλαίστρα) was the ancient Greek wrestling school.
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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
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Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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The term patrician (patricius, πατρίκιος, patrikios) originally referred to a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Philosopher kings are the rulers of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis.
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Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
The Pontifex Maximus (Latin, literally: "greatest pontiff" or "greatest bridge-builder") was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
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Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
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Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
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The Praetorian Guard (Praetoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors.
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Praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little is definitively known.
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A quaestor was a type of public official in the "cursus honorum" system who supervised the financial affairs of the state and conducted audits.
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Raetia (or,, also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
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Ravenna (also; Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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Richard St John Harris (1 October 1930 – 25 October 2002) was an Irish actor, singer, theatrical and song producer, film director and writer.
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Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, and copper coinage.
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The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome.
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The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state, or originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
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The Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 (also called the Parthian War of Lucius Verus) was fought between the Roman and Parthian Empires over Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sassanid.
Romans in Slovakia is related to the short-term occupation by Roman legions of western areas of what is today Slovakia.
Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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Ronald J. Mellor is a distinguished professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles.
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Rupilia Faustina (circa. 87 A.D. – before 138 A.D.) was an influential Roman noblewoman.
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The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410.
Salonina Matidia (4 July 68 – 23 December 119) was the daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus.
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The Sarmatians (Latin: Sarmatæ or Sauromatæ, Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large confederation of Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
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The Second Sophistic is a literary-historical term referring to the Greek writers who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 AD and who were catalogued and celebrated by Philostratus in his Lives of the Sophists (481).
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Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, and Sassanid empires.
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The Seleucid Empire or Seleucia was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.
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Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The Sestertius, or Sesterce, (pl. sestertii) was an ancient Roman coin.
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Gaius Sollius (Modestus) Apollinaris Sidonius or Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (November 5 of an unknown year, perhaps 430 – August 489) was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
Sino-Roman relations were essentially indirect throughout the existence of both empires.
Sirmium was a city in Pannonia, an ancient province of the Roman Empire.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Gaius Julius Sohaemus, also known as Sohaemus of Armenia and Sohaemo (Սոհեմոս., Γάϊος Ἰούλιος Σόαιμος., Sohaemus is Arabic for little dagger, flourished 2nd century) was an Emesene Prince and Aristocrat from Syria who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC.
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The Suda or Souda (Soũda) is a massive 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Suidas.
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The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt.
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The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is an ancient Roman temple in Rome, adapted to the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda.
The Temple of Marcus Aurelius was a temple in Rome dedicated to the deified Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius by his son Commodus.
The Fall of the Roman Empire is a 1964 epic film starring Sophia Loren, Stephen Boyd, Alec Guinness, James Mason, Christopher Plummer, Mel Ferrer and Omar Sharif.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the Aniene river, to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Dīvī Augustī Fīlius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD.
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Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula.
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
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Titus Clodius Vibius Varus was a Roman senator and shared the consulship with Appius Annius Atilius Bradua in AD 160.
Titus Statilius Maximus (dates of birth and death unknown) was a Roman senator in the 2nd century AD.
Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.
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Toulouse (locally:; Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Midi-Pyrénées region.
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Tribunus, in English tribune, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome.
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Triumvir Monetalis was one of three officers (moneyers) appointed in Ancient Rome to oversee the minting of coins.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
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Vibia Aurelia Sabina (170 AD - before 217 AD) was a Roman Princess.
Vibia Sabina (83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin, once removed, to Roman Emperor Hadrian.
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Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.
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Vindobona (from Gaulish windo- "white" and bona "base/bottom") was a Celtic settlement and later a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Vienna in Austria.
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The Visigoths (UK:; US:, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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Vologases IV of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh), was the ruler of the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191.
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Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade.
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William O. Stephens (born 10 June 1962), a scholar of Stoicism, is Professor of Philosophy and Classical and Near Eastern Studies at Creighton University, Omaha, NE.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Greek thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus.
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Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, M Antoninus, M. Aelius Antoninus, M. Antoninus, M. Aurelius Antoninus, Marc Aurel, Marc Aureli, Marc Aureliu, Marc Aurelius, Marc Aurèle, Marc Aurèli, Marc-Aurèle, Marcu Aureliu, Marcus Aelius Antoninus, Marcus Annius Catilius Severus, Marcus Arelias, Marcus Aureleus, Marcus Aurelianus, Marcus Aurelias, Marcus Aurelias Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Marcus Aurelius Antonius, Marcus arelius, Marcus aurelius antoninus, Marcus severus, Marcus the Wise, Marek Aureliusz, Mark Aurel, Mark Avreli, Mark Avrelij, Markas Aurelijus, Marko Aurelije, Marko Aurelio, Marko Aŭrelio, Marks Aurēlijs, Markus Aurelius, Markús Árelíus, Μάρκος Αυρήλιος.