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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, મુહમ્મદ અલી જિન્ના, محمد علی جناح (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. [1]

266 relations: Abdul Qayyum Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Advocate General, Aga Khan III, Ahmedabad, Akbar S. Ahmed, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad Address, Alyque Padamsee, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Annie Besant, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Assam, Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Attlee ministry, Ayesha Jalal, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Babrra massacre, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Baldev Singh, Balochistan, Bangladesh, Barristers in England and Wales, Bengal Presidency, Bengali language, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bhopal State, Bhulabhai Desai, Bhutto family, Bombay Presidency, British Empire, British Indian Army, British Raj, C. Rajagopalachari, Call to the bar, Canada Day, Caucus Case, Central Legislative Assembly, Charsadda, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Church Mission School, Cinnah Caddesi, City Law School, Classical liberalism, Clement Attlee, Command and Staff College, Communalism (South Asia), Conservative Party (UK), ..., Constituent Assembly of India, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Craven A, Cripps' mission, Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, Dadabhai Naoroji, DAWN (newspaper), Dehradun, Delhi, Devon Avenue (Chicago), Dewan, Dhaka, Dialectic, Dina Wadia, Direct Action Day, Dominion, Dominion of Pakistan, Douglas Gracey, East Pakistan, Edwin Samuel Montagu, Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, Eid prayers, F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, Father of the Nation, Fatima Jinnah, Finsbury Central (UK Parliament constituency), Fourteen Points of Jinnah, Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence, Gandhi (film), George V, George VI, George Washington, Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, Gondal State, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Government of India, Government of India Act 1919, Government of India Act 1935, Governor's House (Karachi), Governor-General of India, Governor-General of Pakistan, Graham's Shipping and Trading Company, Gujarati language, Gujarati people, Guntur, Hagiography, Hampstead, Hari Singh, Hector Bolitho, High Courts of Pakistan, Hindi, Home rule, Hormasji Maneckji Seervai, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Imperial Legislative Council, Independence Day (Pakistan), India, Indian anna, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Home Rule movement, Indian Military Academy, Indian National Congress, Indian pie, Indian Police Service, Indian provincial elections, 1937, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indore, Indus River, Inns of Court, Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir), Isma'ilism, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), Jawaharlal Nehru, Jhirk, Jinnah (film), Jinnah family, Jinnah House, Jinnah International Airport, Jinnah Tower, Jodhpur, John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Junagadh, Karachi, Karakul (hat), Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Khawaja Nazimuddin, Khilafat Movement, Khoja, Khudai Khidmatgar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Knight, Kutchi language, L. K. Advani, Labour Party (UK), Lahore, Lahore Resolution, Lala Lajpat Rai, Languages of India, Lawyer, Liaquat Ali Khan, Liberal Party (UK), Lincoln's Inn, List of civil rights leaders, List of peace activists, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Lohana, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Lucknow Pact, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Maharaja, Mahatma Gandhi, Maiden speech, Malabar Hill, Malik Ghulam Muhammad, Maryam Jinnah, Matriculation in India, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan, Mausoleum, Mazar-e-Quaid, Member of parliament, Member of the Legislative Assembly, Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway, Motilal Nehru, Muhammad, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11th August Speech, Muhammad Iqbal, Mumbai, Muslim League (Pakistan), Nagpur, Namesake, Nathuram Godse, Nazi Germany, Nehru Report, Neville Chamberlain, Neville Wadia, New Delhi, North-West Frontier Province (1901–55), Ottoman Caliphate, Pahlavi dynasty, Pakistan, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Declaration, Pakistan Minister of Finance, Pakistan Zindabad, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Pakistani rupee, Parsi, Partition of Bengal (1905), Partition of India, Pherozeshah Mehta, Politician, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Princely state, Probate, Public holidays in Pakistan, Punjab Province (British India), Pupillage, Quaid-e-Azam Residency, Queen Victoria, Quetta, Quit India Movement, Radcliffe Line, Rajmohan Gandhi, Ramsay MacDonald, Referendum, Richard Attenborough, Round Table Conferences (India), Rufus Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, Satyagraha, Secretary of State for India, Shah Nawaz Bhutto, Shia Islam, Shimla, Sikh, Simla Conference, Simon Commission, Sind Province (1936–55), Sindh, Sindh Madressatul Islam University, Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, Stafford Cripps, Stanley Baldwin, Stanley Wolpert, State Bank of Pakistan, Streptomycin, Suez Canal, Swaraj Party, Sylhet Division, The Cathedral & John Connon School, Tuberculosis, Twelver, Two-nation theory, United Kingdom general election, 1929, United Kingdom general election, 1945, United News of India, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, University of Mumbai, Urdu, Vali Nasr, Vallabhbhai Patel, Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, Waqf, Wazir Mansion, West Pakistan, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Ziarat, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India. Expand index (216 more) »

Abdul Qayyum Khan

Abdul QayyuQayyum m Khan (عبدالقیوم خان) (16 July 1901 – 22 October 1981) was a major figure in Pakistan politics, in particular in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, where he was deputy speaker, chief minister and minister in the central government and as federal interior minister.

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Abdur Rab Nishtar

Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, Pakistan movement activist and later Pakistani politician.

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Advocate General

An advocate general is a senior law officer of the law, usually charged with advising the courts or Government on legal matters.

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Aga Khan III

Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC (2 November 1877 – 11 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili community.

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Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad (also known as Amdavad Gujarati pronunciation) is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat.

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Akbar S. Ahmed

Akbar Salahuddin Ahmed, Sitara-i-Imtiaz, or Akbar Ahmed, is currently the Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies, American University in Washington, D.C. and was the First Distinguished Chair of Middle East and Islamic Studies at the US Naval Academy, Annapolis, and a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution.

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All-India Muslim League

The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.

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Allahabad Address

The Allahabad Address refers to the presidential address by Muhammad Iqbal to the 25th session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, British India.

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Alyque Padamsee

Alyque Padamsee is an Indian theater personality and ad film maker.

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Amritsar

Amritsar (ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ) historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western part in India and the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district in the state of Punjab.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country.

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Annie Besant

Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.

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Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior commander in the British Army.

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Assam

Assam (Ôxôm) is a state in Northeast India.

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Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated at the Birla House (now Gandhi Smriti) in New Delhi on 30 January 1948.

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Attlee ministry

Clement Attlee formed the Attlee Ministry in the United Kingdom in 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Ayesha Jalal

Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian.

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Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Muhammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 –19 April 1974), widely known as Ayub Khan, was the first military dictator and second President of Pakistan.

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Babrra massacre

The Babrra massacre occurred on 12th of August, 1948 in the Charsadda District of the North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa) of Pakistan, when unarmed workers of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement were fired upon by the provincial government on the orders of the then Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan.

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Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, journalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.

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Baldev Singh

Baldev Singh (बलदेव सिंह) was an Indian Sikh political leader, he was an Indian independence movement leader and the first Defence Minister of India.

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Balochistan

Balochistan or Baluchistan (بلوچستان, lit. Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region on the Iranian plateau in south-western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Sea.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Barristers in England and Wales

Barristers in England and Wales are one of the two main categories of lawyer in England and Wales, the other being solicitors.

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Bengal Presidency

The Bengal Presidency, originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond.

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Bengali language

Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.

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Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major parties in the Indian political system, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Bhopal State

Bhopal State (pronounced) was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state with 19 gun salute in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949.

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Bhulabhai Desai

Bhulabhai Desai (13 October 1877 – 6 May 1946) was an Indian independence activist and acclaimed lawyer.

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Bhutto family

Bhutto (ڀُٽو) is a Rajput clan found in Sindh, Pakistan.

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Bombay Presidency

The Bombay Presidency, also known as the Bombay Province and Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army was the principal army of India before independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.

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British Raj

The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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C. Rajagopalachari

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972), informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, independence activist, politician, writer and statesman.

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Call to the bar

The call to the bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions where persons must be qualified to be allowed to argue in court on behalf of another party, and are then said to have been "called to the bar" or to have received a "call to the bar".

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Canada Day

Canada Day (Fête du Canada) is the national day of Canada, a federal statutory holiday celebrating the anniversary of the July 1, 1867, enactment of the British North America Act, 1867 (today called the Constitution Act, 1867), which united three colonies into a single country called Canada within the British Empire.

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Caucus Case

The Caucus Case was a court case handled by Muhammad Ali Jinnah at the behest of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta at the Bombay High Court in 1905.

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Central Legislative Assembly

The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India.

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Charsadda

Charsadda (Pashto) is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Choudhry Rahmat Ali

Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (16 November 1895 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.

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Church Mission School

The Church Mission School (CMS) is a complex in Karachi, Pakistan.

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Cinnah Caddesi

The Cinnah Caddesi (Cinnah cd on maps) is a major road located in the city of Ankara, the capital of Turkey.

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City Law School

The City Law School is one of the seven schools of City University in the City of London.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology, a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedom.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Command and Staff College

The Pakistan Army Command and Staff College is a prestigious Pakistani military educational institution where officers receive staff training and education.

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Communalism (South Asia)

Communalism is used in South Asia to denote attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity, incite strife between people identified as different communities, and to stimulate communal violence between those groups.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constituent Assembly of India

An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.

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Constituent Assembly of Pakistan

The constituent assembly of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান গণপরিষদ, Pākistān Gaṇāpāriṣād; آئین ساز اسمبلی, Aāin Sāz Asimblī.), was formed to write Pakistan's constitution, and serve as its first parliament.

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Craven A

Craven "A" is a brand of cigarette manufactured in Canada, Jamaica, Vietnam, and North Korea.

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Cripps' mission

The Cripps mission was an attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.

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Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe

Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe GBE, PC, QC (30 March 1899 – 1 April 1977) was a British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India.

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Dadabhai Naoroji

Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader.

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DAWN (newspaper)

DAWN is Pakistan's oldest and most widely read English-language newspaper in Pakistan.

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Dehradun

Dehradun is the capital city of the state of Uttarakhand in the northern part of India.

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Delhi

Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is the Capital territory of India.

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Devon Avenue (Chicago)

Devon Avenue is a major east-west thoroughfare in the Chicago metropolitan area.

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Dewan

The originally Persian title of dewan (also quite commonly known as Diwan; also spelled -van) has, at various points in Islamic history, designated a powerful government official, minister or ruler.

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Dhaka

Dhaka (ঢাকা,;,; formerly known as Dacca) is the capital of Bangladesh.

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Dialectic

Dialectic (also dialectics and the dialectical method), from Ancient Greek διαλεκτική, is a method of argument for resolving disagreement that has been central to European and Indian philosophy since antiquity.

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Dina Wadia

Dina Wadia (born Dina Jinnah August 15, 1919) is the daughter and only child of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan.

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Direct Action Day

Direct Action Day (প্রত্যক্ষ সংগ্রাম দিবস) (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.

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Dominion of Pakistan

Dominion of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য, Pakistan ôdhirajyô; مملکتِ پاکستان, Mumlikāt-ē Pākistān), also usually called Pakistan; was an independent federal Dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the Partition of India into two sovereign countries (the other being the Dominion of India).

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Douglas Gracey

General Sir Douglas David Gracey & Bar (3 September 1894 – 5 June 1964) was a British Indian Army officer in both the First and Second World Wars.

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East Pakistan

East Pakistan (পূর্ব পাকিস্তান; مشرقی پاکستان), present-day Bangladesh, was a provincial state of Pakistan that existed in the Bengal region of the northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme that laid the existence of East Pakistan.

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Edwin Samuel Montagu

Edwin Samuel Montagu PC (6 February 1879 – 15 November 1924) was a radical British Liberal politician who served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922.

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Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma

Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, (28 November 1901 – 21 February 1960) was an English heiress, socialite, relief-worker, wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, and last Vicereine of India.

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Eid prayers

Eid prayers, also known as Salat al-Eid (صلاة العيد) and Salat al-Eidain (صلاة العيدين), is the special prayer offered to commemorate two Islamic festivals.

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F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead

Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, GCSI, PC, KC (12 July 1872 – 30 September 1930), best known to history as F. E. Smith, was a British Conservative statesman and lawyer who attained high office in the early 20th century, most notably Lord Chancellor.

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Father of the Nation

Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.

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Fatima Jinnah

Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 30 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.

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Finsbury Central (UK Parliament constituency)

Finsbury Central was a parliamentary constituency centred on the Finsbury district of North London.

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Fourteen Points of Jinnah

The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.

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Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence

Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence PC (28 December 1871 – 10 September 1961) was a British Labour politician.

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Gandhi (film)

Gandhi is a 1982 epic biographical film which dramatises the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century.

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George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death.

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George Washington

George Washington (Contemporary records, which used the Julian calendar and the Annunciation Style of enumerating years, recorded his birth as February 11, 1731. The provisions of the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 (it had been March 25). These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and for those between January 1 and March 25, an advance of one year. For a further explanation, see: Old Style and New Style dates. –, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–97), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Ghulam Ahmed Pervez

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez (غلام احمد پرویز; 1903–1985) was a scholar from pre-Independence India and later Pakistan.

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Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto

Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (9 July 18451 March 1914) was a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.

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Gondal State

Gondal State was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency during Bombay Presidency.

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Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India.

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Government of India

The Government of India (GoI), officially known as the Union Government and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India.

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Government of India Act 1919

The Government of India Act (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Government of India Act 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to have been the longest (British) Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time.

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Governor's House (Karachi)

The Governor's House (گورنر ہاؤس; previously known as the Government House, Governor-General's House and President's House) in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan is the official residence of the Governor of Sindh.

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Governor-General of India

The Governor-General of India or the Viceroy and Governor-General of India (commonly shortened to Viceroy of India), from 1858 to 1947, was originally the titular and executive head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian monarch and head of state.

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Governor-General of Pakistan

The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.

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Graham's Shipping and Trading Company

Graham's Shipping and Trading Company was the company with which the father of Mohammed Ali Jinnah - the founder of Pakistan - did business.

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Gujarati language

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Gujarati people

Gujarati people or Gujaratis are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group of India that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking.

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Guntur

Guntur; is a city in the Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Hagiography

A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Hampstead

Hampstead, commonly known as Hampstead Village, is an area of London, England, north-west of Charing Cross.

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Hari Singh

Hari Singh (born 23 September 1895 in Jammu; died 26 April 1961 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Hector Bolitho

(Henry) Hector Bolitho (28 May 1897 – 12 September 1974) was a New Zealand author, novelist and biographer, who had 59 books published.

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High Courts of Pakistan

There are five High Courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces.

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Hindi

Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Home rule

Home rule is the power of a constituent part (administrative division) of a state to exercise such of the state's powers of governance within its own administrative area that have been decentralized to it by the central government.

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Hormasji Maneckji Seervai

Hormasji "Homi" Maneckji Seervai (1906–1996) was an Indian eminent jurist, lawyer and author.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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Imperial Legislative Council

The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947.

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Independence Day (Pakistan)

Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian anna

An Anna was a currency unit formerly used in India, equal to 1/16 rupee.

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Indian Civil Service (British India)

The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the élite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.

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Indian Home Rule movement

The All India Home Rule League was a national political organisation founded in april 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule, and to obtain the status of a Dominion within the British Empire as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time.

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Indian Military Academy

The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.

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Indian pie

A pie (abbreviated as Ps) was a unit of currency in India, Burma and Pakistan until 1947.

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Indian Police Service

The Indian Police Service (Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India.

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Indian provincial elections, 1937

Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.

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Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to June 1858.

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Indira Gandhi

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the first female Prime Minister of India and central figure of the Indian National Congress party.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.

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Indore

Indore is a tier 2 city, the largest city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh by population.

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Indus River

The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Inns of Court

The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.

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Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.

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Isma'ilism

(الإسماعيلية; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Ismaili) is a branch of Shia Islam whose adherents are also known as Seveners and Agha Khanies.

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when a crowd of nonviolent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab were fired upon by troops of the British Indian Army under the command of General Reginald Dyer.

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Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state in the British Empire in India, and was ruled by Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.

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Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.

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Jhirk

Jhirk also spelt as Jerruck is a small town on the right bank of River Indus, in district Thatta, province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Jinnah (film)

Jinnah is a 1998 epic biographical film which follows the life of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

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Jinnah family

The Jinnah family (خاندان جناح; -gu) was a political family in India and Pakistan.

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Jinnah House

Jinnah House was the residence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan; in Mumbai, India.

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Jinnah International Airport

Jinnah International Airport (جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is Pakistan's largest international and domestic airport.

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Jinnah Tower

Jinnah Tower is a monument in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh dedicated to the founding father of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

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Jodhpur

Jodhpur (Hindi: जोधपुर) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

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John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon (28 February 1873 – 11 January 1954) was a British politician who held senior Cabinet posts from the beginning of the First World War to the end of the Second.

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Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom.

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Junagadh

Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Karachi

Karachi (ڪراچي, کراچی / ALA-LC) is the capital of the province of Sindh, as well as the largest and most populous metropolitan city of Pakistan.

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Karakul (hat)

A Karakul (or Qaraqul) hat (Urdu, Pashto, Persian: قراقلی; is a hat made from the fur of the Qaraqul breed of sheep, often from the fur of aborted lamb foetuses. Fox News The triangular hat is part of the costume of the native people of Kabul which has been worn by generations dating back in Afghanistan. The fur from which it is made is referred to as Astrakhan, broadtail, qaraqulcha, or Persian lamb. Qaraqul means Black fur in Turkic, similar types of hats are common among Turkic peoples. The hat is peaked, and folds flat when taken off of the wearer's head. The qaraqul hat is typically worn by men in Central and South Asia. The folding Qaraqul was worn by the former king of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khan in 1919. Thereafter, every Afghan king or president has worn this hat. It is a traditional Kabuli costume.

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Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan

Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (خان عبدالجبار خان) (born 1882, Utmanzai – 9 May 1958, Lahore), popularly known as Dr.

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Khawaja Nazimuddin

Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, KCIE (خواجہ ناظم الدین; খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964) was a politician and statesman from the Dhaka Nawab Family who served as 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan after the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan from 15 October 1951 to 1953 and successed Mohammad Ali Bogra as third prime minister.

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Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat movement (1919-1926) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government.

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Khoja

The Khojas (کوجا، خوجا، خواجا, Hodja, Hoca), Hoxha) are a group of diverse people who converted to Islam in South Asia. The word Khoja derives from Khwāja (New Persian Khājé), a Persian honorific title (خواجه) of pious individuals from Central Asia, South Asia and the Middle East. In India, most Khojas live in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and the city of Hyderabad. Many Khojas have also migrated and settled over the centuries in East Africa, Europe and North America. The Khoja were by then adherents of Nizārī Ismā'īlīsm. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the aftermath of the Aga Khan Case a significant minority separated and adopted Twelver Shi'ism or Sunni Islam, while the majority remained Nizārī Ismā'īlī.

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Khudai Khidmatgar

Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa abbreviated as KPK (خیبر پښتونخوا.), formerly known as '''North-West Frontier Province''' abbreviated as NWFP, in Urdu Sarhad (means Frontier), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country.

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Knight

A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the Monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.

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Kutchi language

Kutchi (also spelt Cutchi, Kutchhi) or Kachhi (Kachchi) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat as well as in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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L. K. Advani

Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) is an Indian politician and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Lahore

Lahore (ALA-LC:; لہور, لاہور ALA-LC) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, the second largest metropolitan area in the country and 16th most populous city in the world.

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Lahore Resolution

The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Qarardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab), also known as the Pakistan Resolution (قرارداد پاکستان, Qarardad-e-Pakistan), was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on March 22–24, 1940.

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Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian Punjabi author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian Independence movement.

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Languages of India

There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by most of the rest of Indians.

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Lawyer

A lawyer is a person who practices law, as a barrister, judge, attorney, counsel (counselor at law) or solicitor.

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Liaquat Ali Khan

Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān, Urdu and لیاقت علی خان; October 1895 – 16 October 1951), often simply referred as Liaquat, was one of the leading Founding Fathers of modern Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he was also the first Defence Minister of Pakistan, the first Finance Minister of India, and the minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.

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Lincoln's Inn

The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar.

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List of civil rights leaders

Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.

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List of peace activists

This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.

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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.

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Lohana

The Lohana, also referred to as Luvana and Luhana, are an Indian caste, traditionally largely occupied as merchants.

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Lords of Appeal in Ordinary

Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the House of Lords of the United Kingdom in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.

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Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.

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Lucknow Pact

Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties, held in Lucknow, in the year 1916.

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Madan Mohan Malaviya

Madan Mohan Malaviya ((1861–1946) was an Indian educationist and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and as the four time president of Indian National Congress. He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and also addressed as 'Mahamana'. Malaviya is most remembered as the founder of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, which was created under the B.H.U. Act, 1915. The largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, having over 35,000 students across arts, sciences, engineering, medical, agriculture, performing arts, law and technology. Malaviya was Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from 1919–1938 Malaviya was the founder of Ganga Mahasabha at Haridwar in 1905, Malaviya was the President of the Indian National Congress on two occasions (1909, 1918). He left Congress in 1934. He was a member of the Hindu Mahasabha. He was a president of the special session of Hindu Mahasabha in Gaya in 1922 and in Kashi in 1923. Malaviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India. He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909. He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936. Malaviya was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary.

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Maharaja

Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled maharajah) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.

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Maiden speech

A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament.

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Malabar Hill

Malabar Hill, a hillock in southern Mumbai, India is an upmarket VVIP residential area which has the Government Guest House Sahaydri, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra's Bungalow, official residences of VIP state officials, famous Hanging Gardens, Jain Temple & Banganga Tank.

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Malik Ghulam Muhammad

Malik Sir Ghulam Muhammad CIE (Bengali: মালিক গোলাম মাহমুদ; 20 April 1895 – 12 September 1956) was a Pakistani civil servant who served as the third Governor-General of Pakistan from October 1951 until his dismissal in August 1955.

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Maryam Jinnah

Rattanbai "Ruttie" Petit Jinnah (મરિયમ ઝીણા, before marriage (રતનબાઇ પેતીત; "The Flower of Bombay"); February 20, 1900 – February 20, 1929), was the second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah—an important figure in the Indian Independence Movement and later founder of Pakistan.

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Matriculation in India

In India, "matriculation" (sometimes called "matric") is a term commonly used to refer to the final year of high school, which ends at tenth standard (tenth grade) and the qualification received on finishing the tenth standard (tenth grade) of high school and passing the or the state board exams, commonly called "matriculation exams".

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Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan

Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan or M. T. Khan (1889 - 19 August 1963), was President (speaker) of Pakistan's Constituent Assembly from 1948 to 1954 and National Assembly of Pakistan between 1962 and 1963.

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Mausoleum

A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.

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Mazar-e-Quaid

Mazar-e-Quaid (مزار قائد), also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, as well as his sister, Māder-e Millat (Mother of the Nation) Fatima Jinnah, and Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member of the Legislative Assembly

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), or a Member of the Legislature (ML), is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to the legislature or legislative assembly of a sub-national jurisdiction.

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Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway

Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway is a short expressway in Tehran that connects Second Sadeghiye Square to Azadi Square.

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Motilal Nehru

Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929.

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Muhammad

Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11th August Speech

Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11th August Speech is a speech made by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founding father of Pakistan and known as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader) to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.

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Muhammad Iqbal

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اقبال) (9 November 1877 – 21 April 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), was an academic, poet, barrister, philosopher, and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Muslim League (Pakistan)

Muslim League (مسلم لیگ) was the original successor of All India Muslim League that led the Pakistan Movement achieving an independent nation.

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Nagpur

Nagpur (Nāgpur) is the second capital and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.

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Namesake

Namesake is a term used to characterize a person, place, thing, quality, action, state, or idea that has the same, or a similar, name to another - especially (but not exclusively) if the person or thing is actually named after another, rather than merely sharing the name of another.

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Nathuram Godse

Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was a militant Hindu nationalist activist from India, who is known for the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nehru Report

The Nehru Report in August 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India.

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Neville Chamberlain

Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.

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Neville Wadia

Neville Ness Wadia (22 August 1911 – 31 July 1996) was an Indian businessman, philanthropist and a member of the Wadia family, an old Parsi family which, by the 1840s, was one of the leading forces in the Indian shipbuilding industry, having built over a hundred warships for the British and having established trading networks around the world.

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New Delhi

New Delhi is a district in Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India.

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North-West Frontier Province (1901–55)

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a former province created by the British in their controlled territories in Indian Subcontinent then called British India.

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Ottoman Caliphate

The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Army

The Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Pakistan Declaration

Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.

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Pakistan Minister of Finance

The Finance Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Finance and serves in the Prime Minister's cabinet.

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Pakistan Zindabad

Pakistan Zindabad (پاکستان زِنده باد —,; lit. Long Live Pakistan) is a slogan used by Pakistanis as an expression of victory or patriotism.

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Pakistani presidential election, 1965

Presidential elections were held in Pakistan on 2 January 1965.

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Pakistani rupee

The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; ISO code: PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan.

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Parsi

Parsi (or Parsee) is one of two Zoroastrian communities (the other being Iranis) which are primarily located in India.

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Partition of Bengal (1905)

The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গভঙ্গ) was announced in July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947.

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Pherozeshah Mehta

Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, KCIE (4 August 1845 – 5 November 1915) was a Parsi Indian political leader, activist, and a leading lawyer of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), India, who was knighted by the British Government in India for his service to the law.

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Politician

A politician (from Classical Greek πόλις, "polis") is a person holding or seeking an office within a government, usually by means of an election, voted for either by people or by a definitive group in the government.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وَزِیرِ اَعظَم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic." The Prime minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economical growth, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, and is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals.

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Princely state

A princely state (also called native state (legally) or Indian state) was a nominally sovereign entity of India during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler under a form of indirect rule, subject to a subsidiary alliance and the suzerainty or paramountcy of the British Crown.

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Probate

Probate is a legal document.

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Public holidays in Pakistan

Public holidays in Pakistan are celebrated according to Islamic or Gregorian calendars for religious and civil purposes, respectively.

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Punjab Province (British India)

Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.

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Pupillage

A pupillage, in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland, is the barrister's equivalent of the training contract that a solicitor undertakes.

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Quaid-e-Azam Residency

Quaid-e-Azam Residency (قائد اعظم ریزڈنسی—), also known as Ziarat Residency, is located in Ziarat, Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Quetta

Quetta (کوئٹہ, کوټه, کویته) is the provincial capital of Balochistan, Pakistan and 9th largest city of Pakistan.

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Quit India Movement

The Quit India Movement (भारत छोड़ो आन्दोलन), or the India August Movement (August Kranti), was a civil disobedience movement launched in India during World War II on 9 August 1942 by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

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Radcliffe Line

The Radcliffe Line was published on 17 August 1947 as a boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan upon the Partition of India.

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Rajmohan Gandhi

Rajmohan Gandhi (born 1935) in New Delhi, is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, and a research professor at the Center for South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

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Ramsay MacDonald

James Ramsay MacDonald, FRS (12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, leading a Labour Government in 1924, a Labour Government from 1929 to 1931, and a National Government from 1931 to 1935.

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Referendum

A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite — or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal.

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Richard Attenborough

Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (29 August 192324 August 2014) was an English actor, film director, film producer, entrepreneur and politician.

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Round Table Conferences (India)

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.

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Rufus Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading

Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading (10 October 1860 – 30 December 1935) was the Viceroy of India (1921–25), barrister, jurist and the last member of the official Liberal Party to serve as Foreign Secretary.

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Satyagraha

Satyagraha (सत्याग्रह satyāgraha), loosely translated as "insistence on truth" (satya "truth"; agraha "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force, is a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance.

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Secretary of State for India

The Secretary of State for India, or India Secretary, was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of Aden, British India and Burma.

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Shah Nawaz Bhutto

Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, (شاہ نواز بهُٹو), OIE, OBE, OBI (1888–1957) (شھنواز ڀٽو), was a politician and a member of Bhutto family hailing from Larkana in Sindh province of British India, which is now part of Pakistan.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shimla

Shimla or in British Indian orthography, Simla, is the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, located in northern India.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.

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Simla Conference

The Simla Conference1945 was a meeting between Viceroy and the major political leaders of India at Simla, India.

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Simon Commission

The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament of United Kingdom that had been dispatched to India in 1928 to study constitutional reform in Britain's most important colonial dependency.

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Sind Province (1936–55)

Sindh was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.

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Sindh

Sindh سندھ; (سنڌ (Perso- Arabic); Indus; Ἰνδός; Sindhu) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the south east of the country.

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Sindh Madressatul Islam University

Sindh Madressatul Islam University (سندھ مدرسۃ الاسلام; سنڌ مدرسته الاسلام) is a university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan

The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسﭘيكر نيشنل اسمبلى); informally as Speaker National assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.

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Stafford Cripps

Sir Richard Stafford Cripps CH FRS (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the 20th century.

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Stanley Baldwin

Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British Conservative politician, who dominated the government in his country between the two world wars.

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Stanley Wolpert

Stanley Wolpert (born December 23, 1927) is an American academic, Indologist, and author considered one of the world's foremost authorities2005 UCLA International Institute blog reporting on the publication of Wolpert's 2002 book, Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid.

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State Bank of Pakistan

The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP; بینک دولت پاکستان) is the central bank of Pakistan.

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Streptomycin

Streptomycin is an antibiotic (antimycobacterial) drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and it was the first effective treatment for tuberculosis.

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Suez Canal

The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

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Swaraj Party

The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in December 1922 that sought greater self-government and political freedoms for the Indian people from the British Raj.

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Sylhet Division

Sylhet Division (সিলেট বিভাগ, Silet Bibhag), also known as Greater Sylhet or Sylhet region, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet.

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The Cathedral & John Connon School

The Cathedral & John Connon School is a co-educational, private school located in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Twelver

Twelver (اثنا عشرية, Athnā‘ashariyyah or Ithnā‘ashariyyah; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) Shia Islam or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Two-nation theory

The two-nation theory (دو-قومی نظریہ — Dō-qaumī naẓariyah, Devanagari: दो-क़ौमी नज़रिया, দ্বিজাতি তত্ত্ব — Dijati totto) is the ideology that the primary identity and unifying denominator of Muslims in the South Asian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nations, regardless of ethnic or other commonalities.

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United Kingdom general election, 1929

The 1929 United Kingdom general election was held on 30 May 1929, and resulted in a hung parliament.

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United Kingdom general election, 1945

The United Kingdom general election of 1945 was a general election held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.

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United News of India

United News of India (UNI) is a multilingual news agency in India.

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United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.

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University of Mumbai

The University of Mumbai is one of the first three state universities in India and the oldest in Maharashtra.

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.

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Vali Nasr

Vali Reza Nasr (ولی‌ رضا نصر, born 20 December 1960) is an American academic and author specializing in the Middle East and the Islamic world.

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Vallabhbhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of the Republic of India.

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Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow

Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow KG, KT, GCSI, GCIE, OBE, PC (24 September 18875 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General and Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943.

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Waqf

A waqf, also spelled wakf, (وقف, pronounced; plural أوقاف, awqāf; vakıf, وقف), or mortmain property, is, under the context of 'sadaqah', an inalienable religious endowment in Islamic law, typically donating a building or plot of land or even cash for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.

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Wazir Mansion

Wazir Mansion or official Quaid-i-Azam Birthplace Museum was a family home in the Kharadar district of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan which is considered the birthplace of the country's founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

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West Pakistan

West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Ziarat

Ziarat (زیارت) is the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan.

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1946 Cabinet Mission to India

The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Government to Indian leadership, providing India with independence.

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Redirects here:

Ali Jinnah, Baba e Qaum, Baba-e-Qaum, Baba-e-qaum, Baba-i-Qaum, Bani-e-Pakistan, Creator of Pakistan, Father of Pakistan, Founder of Pakistan, Founding Father of Pakistan, Jinah, Jinnah, Jinnah Day, Jinnah day, Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, Jinnah, Muhammad A., Jinnahbhai Poonja, M A Jinnah, M. A. Jinnah, M. Ali Jinnah, M.A. Jinnah, Ma jinnah, Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Mahomed Ali Jinnahbhai, Mahomed ali Jinnahbhai, Mahomedali Jinnah, Mahomedali Jinnahbhai, Mohamad Ali Jinnah, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Mohammad-Ali Jinnah, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Mohammed Jinnah, Muhammad A. Jinnah, Muhammad Jinnah, Muhammad ali jinnah, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Muhammmad Ali Jinnah, Qaed-e-Azam, Qaid-e-Azam, Qaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid Azam, Quaid e Azam, Quaid e Azam Day, Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid e Azam day, Quaid i Azam, Quaid-e Azam, Quaid-e-Azam, Quaid-e-Azam Day, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Quaid-e-Azam day, Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-i-Azam, Quaid-i-Azam Day, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Quaid-i-Azam day, Quid-e-Azam, Sayings of Jinnah, بابائے قوم, قائد اعظم, محمد علی جناح, મુહમ્મદ અલી જિન્ના.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali_Jinnah

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