293 relations: Aeronautics, Aerospace, Airlock, Alan Shepard, Alexei Kosygin, Ames Research Center, Andriyan Nikolayev, Antares (rocket), Apogee Books, Apollo 11, Apollo 17, Apollo 8, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo program, Apollo Telescope Mount, Ares V, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Assembly of the International Space Station, Asteroid belt, Astronaut, Astronaut badge, Astronomical object, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Astrophysics, Atlas LV-3B, Atlas V, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmospheric entry, Automated Transfer Vehicle, Avionics, Awards and decorations of the United States government, Ballistics, Balls 8, Barack Obama, Bell X-1, Big Bang, Bigelow Aerospace, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Budget of NASA, Buzz Aldrin, California Institute of Technology, Canadian Space Agency, Cassini–Huygens, Charles Bolden, Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, Circumlunar trajectory, Citizenship in the United States, Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer, Combustion, Commercial Crew Development, ..., Communications satellite, Constellation program, CST-100 Starliner, Curiosity (rover), Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus Orb-D1, DARPA, Dava Newman, Dawn (spacecraft), Delta IV Heavy, Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office, Docking and berthing of spacecraft, Dragon (spacecraft), Dragon C2+, Dragon V2, Drop test, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earth, Earth Observing System, European Space Agency, Exploration Flight Test 1, Exploration Mission 1, Explorer 1, Extravehicular activity, Falcon 9, Falcon 9 v1.1, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federal government of the United States, Federal Register, Flight airspeed record, Frederick D. Gregory, Galileo (spacecraft), Gas giant, Gemini 3, Glenn Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gordon Cooper, Gravity assist, Great Observatories program, Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite, Gus Grissom, H-II Transfer Vehicle, Heat transfer, Heliophysics, Houston, HowStuffWorks, Hubble Space Telescope, Human mission to Mars, Human spaceflight, Hydrazine, Hypergolic propellant, Hypersonic speed, In situ, In-situ resource utilization, Integrated Truss Structure, International Geophysical Year, International Space Station, James E. Webb, JAXA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John F. Kennedy, John Glenn, John Young (astronaut), Joseph A. Walker, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Kennedy Space Center, Kerosene, Kibo (ISS module), Landfill gas, Langley Research Center, Launch Control Center, Launch Services Program, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA, List of Apollo astronauts, List of government space agencies, List of International Space Station expeditions, List of International Space Station visitors, List of NASA aircraft, List of NASA missions, List of NASA websites, List of space exploration milestones, 1957–1969, List of United States rockets, Lori Garver, Low Earth orbit, Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, Lunar orbit, Lunar outpost (NASA), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Magellan (spacecraft), Magnetic field, Man in Space Soonest, Manhattan Project, Mariner 10, Mariner 2, Mariner 4, Mariner 9, Mariner program, Mars, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Scout Program, Marshall Space Flight Center, MAVEN, Mercury (planet), Mercury Seven, Mercury-Atlas 6, Mercury-Atlas 9, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, MESSENGER, Meteoroid, Michael Collins (astronaut), Micro-g environment, Mile, Mir, Mir-2, Moon, Moon landing, NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, NASA Astronaut Corps, NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA Headquarters, NASA insignia, NASA Railroad, NASA Research Park, NASA Sustainability Base, NASA TV, NASAcast, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Aeronautics and Space Act, National Air and Space Museum, National Reconnaissance Office, National security, Near-Earth object, Neil Armstrong, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Neptune, New Horizons, Nikita Khrushchev, North American Aviation, North American X-15, Opportunity (rover), Orbit, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orion (spacecraft), Outline of space science, Pavel Popovich, Photovoltaic system, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pluto, Premier of the Soviet Union, President of the United States, Progress (spacecraft), Project Vanguard, Proton (rocket family), Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Reaction control system, Reaction Motors, Request for proposal, Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, Richard H. Truly, Richard Nixon, Robert H. Goddard, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket-powered aircraft, Russia, Russian Federal Space Agency, Russian Orbital Segment, Satellite, Saturn, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn IB, Saturn V, Seismology, Sergei Korolev, Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, Shuttle–Mir Program, Skylab, Small Explorer program, Soil mechanics, Solar System, Solar wind, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz (spacecraft), Space capsule, Space exploration, Space Launch System, Space policy of the Barack Obama administration, Space Race, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Space Shuttle main engine, Space station, Space Station Freedom, Space suit, Spacelab, Spaceplane, SpaceX, Spirit (rover), Sputnik 1, Sputnik crisis, STS-107, STS-31, STS-61, T. Keith Glennan, Technology, The New York Times, United States Air Force, United States Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Uranus, US Orbital Segment, V-2 rocket, Vehicle Assembly Building, Venus, Viking 1, Voskhod (spacecraft), Vostok 1, Vostok 3, Vostok 4, Vostok programme, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Washington, D.C., Wernher von Braun, Yuri Gagarin, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2012 National Reconnaissance Office space telescope donation to NASA. Expand index (243 more) » « Shrink index
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation of the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
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An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.
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Alan Bartlett "Al" Shepard, Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998), (RADM, USN), was an American naval officer and aviator, test pilot, flag officer, one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, and businessman, who in 1961 became the second person and the first American to travel into space.
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Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
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Ames Research Center (ARC), commonly known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
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Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (Chuvash and Андриян Григорьевич Николаев; 5 September 1929 – 3 July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
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Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now Orbital ATK) to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS and CRS programs.
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Apogee Books is an imprint of Canadian publishing house Collector's Guide Publishing.
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Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.
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Apollo 17 was the final mission of the United States' Apollo program, the enterprise that landed the first humans on the Moon.
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Apollo 8, the second human spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
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The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of two spacecraft, along with the Lunar Module, used for the United States Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
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The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.
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The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011.
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The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the US Army's first large ballistic missile.
The process of assembling the International Space Station (ISS) has been under way since the 1990's.
The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
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An astronaut (or cosmonaut) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
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The astronaut badge is a badge of the United States, awarded to military and civilian pilots who have completed training and performed a successful spaceflight.
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An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe.
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Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a website provided by NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU).
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space." Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background.
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The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a man-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury to send astronauts into low Earth orbit.
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Atlas V is an active expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
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The atmosphere of Mars is the layer of gases surrounding Mars.
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Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object into and through the gases of a planet's atmosphere from outer space.
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The Automated Transfer Vehicle, originally Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA).
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Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
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Awards and decorations of the United States government are civilian awards of the U.S. federal government which are typically issued for sustained meritorious service, in a civilian capacity, while serving in the U.S. federal government.
Ballistics (from Greek βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the science of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
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Balls 8 is a NASA Boeing NB-52B mothership, retired in 2004 after almost 50 years of flying service with NASA.
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Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.
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The Bell X-1, designated originally as XS-1, was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics-U.S. Army Air Forces-U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by the Bell Aircraft Company.
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The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
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Bigelow Aerospace is an American space technology startup company, based in North Las Vegas, Nevada that is pioneering work on expandable space station modules.
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The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
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As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress.
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Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. (born January 20, 1930) is an American engineer and former astronaut, and the second person to walk on the Moon.
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The California Institute of Technology or CaltechThe university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) (Agence spatiale canadienne; ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
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Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn.
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Charles Frank Bolden, Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is the current Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and former NASA astronaut.
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NASA's Christopher C. Kraft, Jr.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
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Citizenship in the United States, being a citizen, is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
The Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) was a European Space Agency (ESA) program to develop a space station that could be used for a variety of microgravity experiments while serving ESA's needs for an autonomous manned space platform (for an image, see). It consisted of a Columbus module docked to a service module containing solar power collectors, communications and other services.
Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
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Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase space technology development program, funded by the U.S. government, and administered by NASA.
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A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies through the use of a transponder, radio telecommunications signals, between a source and a receiver.
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The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) was a human spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
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The CST-100 Starliner (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft design under construction by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace as their entry for NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
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Curiosity is a car-sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
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The Cygnus spacecraft is an automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program.
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Cygnus Orb-D1, also known as Cygnus 1 and Orbital Sciences COTS Demo Flight, was the first flight of the Cygnus unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation.
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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
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Dava J. Newman is Deputy Administrator of NASA, and Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
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The Delta IV Heavy (Delta 9250H) is an expendable heavy lift launch vehicle, the largest type of the Delta IV family, and the world's highest capacity rocket currently in operation.
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The Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office (DDMS) coordinated all United States Department of Defense (DoD) contingency support to United States NASA manned space flight programs.
The docking and berthing of spacecraft roughly refers to the joining of two vehicles.
Dragon is a partially reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
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Dragon C2+, also known as SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 2 (COTS 2), was the second test-flight for SpaceX's uncrewed Dragon cargo spacecraft, launched on the third flight of the company's two-stage Falcon 9 launch vehicle.
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Dragon V2 (aka Crew Dragon, or Dragon 2, and formerly, DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft which will be a human-rated vehicle capable of making a terrestrial soft landing.
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A drop test is a method of testing the in-flight characteristics of prototype or experimental aircraft and spacecraft by raising the test vehicle to a specific altitude and then releasing it.
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Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (pronounced,; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961, and the last U.S. President to have been born in the 19th century.
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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
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Exploration Flight Test 1 or EFT-1 (previously known as Orion Flight Test 1 or OFT-1) was the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
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Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
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Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
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Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
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Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
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Falcon 9 v1.1 is the second version of SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket-powered spaceflight launch system.
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The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, FAI – The World Air Sports Federation, is the world governing body for air sports, aeronautics and astronautics world records.
The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.
The Federal Register, abbreviated FR or sometimes Fed.
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An air speed record is the highest airspeed attained by an aircraft of a particular class.
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Frederick Drew Gregory (born January 7, 1941), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force pilot, military engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut as well as former NASA Deputy Administrator.
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Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
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A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
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Gemini 3 was the first manned mission in NASA's Gemini program, the second American manned space program.
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NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park, Cleveland, and Fairview Park, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Cleveland Metroparks's Rocky River Reservation, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
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The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center.
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Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper, Jr. (March 6, 1927 – October 4, 2004), (Col, USAF), better known as Gordon Cooper, was an American aerospace engineer, test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, and one of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States.
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In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically in order to save propellant, time, and expense.
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NASA's series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based telescopes.
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The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite or GOSAT, also known as, is an Earth observation satellite and the world's first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gas-monitoring.
Virgil Ivan Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), better known as Gus Grissom, was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, test pilot, mechanical engineer, and a United States Air Force pilot.
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The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), also called, is an automated cargo spacecraft used to resupply the ''Kibō'' Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and the International Space Station (ISS).
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Heat transfer is the exchange of thermal energy between physical systems, depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat.
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The term heliophysics means "physics of the Sun" (the prefix "helio" (Attic Greek: helios) means Sun), and appears to have been used only in that sense until quite recently.
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Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the American South, and the fourth most populous city in the United States.
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HowStuffWorks is an American commercial edutainment website that was founded by Marshall Brain with the goal of giving its target audience an insight into the way in which many things work.
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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.
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A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, engineering, and scientific proposals throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century.
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Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft.
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Hydrazine (systematically named diazane or tetrahydridodinitrogen(N—N)) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written). It is a colourless flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odor.
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A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one where the propellants spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
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In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
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In situ (or; often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
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In space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is defined as "the collection, processing, storing and use of materials encountered in the course of human or robotic space exploration that replace materials that would otherwise be brought from Earth." ISRU is the practice of leveraging resources found or manufactured on other astronomical objects (the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.) to fulfill or enhance the requirements and capabilities of a space mission.
The Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) of the International Space Station (ISS) consists of a linearly arranged sequence of connected trusses on which various unpressurized components are mounted, such as logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment.
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The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
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James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 – March 27, 1992) was an American government official who served as the second administrator of NASA from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968.
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The, or JAXA, is Japan's national aero-space agency.
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The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in Pasadena, California, United States.
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John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK), (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
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John Herschel Glenn, Jr. (born July 18, 1921), (Col, USMC, Ret.), is a former U.S. Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States senator.
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Captain John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a retired American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer, who became the ninth person to walk on the Moon as Commander of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972.
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Joseph Albert "Joe" Walker (February 20, 1921 – June 8, 1966), (Capt, USAF), was an American World War II pilot, experimental physicist, test pilot with NASA, and a member of the U.S. Air Force Man In Space Soonest spaceflight program.
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Juno is a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter.
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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.
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The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Launch Operations Center which supports Launch Complex 39 (LC-39), originally built for the Saturn V, the largest and most powerful operational launch vehicle in history, for the Apollo manned Moon landing program proposed by President John F. Kennedy.
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Kerosene, also known as lamp oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid widely used as a fuel in industry and households.
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The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), also known with the nickname, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
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Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
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Langley Research Center (LaRC) is the oldest of NASA's field centers, located in Hampton, Virginia, United States.
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The Launch Control Center (LCC) is a four-story building located at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida used for the supervision of launches from Launch Complex 39.
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Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for NASA oversight of launch operations and countdown management, providing added quality and mission assurance in lieu of the requirement for the launch service provider to obtain a commercial launch license.
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Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
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Liquid oxygen — abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries — is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
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The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States.
Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.
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This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
This is a chronological list of expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS).
This is a list of visitors to the International Space Station (ISS) in alphabetical order.
This is a list of NASA aircraft.
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This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958.
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This is an attempt to create a list of specific, official NASA websites which are currently available on the world wide web.
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This is a list of first achievements in spaceflight from the first artificial satellite through the Moon landing.
List of various rockets used by NASA and other American entities.
Lori Beth Garver (born May 22, 1961 in Lansing, Michigan) is the former Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
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A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude between (orbital period of about 88 minutes), and (about 127 minutes).
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The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging.
In astronomy, lunar orbit (also known as a Selenocentric orbit) refers to the orbit of an object around the Moon.
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A lunar outpost was an element of the George W. Bush era Vision for Space Exploration, which has been replaced with President Barack Obama's space policy.
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The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
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A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials.
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Man In Space Soonest (MISS) was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to put a man into outer space before the Soviet Union did.
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The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
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Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
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Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.
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Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
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Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
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The Mariner program was a program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) that launched a series of robotic interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury from 1962 to 1973.
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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
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Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
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Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
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Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
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Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
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The Mars Scout Program was a NASA initiative to send a series of small, low-cost robotic missions to Mars, competitively selected from innovative proposals by the scientific community.
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The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe designed to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.
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Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.
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The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959.
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Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.
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Mercury-Atlas 9 was the final manned space mission of the U.S. Mercury program, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
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Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7 was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
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The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster.
MESSENGER (a backronym of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging, and a reference to the Roman mythological messenger, Mercury) was a NASA robotic spacecraft which orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through space.
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Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930), Major General, USAF, Ret., is an American former astronaut and test pilot.
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The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym of weightlessness and zero-G, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero, just very small.
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The mile is an English unit of length equal to and standardised as exactly 1.609344 kilometres by international agreement in 1959.
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Mir (Мир,; lit. Peace) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, owned by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
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Mir-2 was a space station project which began in February 1976.
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The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.
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A moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
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The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) is a NASA program which is developing future space transportation systems.
The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions.
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The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 is a U.S. law which authorizes NASA appropriations for fiscal years 2011–2013 with the same top-line budget values as requested by President of the United States Barack Obama.
Two Independence Square, better known as NASA Headquarters, is a low-rise building in the two-building Independence Square complex at 300 E Street SW in Washington D.C. The building houses NASA leadership who provide overall guidance and direction to the US government executive branch agency NASA, under the leadership of the NASA administrator.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three main official designs, although the one with stylized red curved text (the "worm") has been retired from official use since 1992.
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The NASA Railroad is a Class III industrial short-line railroad at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
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NASA Research Park is a research park run by NASA which is developing a world-class, shared-use research and development campus in association with government entities, academia, industry and non-profit organisations.
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NASA Sustainability Base is a United States' government building located in Silicon Valley, that used a variety of technologies to be more efficient.
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NASA TV (originally NASA Select) is the television service of the United States government agency NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).
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NASAcast is the official audio and video podcast of the NASA website.
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The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution holds the largest collection of historic aircraft and spacecraft in the world in of exhibition floor space.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is one of the 17 U.S. intelligence agencies and considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), to be one of the "big five" U.S. Intelligence agencies.
National security is a concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of power projections, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might, and so on.
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A near-Earth object (NEO) is a small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth.
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Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon.
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Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, and science communicator.
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Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
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New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
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Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– September 11, 1971) was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.
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North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
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The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
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Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on the planet Mars since 2004.
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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System.
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Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is a spacecraft intended to carry a crew of up to four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science – study of everything in outer space.
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Pavel Romanovich Popovich (Па́вел Рома́нович Попо́вич, Павло Романович Попович, Pavlo Romanovych Popovych) (October 5, 1930 – September 29, 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
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A photovoltaic system, also solar PV power system, or PV system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
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Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
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Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259 kilogram (569 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the Solar System and heliosphere.
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Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
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The office of Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
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The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
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Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.
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Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
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A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
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Reaction Motors, Inc. (RMI) was an early American maker of liquid-fueled rocket engines, located in New Jersey.
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A request for proposal (RFP) is a solicitation, often made through a bidding process, by an agency or company interested in procurement of a commodity, service or valuable asset, to potential suppliers to submit business proposals.
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The Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee (also known as the HSF Committee, Augustine Commission or Augustine Committee) was a group reviewing the human spaceflight plans of the United States.
Richard Harrison Truly (born November 12, 1937) is a retired Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, a former fighter pilot, former astronaut for both the United States Air Force and NASA, and was the eighth Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1989 to 1992.
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Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when he became the only U.S. president to resign the office.
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Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which he successfully launched on March 16, 1926.
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A robotic spacecraft is an unmanned spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
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A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Russian Federal Space Agency (Федеральное космическое агентство России Federal'noye kosmicheskoye agentstvo Rossii), commonly called Roscosmos (Роскосмос Russpace) and abbreviated as FKA (ФКА) and RKA (РКА), is the government agency responsible for the Russian space science program and general aerospace research.
The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos).
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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
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The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
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The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.
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The Saturn V (spoken as "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1966 and 1973.
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Seismology (from Greek σεισμός "earthquake" and -λογία "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
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Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a, Сергі́й Па́влович Корольoв, Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov), also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics. Although Korolev was trained as an aircraft designer, his greatest strengths proved to be in design integration, organization and strategic planning. Arrested for alleged mismanagement of funds (he spent the money on unsuccessful experiments with rocket devices), he was imprisoned in 1938 for almost six years, including some months in a Kolyma labour camp. Following his release, he became a recognized rocket designer and a key figure in the development of the Soviet Intercontinental ballistic missile program. He was then appointed to lead the Soviet space program, made Member of Soviet Academy of Sciences, overseeing the early successes of the Sputnik and Vostok projects that include launching Yuri Alexeevich Gagarin into orbit on 12 April 1961, the first human in space. By the time he died unexpectedly in 1966, his plans to compete with the United States to be the first nation to land a man on the Moon had begun to be implemented. Before his death he was often referred to only as "The Chief Designer", because the Soviet leadership feared that the United States would send agents to assassinate him.Scott and Leonov, p. 53. Harford, p. 135. "Chief Designer" is a translation of Glavny Konstruktor (Russian: Главный Конструктор). Only many years later was he publicly acknowledged as the lead man behind Soviet success in space.
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The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) were two extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners that NASA used to transport Space Shuttle orbiters.
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The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to engage in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
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Skylab was a space station launched and operated by NASA and was the United States' first space station. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a weight of. Three manned missions to the station, conducted between 1973 and 1974 using the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) atop the smaller Saturn IB, each delivered a three-astronaut crew. On the last two manned missions, an additional Apollo / Saturn IB stood by ready to rescue the crew in orbit if it was needed. The station was damaged during launch when the micrometeoroid shield separated from the workshop and tore away, taking one of two main solar panel arrays with it and jamming the other one so that it could not deploy. This deprived Skylab of most of its electrical power, and also removed protection from intense solar heating, threatening to make it unusable. The first crew was able to save it in the first in-space major repair, by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panels. Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount, which was a multi-spectral solar observatory, Multiple Docking Adapter (with two docking ports), Airlock Module with EVA hatches, and the Orbital Workshop, the main habitable volume. Electrical power came from solar arrays, as well as fuel cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large waste tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets, and a heat radiator. Numerous scientific experiments were conducted aboard Skylab during its operational life, and crews were able to confirm the existence of coronal holes in the Sun. The Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) was used to view the Earth with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Thousands of photographs of Earth were taken, and records for human time spent in orbit were extended. Plans were made to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. However, development of the Shuttle was delayed, and Skylab reentered Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated in 1979, with debris striking portions of Western Australia. Post-Skylab NASA space laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station ''Freedom'' (later merged into the International Space Station).
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The Small Explorer program (SMEX) is an effort within NASA to fund space exploration missions that cost no more than.
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Soil mechanics is a branch of engineering mechanics that describes the behavior of soils.
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The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
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The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.
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The Soviet space program comprised the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1, and manufactured by Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center in Samara, Russia.
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Soyuz (Сою́з, Union) is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
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A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
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Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology.
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The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy expendable launch vehicle being designed by NASA.
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The space policy of the Barack Obama administration was announced by U.S. President Barack Obama on April 15, 2010, at a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center.
The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability.
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A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
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The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
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The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when the NASA Space Shuttle orbiter ''Challenger'' (OV-099) (mission STS-51-L) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members, which included five NASA astronauts and two Payload Specialists.
Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated Space Shuttle in NASA's orbiter fleet.
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The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas and Louisiana as it reentered Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
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The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
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A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
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Space Station Freedom was a NASA project to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting space station in the 1980s.
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A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
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Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
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A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
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Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) is an American aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company with its headquarters in Hawthorne, California, USA.
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Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
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Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1 "Satellite-1", or ПС-1) was the first artificial Earth satellite.
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The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and uncertainty in the United States in the wake of the success of the Soviet Sputnik program and a perceived technological gap between the two superpowers.
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STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the disastrous final flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
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STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.
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STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.
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Thomas Keith Glennan (September 8, 1905 – April 11, 1995) was the first Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, serving from August 19, 1958 to January 20, 1961.
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Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services.
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The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps and conducts a wide range of basic scientific research, applied research, technological development and prototyping.
The United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
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The US Orbital Segment (USOS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed and operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
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The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat-4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
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The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
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Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.
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The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
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Vostok 1 (Восто́к-1, East 1 or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history.
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Vostok 3 (Восток-3, Orient 3 or East 3) was a spaceflight of the Soviet space program intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA spacecraft over longer flights.
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Vostok 4 (Восток-4, Orient 4 or East 4) was a mission in the Soviet space program.
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The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
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Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
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Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 to study the outer planets.
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The Voyager program is a continuing American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
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Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States.
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Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and later American) aerospace engineer and space architect credited with inventing the V-2 Rocket and the Saturn V, for Nazi Germany and the United States, respectively.
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Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Russian Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
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2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
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The 2012 National Reconnaissance Office space telescope donation to NASA was the declassification and donation to NASA of two identical space telescopes by the United States National Reconnaissance Office.