48 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption cross section, Attenuation, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Beer–Lambert law, Bremsstrahlung, Cargo scanning, Chemical species, Collimated light, Compton edge, Compton scattering, Cross section (physics), Crystallography, Density, Diffraction, Dosimetry, Electromagnetic radiation, Energy, Gamma ray, High-energy X-rays, Interferometry, International System of Units, Kilogram, Light, Matter, Mean free path, Molar attenuation coefficient, Molar mass, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Pair production, Particle, Photoelectric effect, Photon, Propagation constant, Radiation, Radiation length, Radiography, Ray (optics), Rayleigh scattering, Scattering, Scattering theory, Simultaneous equations, Solution, Solvent, Sound, Transmittance, X-ray.

## Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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## Absorption cross section

Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.

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## Attenuation

In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium.

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## Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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## Attenuation length

In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.

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## Beer–Lambert law

The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling.

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## Bremsstrahlung

Bremsstrahlung (from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation", i.e. "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation") is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.

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## Cargo scanning

Cargo scanning or non-intrusive inspection (NII) refers to non-destructive methods of inspecting and identifying goods in transportation systems.

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## Chemical species

Chemical species are atoms, molecules, molecular fragments, ions, etc., subjected to a chemical process or to a measurement.

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## Collimated light

Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.

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## Compton edge

In spectrophotometry, the Compton edge is a feature of the spectrograph that results from the Compton scattering in the scintillator or detector.

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## Compton scattering

Compton scattering is the inelastic scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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## Cross section (physics)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made of discrete particles.

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## Crystallography

Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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## Dosimetry

Whilst Dosimetry in its original sense is the measurement of the absorbed dose delivered by ionizing radiation, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body.

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## Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.

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## Gamma ray

Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.

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## High-energy X-rays

High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).

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## Interferometry

Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic, are superimposed in order to extract information about the waves.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg), is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) (the Metric system) and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK).

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## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Matter

Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.

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## Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

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## Molar attenuation coefficient

The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.

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## Molar mass

In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by its amount of substance.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.

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## Pair production

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle, for example creating an electron and positron, a muon and antimuon, or a proton and antiproton.

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## Particle

A particle is a minute fragment or quantity of matter.

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## Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them.

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## Photon

No description.

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## Propagation constant

The propagation constant of an electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude of the wave as it propagates in a given direction.

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## Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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## Radiation length

In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.

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## Radiography

Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.

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## Ray (optics)

In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

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## Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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## Scattering

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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## Scattering theory

In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

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## Simultaneous equations

In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.

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## Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase.

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## Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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## Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water.

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## Transmittance

Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.

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## X-ray

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_attenuation_coefficient