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Nationalization

Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state. [1]

381 relations: Adélard Godbout, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Agriculture in Portugal, Air Canada, Air India, Air New Zealand, Airport security, Alec Douglas-Home, Alfa Romeo, Amtrak, Ancien Régime, Anglo Irish Bank, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, ANSES, António Champalimaud, Anthony Eden, Argentine university reform of 1918, Aristotle Onassis, Arusha Declaration, Association of American Railroads, Aurigny Air Services, Austin Rover Group, Austral Líneas Aéreas, Aventas group, Électricité de France, Banco Português de Negócios, Bank, Bank Hapoalim, Bank Leumi, Bank of Ceylon, Bank of England, Bank of New South Wales v Commonwealth, Bank of New Zealand, Bank of Valletta, Barack Obama, BBC, Benito Mussolini, Bolivia, BP, Bradford & Bingley, British Aerospace, British Aircraft Corporation, British Airways, British Airways Ltd (1935–39), British Broadcasting Company, British Coal, British Gas plc, British Leyland, British Overseas Airways Corporation, British Rail, ..., British Shipbuilders, British Steel, British Transport Commission, British Waterways, BT Group, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Underground, Bundesdruckerei, Burmah Oil, Cable & Wireless plc, Caledonian MacBrayne, Caltex, Calvo Doctrine, Cammell Laird, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian National Railway, Capitalism, Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, Cargo, Carlisle, Cumbria, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Carnation Revolution, Cemex, Central Bank of Argentina, Central Bank of Malta, Central Electricity Board, Central Electricity Generating Board, Charbonnages de France, Chief executive officer, Chilean nationalization of copper, CIÉ, Citigroup, Clement Attlee, Coal Commission, Coal mining, Commercial bank, Companhia União Fabril, Confiscation, Conrail, Conservative Party (UK), Conservatorship, Constitutional economics, Cordell Hull, Correo Argentino, Cromarty, Cuban Revolution, Dan La Botz, Debt, Department for Transport, Deprivatization, Deutsche Bahn, Developing country, Directly Operated Railways, Dmitry Rogozin, Docklands Light Railway, Dollars & Sense, East Coast (train operating company), East Pakistan, Economy of India, Edinburgh, Edward Heath, Egypt, Eircom, Electrical grid, Electricity sector in Argentina, Eminent domain, Eni, ENTel, Entel Bolivia, Esso, Evo Morales, Externality, Fall of Saigon, Fannie Mae, Fábrica Argentina de Aviones, Federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Ferdinand Marcos, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Financial crisis of 2007–08, Fortis (finance), François Mitterrand, France, Freddie Mac, Freight Rover, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaz de France, Gazprom, General Motors, General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization, General Post Office, Glitnir, Gordon Brown, Govan Shipbuilders, Government, Government agency, Government of Russia, Government-owned and controlled corporation, Graphite, Great Recession, Greek government-debt crisis, Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Hawker Siddeley, HBOS, Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland, High Court of Australia, Hugo Chávez, Hydro-Québec, Imperial Airways, Imperial Bank of India, Indian independence movement, Insurance, Integrated urban water management in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Inter-city rail, InterCity East Coast, Iran, Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale, Jaguar Cars, James Callaghan, Japan Airlines, Japanese National Railways, Jean Lesage, Johnson Matthey, José López Portillo, Julius Nyerere, Kaupthing Bank, Kingston upon Hull, KiwiRail, Korail, Kuwait, La Poste (France), Labour Party (UK), Land reform, Land reform in North Vietnam, Land Rover, Landsbanki, Latin American Studies Association, Leyland Trucks, Libya, LKAB, Lloyds Bank, London, London and Continental Railways, London Borough of Enfield, London Passenger Transport Board, Louis Renault (industrialist), Luxembourg, Manila Hotel, Margaret Thatcher, Marine Atlantic, Market economy, Meralco, Merchant navy, Mexican oil expropriation, Mexico, Michael Foot, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Monopoly, Monthly Review, Montreal, Municipality, Municipalization, National Australia Bank, National Bus Company (UK), National Enterprise Board, National Express East Coast, National Freight Corporation, National Grid (Great Britain), National Health Service, National Health Service (England), National Power Corporation, National Salvation Junta, Natural gas, Natural rubber, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neil Kinnock, Network Rail, New Economic Policy, New York Stock Exchange, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, Nigeria, Northeastern United States, Northern Rock, Olympic Airlines, Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado, Orange S.A., Orinoco Belt, P. 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Expand index (331 more) »

Adélard Godbout

Joseph-Adélard Godbout (September 24, 1892 – September 18, 1956) was an agronomist and politician in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Aerolíneas Argentinas

Aerolíneas Argentinas (Argentine Airlines), formally Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A., is Argentina's largest airline and serves as the country flag carrier.

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Agriculture in Portugal

Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units, however, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies (like Grupo RAR's Vitacress, Sovena, Lactogal, Vale da Rosa, Companhia das Lezírias and Valouro).

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Air Canada

Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada.

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Air India

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India owned by Air India Limited (AIL), a Government of India enterprise.

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Air New Zealand

Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand.

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Airport security

Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting passengers, staff and aircraft which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.

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Alec Douglas-Home

Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister from October 1963 to October 1964.

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Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian car manufacturer.

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Amtrak

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a partially government-funded American passenger railroad service.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (Old Regime or Former Regime) was the monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century ("early modern France") under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties.

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Anglo Irish Bank

Anglo Irish Bank was an Irish bank headquartered in Dublin from 1964 to 2011.

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Anglo-Persian Oil Company

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was an English company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.

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ANSES

ANSES (Administración Nacional de la Seguridad Social; National Social Security Administration) is a decentralized Argentine Government social insurance agency managed under the aegis of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security.

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António Champalimaud

António de Sommer Champalimaud (Lisbon, Lapa, 19 March 1918 – Lisbon, Lapa, 8 May 2004) was a Portuguese banker and industrialist who in 2004 was the wealthiest man in Portugal.

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Anthony Eden

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.

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Argentine university reform of 1918

The Argentine university reform of 1918 was a general modernization of the universities, especially tending towards democratization, brought about by student activism during the presidency of Hipolito Yrigoyen, the first democratic government.

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Aristotle Onassis

Aristotle Socrates Onassis (Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης, Aristotelis Onasis; 15 January 1906 – 15 March 1975), commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a Greek shipping magnate and businessman.

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Arusha Declaration

The Arusha Declaration and TANU’s Policy on Socialism and Self Reliance (1967), referred to as the Arusha Declaration, is known as Tanzania’s most prominent political statement of African Socialism, ‘Ujamaa’, or brotherhood (Kaitilla, 2007).

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Association of American Railroads

The Association of American Railroads (AAR) is an industry trade group representing primarily the major freight railroads of North America (Canada, Mexico and the United States).

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Aurigny Air Services

Aurigny Air Services Limited, styled as aurigny (and pronounced /ˈɔəriːniː/) is the flag carrier airline of Guernsey with its head office on the grounds of Guernsey Airport in the Channel Islands, and wholly owned by the States of Guernsey.

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Austin Rover Group

The Austin Rover Group (abbreviated ARG) was a British motor manufacturer.

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Austral Líneas Aéreas

Cielos del Sur S.A., operating as Austral Líneas Aéreas, more commonly known by its shortened name Austral, is a domestic airline of Argentina, the sister company of Aerolíneas Argentinas.

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Aventas group

The Aventas group, formerly the QUINN group, is a business group headquartered in Derrylin, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

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Électricité de France

Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.

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Banco Português de Negócios

Banco Português de Negócios (English: Portuguese Bank of Business), or simply BPN, was a Portuguese banking institution.

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Bank

A bank is a financial intermediary that creates credit by lending money to a borrower, thereby creating a corresponding deposit on the bank's balance sheet.

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Bank Hapoalim

Bank Hapoalim (בנק הפועלים lit. The Workers Bank) is Israel’s largest bank.

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Bank Leumi

Bank Leumi (בנק לאומי, lit. National Bank) is an Israeli bank.

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Bank of Ceylon

Bank of Ceylon (also popularly abbreviated as: BOC (read as bee-oo-see)) is a government-owned, major commercial bank in Sri Lanka.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of New South Wales v Commonwealth

Bank of New South Wales v The Commonwealth (1948) 76 CLR 1, also known as the Bank Nationalisation Case, is a notable case of the High Court of Australia.

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Bank of New Zealand

Bank of New Zealand (BNZ) is one of New Zealand's largest banks and has been operating continuously in the country since the first office was opened in Auckland in October 1861 followed shortly after by the first branch in Dunedin in December 1861.

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Bank of Valletta

Bank of Valletta (BOV) is Maltese bank and financial services company with headquarters in Santa Venera.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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BP

BP plc, also referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is one of the world's six "supermajor" oil and gas companies.

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Bradford & Bingley

Bradford & Bingley plc was a British bank with headquarters in the West Yorkshire town of Bingley.

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British Aerospace

British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.

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British Aircraft Corporation

The British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) was a British aircraft manufacturer formed from the government-pressured merger of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft), the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960.

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British Airways

British Airways, often shortened to BA, is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size.

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British Airways Ltd (1935–39)

British Airways Ltd was a British airline company operating in Europe in the period 1935–1939.

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British Broadcasting Company

The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on 18 October 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom (and anxious to build sales of their products by ensuring that there were radio broadcasts to which their radio-buying customers could listen) and licensed by the British General Post Office.

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British Coal

The British Coal Corporation was a nationalised corporation in the United Kingdom responsible for the extraction of coal.

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British Gas plc

British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.

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British Leyland

British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.

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British Overseas Airways Corporation

British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.

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British Rail

British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.

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British Shipbuilders

British Shipbuilders Corporation (BS) was a public corporation that owned and managed the shipbuilding industry in Great Britain from 1977 through the 1980s.

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British Steel

British Steel plc was a major British steel producer.

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British Transport Commission

The British Transport Commission (BTC) was created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain (Northern Ireland had the separate Ulster Transport Authority).

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British Waterways

British Waterways, often shortened to BW, was a statutory corporation wholly owned by the government of the United Kingdom.

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BT Group

BT Group plc, trading as BT, is a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, England, United Kingdom.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America.

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Buenos Aires Underground

The Buenos Aires Underground (Subterráneo de Buenos Aires), locally known as Subte (from subterráneo – 'underground' or 'subterranean') is a mass transit metro system that serves the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Bundesdruckerei

Bundesdruckerei ("Federal Printing Office") is a German manufacturer for banknotes, stamps, identity cards, passports, visas, driving licences, and vehicle registration certificates.

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Burmah Oil

The Burmah Oil Company was a leading Scottish oil business which was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

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Cable & Wireless plc

Cable & Wireless plc was a British telecommunications company.

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Caledonian MacBrayne

Caledonian MacBrayne (Caledonian Mac a' Bhriuthainn), usually shortened to Calmac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, and ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast.

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Caltex

Caltex is a petroleum brand name of Chevron Corporation used in more than 60 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, and southern Africa.

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Calvo Doctrine

The Calvo Doctrine is a foreign policy doctrine which holds that jurisdiction in international investment disputes lies with the country in which the investment is located.

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Cammell Laird

Cammell Laird, one of the famous names in British shipbuilding during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, came about following the merger of Laird, Son & Co. of Birkenhead and Johnson Cammell & Co. of Sheffield at the turn of the twentieth century.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (French: Société Radio-Canada), officially branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster.

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Canadian National Railway

The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire

Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire were contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly France.

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Cargo

The word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by ship, boat, or aircraft, although the term is now often extended to cover all types of freight, including that carried by train, van, truck, or intermodal container.

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Carlisle, Cumbria

Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is a city and the county town of Cumbria.

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Carlos Salinas de Gortari

Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born 3 April 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994.

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Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25 April (25 de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the regime of the Estado Novo.

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Cemex

CEMEX S.A.B. de C.V., known as Cemex, is a Mexican multinational building materials company headquartered in San Pedro, near Monterrey, Mexico.

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Central Bank of Argentina

The Central Bank of Argentina (Banco Central de la República Argentina, BCRA) is the central bank of Argentina.

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Central Bank of Malta

The Central Bank of Malta (Bank Ċentrali ta’ Malta) is the central bank of Malta.

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Central Electricity Board

In 1925 Lord Weir chairs a committee that proposes the creation of the Central Electricity Board (CEB) to link the UK’s most efficient power stations with consumers via a ‘national gridiron’.

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Central Electricity Generating Board

The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was the cornerstone of the British electricity industry for almost forty years, from 1957 to privatisation in the 1990s.

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Charbonnages de France

Charbonnages de France was a French enterprise created in 1946, as a result of the nationalization of the private mining companies.

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Chief executive officer

A chief executive officer (CEO in American English) or managing director (MD in British English) describes the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, or administrator in charge of managing a non-profit or for-profit organization.

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Chilean nationalization of copper

The nationalization of the Chilean copper industry, commonly described as the Chilenización del cobre or "Chileanization of copper," was the progressive process by which the Chilean government acquired control of the major foreign-owned section of the Chilean copper mining industry.

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CIÉ

Córas Iompair Éireann (Irish Transport System), or CIÉ, is a statutory corporation of the Republic of Ireland, answerable to the Irish Government and responsible for most public transport in the Republic of Ireland and – jointly with its Northern Ireland counterpart, the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company – the railway service between the Republic and Northern Ireland.

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Citigroup

Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Coal Commission

The Coal Commission was a United Kingdom government agency, created to own and manage coal reserves.

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Coal mining

The goal of coal mining is to obtain coal from the ground.

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Commercial bank

A commercial bank is a type of bank that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products.

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Companhia União Fabril

The Companhia União Fabril (CUF) is a Portuguese chemical corporation and a part of Grupo José de Mello.

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Confiscation

Confiscation (from the Latin confiscatio "joining to the fiscus, i.e. transfer to the treasury") is a legal seizure by a government or other public authority.

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Conrail

The Consolidated Rail Corporation, commonly known as Conrail, was the primary Class I railroad in the Northeast U.S. between 1976 and 1999.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Conservatorship

Conservatorship is a legal concept in the United States of America.

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Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as extending beyond the definition of "the economic analysis of constitutional law" in explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents." This is distinct from explaining the choices of economic and political agents within those rules, a subject of "orthodox" economics.

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Cordell Hull

Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee.

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Correo Argentino

Correo Oficial de la República Argentina Sociedad Anónima, mostly known as "Correo Argentino" (since it was privatized in 1997) is the state-owned company that covers the postal service in Argentina.

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Cromarty

Cromarty (Cromba) is a town, civil parish and former royal burgh in Ross and Cromarty, in the Highland area of Scotland.

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Cuban Revolution

The Cuban Revolution (1953–1959) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the U.S.-backed authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.

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Dan La Botz

Daniel H.

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Debt

A debt generally refers to something owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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Department for Transport

The Department for Transport (DfT) is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have not been devolved.

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Deprivatization

Deprivatization (or Renationalization) is the process of 'taking back' or terminating the privatized ownership, management or control over goods, products, services, programs into the public sector by the people or the government in the name of public good.

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Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Directly Operated Railways

Directly Operated Railways is a holding company set up by the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom in July 2009 to run rail franchises should it become necessary to bring them into public ownership.

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Dmitry Rogozin

Dmitryi Olegovich Rogozin (Дми́трий Оле́гович Рого́зин; born 21 December 1963) is a Russian politician who has been Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, in charge of defense industry, since 2011.

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Docklands Light Railway

The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of London.

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Dollars & Sense

Dollars & Sense is a magazine focusing on economics from a progressive perspective, published by Dollars & Sense, Inc, which also publishes textbooks in the same genre.

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East Coast (train operating company)

East Coast was a British train operating company that operated the InterCity East Coast franchise on the East Coast Main Line between London, Yorkshire, the North East and Scotland.

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East Pakistan

East Pakistan (পূর্ব পাকিস্তান; مشرقی پاکستان), present-day Bangladesh, was a provincial state of Pakistan that existed in the Bengal region of the northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme that laid the existence of East Pakistan.

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Economy of India

The Economy of India is the seventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.

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Edward Heath

Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eircom

Eirom Limited (trading as eir) is a fixed, mobile and broadband telecommunications company in Ireland, and a former state-owned monopolist.

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Electrical grid

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers.

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Electricity sector in Argentina

The electricity sector in Argentina constitutes the third largest power market in Latin America.

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Eminent domain

Eminent domain (United States, the Philippines), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (South Africa, Canada) is the power of a state or a national government to take private property for public use.

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Eni

Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.

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ENTel

The Empresa Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (National Telecommunications Enterprise, or ENTel) was an Argentine state owned company which had the monopoly on public telecommunications in the country until its privatization in 1990.

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Entel Bolivia

Entel is a major Bolivian telecommunications company.

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Esso

Esso is an international trade name for ExxonMobil and its related companies.

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Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.

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Externality

In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

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Fall of Saigon

The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People’s Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on April 30, 1975.

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Fannie Mae

The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, was founded in 1938 during the Great Depression as part of the New Deal.

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Fábrica Argentina de Aviones

The Fábrica Argentina de Aviones SA (FAdeA), officially Fábrica Argentina de Aviones "Brigadier San Martín" S.A., is Argentina's main aircraft manufacturer.

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Federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

The federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac refers to the placing into conservatorship of government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac by the U.S. Treasury in September 2008.

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician who served as President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

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Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (previously Ferrovie dello Stato, FS) is a government-owned holding company that manages infrastructure and services on the Italian rail network.

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Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and protects a person against being compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in a criminal case.

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Financial crisis of 2007–08

The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Fortis (finance)

Fortis N.V./S.A. was a Belgium financial company active in insurance, banking and investment management.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1981 until 1995.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Freddie Mac

The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in the Tyson's Corner CDP in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia.

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Freight Rover

Freight Rover was a British commercial vehicle manufacturer based in Birmingham, England.

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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, initiated primarily by the tsunami of the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.

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Gaz de France

Gaz de France (GDF) was a French company which produced, transported and sold natural gas around the world, especially in France, its main market.

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Gazprom

Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публичное Акционерное Общество «Газпром», abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ОАО «Газпром») is the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and one of the world's largest companies.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly known as GM, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, that designs, manufactures, markets and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts and sells financial services.

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General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization

The General Motors Chapter 11 sale of the assets of automobile manufacturer General Motors and some of its subsidiaries was implemented through section 363 of Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code in the United States bankruptcy court for the Southern District of New York.

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General Post Office

The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.

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Glitnir

Glitnir (glit, nitor, splendor, OHG. kliz, E. shining) is the hall of Forseti, the Norse god of law and justice, and the seat of justice amongst gods and men.

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Gordon Brown

James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 until 2010.

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Govan Shipbuilders

Govan Shipbuilders Ltd (GSL) was a British shipbuilding company based on the River Clyde at Glasgow in Scotland.

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Government

A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled.

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Government agency

A government or state agency, often an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.

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Government of Russia

The Government of the Russian Federation (Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции) exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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Government-owned and controlled corporation

A Government-owned and controlled corporation (GOCC), sometimes with an "and/or", is a term in the Philippines used to describe government-owned corporations that conduct both commercial and non-commercial activity.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Great Recession

The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek depression) started in late 2009.

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Gretna, Dumfries and Galloway

Gretna (Greatna) is a town in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.

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Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative politician and statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 January 1957 to 18 October 1963.

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 191624 May 1995) was a British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976.

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Hawker Siddeley

Hawker Siddeley was a group of British manufacturing companies engaged in aircraft production.

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HBOS

HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group, having been taken over in January 2009.

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Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland

Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland (HSC) is the designation of the publicly funded service responsible for the administration of the public health and other social care services in Northern Ireland.

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High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.

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Hugo Chávez

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician and the President of Venezuela between 1999 and his death in 2013.

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Hydro-Québec

Hydro-Québec is a government-owned public utility established in 1944 by the Government of Quebec.

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Imperial Airways

Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range air transport company, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong.

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Imperial Bank of India

The Imperial Bank of India (IBI) was the oldest and the largest commercial bank of the Indian subcontinent, and was subsequently transformed into State Bank of India in 1955.

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Indian independence movement

The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).

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Insurance

Insurance is the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another in exchange for money.

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Integrated urban water management in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Integrated urban water management (IUWM) in Buenos Aires is not unlike many large urban areas in Latin America where in past decades, more focus was placed on just a few sectors or perhaps only one sector.

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Inter-city rail

Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.

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InterCity East Coast

InterCity East Coast is a railway franchise for passenger trains on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom from London King's Cross to Hull, Leeds, Bradford, Harrogate, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and Aberdeen.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale

The Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (English: "Institute for Industrial Reconstruction"), best known by its acronym IRI, was an Italian public holding company established in 1933 by the Fascist regime to rescue, restructure and finance banks and private companies that went bankrupt during the Great Depression.

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Jaguar Cars

Jaguar Cars is a brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, England, owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.

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James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.

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Japan Airlines

, is the flag carrier of Japan and the second largest airline in Japan after All Nippon Airways.

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Japanese National Railways

, abbreviated or "JNR", was the body which operated the national railway network of Japan from 1949 to 1987.

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Jean Lesage

Jean Lesage (10 June 1912 – 12 December 1980), PC, CC, CD was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada.

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Johnson Matthey

Johnson Matthey is a British multinational speciality chemicals and sustainable technologies company headquartered in the United Kingdom.

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José López Portillo

José Guillermo Abel López Portillo y Pacheco (June 16, 1920 – February 17, 2004) was a Mexican lawyer and, politician affiliated with Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 51st President of Mexico from 1976 to 1982.

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Julius Nyerere

Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian statesman who served as the leader of Tanzania, and previously Tanganyika, from 1960 until his retirement in 1985.

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Kaupthing Bank

Kaupthing Bank (Kaupþing banki) was a major international Icelandic bank, headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland.

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Kingston upon Hull

Hull, officially Kingston upon Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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KiwiRail

KiwiRail Holdings Limited is a New Zealand State-owned enterprise responsible for rail operations, which trades as KiwiRail.

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Korail

Korea Railroad Corporation (Korean: 한국철도공사, Hanja: 韓國鐵道公社), promoted as Korail (코레일), is the national railroad operator in South Korea.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.

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La Poste (France)

La Poste is the mail service of France, which also operates postal services in the French Overseas Departments of Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana and Mayotte, and the territorial collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Land reform

Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.

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Land reform in North Vietnam

Land reform in North Vietnam was done between 1953 to 1956.

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Land Rover

Land Rover is a brand of the British car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles.

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Landsbanki

Landsbanki (literally "national bank"), also commonly known as Landsbankinn (literally "the national bank") which is now the name of the current rebuilt bank (here called "New Landsbanki"), was one of the largest Icelandic commercial banks that failed as part of the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis when its subsidiary sparked the Icesave dispute.

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Latin American Studies Association

The Latin American Studies Association (LASA) is the largest association for scholars of Latin American studies.

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Leyland Trucks

Leyland Trucks is the UK's leading medium & heavy duty truck manufacturer and is based in the town of Leyland, Lancashire.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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LKAB

Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) is a Swedish mining company.

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Lloyds Bank

Lloyds Bank plc is a British retail and commercial bank with branches across England and Wales.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London and Continental Railways

London and Continental Railways (LCR) is a property development company owned by the British Government for developing former railway land in the United Kingdom.

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London Borough of Enfield

The London Borough of Enfield is a London borough in north London, England.

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London Passenger Transport Board

The London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) was the organisation responsible for local public transport in London, UK, and its environs from 1933 to 1948.

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Louis Renault (industrialist)

Louis Renault (February 12, 1877 – October 24, 1944) was a French industrialist, one of the founders of Renault and a pioneer of the automobile industry.

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Luxembourg

Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Manila Hotel

The Manila Hotel is a 570-room, historic five-star hotel located along Manila Bay in Manila, Philippines.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (Roberts, 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Marine Atlantic

Marine Atlantic Inc. (fr: Marine Atlantique) is an independent Canadian Crown corporation offering ferry services between the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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Meralco

The Manila Electric Company, also known as Meralco (stylized in its logo as MERALCO), is the Philippines' largest distributor of electrical power.

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Merchant navy

A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a certain country.

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Mexican oil expropriation

The Mexican oil expropriation (expropiación petrolera) (also petroleum expropriation, petroleum nationalization, etc.) was the expropriation of all oil reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico on March 18, 1938.

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Mexico

Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Michael Foot

Michael Mackintosh Foot FRSL (23 July 1913 – 3 March 2010) was a British Labour Party politician and man of letters who was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1945 to 1955 and from 1960 until 1992.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh or Mosaddiq (مُحَمَد مُصَدِق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967), was an Iranian politician.

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Monopoly

A monopoly (from Greek monos μόνος (alone or single) + polein πωλεῖν (to sell)) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity (this contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few entities dominating an industry).

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Monthly Review

The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.

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Montreal

Montreal (Montréal) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Municipality

A municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction.

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Municipalization

Municipalization is the transfer of corporations or other assets to municipal ownership.

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National Australia Bank

National Australia Bank (abbreviated NAB, branded nab) is one of the four largest financial institutions in Australia in terms of market capitalisation and customers.

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National Bus Company (UK)

The National Bus Company (NBC) was a nationalised bus company that operated in England and Wales between 1969 and 1988.

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National Enterprise Board

The National Enterprise Board (NEB) was a UK government body.

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National Express East Coast

National Express East Coast (NXEC) was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the InterCity East Coast franchise from December 2007 until November 2009, when it was refused financial support for its franchise.

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National Freight Corporation

The National Freight Corporation was a major British transport business.

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National Grid (Great Britain)

The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in England, Scotland and Wales can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.

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National Health Service

The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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National Health Service (England)

The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system for England.

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National Power Corporation

The National Power Corporation (Pambansang Korporasyon sa Elektrisidad, also known as Napocor, NPC or National Power), is a government-owned and controlled corporation that used to be the largest provider and generator of electricity in the Philippines.

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National Salvation Junta

The National Salvation Junta (Junta de Salvação Nacional) was a group of military officers designated to maintain the government of Portugal in April 1974, after the Carnation Revolution had overthrown the Estado Novo dictatorial regime.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.

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Neil Kinnock

Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock (born 28 March 1942) is a British Labour Party politician.

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Network Rail

Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales, having taken over from previous owner Railtrack in 2002.

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New Economic Policy

For the Malaysian policy enacted in 1971, see Malaysian New Economic Policy. The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Новая экономическая политика, НЭП, Novaya Ekonomicheskaya Politika) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism".

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New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), sometimes known as the "Big Board", is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States.

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NHS Scotland

NHS Scotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.

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NHS Wales

NHS Wales (Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol Cymru (GIG Cymru)) is the publicly funded healthcare system of Wales and is the responsibility of the devolved Welsh Government.

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Nigeria

Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Northeastern United States

The Northeastern United States, or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bounded to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern Rock

Northern Rock was a British bank, most recently owned and operated by Virgin Money.

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Olympic Airlines

Olympic Airlines (Ολυμπιακές Αερογραμμές, Olympiakés Aerogrammés – OA), formerly named Olympic Airways for at least four decades, was the flag carrier airline of Greece with their head office in Athens.

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Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado

The Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado (abbreviated SOFSE, DBA Trenes Argentinos Operadora Ferroviaria) is an Argentine State-owned company created in 2008 to operate passenger services in Argentina.

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Orange S.A.

Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.

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Orinoco Belt

The Orinoco Belt is a territory in the southern strip of the eastern Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela which overlies one of the world's largest deposits of petroleum. Its local Spanish name is Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco (Orinoco Petroleum Belt). The Orinoco Belt is located Guárico and south of the Anzoátegui, Monagas, and Delta Amacuro states, and it follows the line of the river. It is approximately from east to west, and from north to south, with an area about.

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P. Chidambaram

Palaniappan Chidambaram (born 16 September 1945) is an Indian politician affiliated with the Indian National Congress and a former Union Minister of Finance of India.

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Pakistan International Airlines

Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly known as PIA or Pakistan International is the national flag carrier airline of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Railways

This article is about the rail company in Pakistan.

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Pakistan Steel Mills

Pakistan Steel Mills (Urdu: پاکستان اسٹيل ملز; reporting name: PSM), also known as Pak Steels, is a global competitive, multi-billion state-owned mega-corporation and the producer of the long rolled steel and heavy metal products and entities in the country.

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Parex Bank

Parex Banka was founded in 1992 by Valery Kargin and Viktor Krasovickis as a privately owned full-service banking company in Riga, Latvia.

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Pension fund

A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Philip Bonsal

Philip Wilson Bonsal (May 22, 1903 – June 28, 1995) was a United States foreign diplomat and was the most recent United States Ambassador to Cuba.

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Philippine Airlines

Philippine Airlines (PAL) (A trading name of PAL Holdings Inc.) (PSE), also known historically as Philippine Air Lines, is the flag carrier of the Philippines.

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Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company

The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (Kompanya ng Teleponong Pangmalayuan ng Pilipinas), commonly known as PLDT, is the largest telecommunications company in the Philippines.

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Philippine National Railways

The Philippine National Railways (Pambansang Daambakal ng Pilipinas), or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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Plantation

A plantation is a large piece of land (or water) usually in a tropical or semitropical area where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale and usually tended by resident laborers.

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Political faction

A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose.

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Political party

A political party is an organization of people which seeks to achieve goals common to its members through the acquisition and exercise of political power.

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Political Science Quarterly

Political Science Quarterly is an American double blind peer-reviewed academic journal covering government, politics, and policy, published since 1886 by the Academy of Political Science.

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Port of Buenos Aires

The Port of Buenos Aires is the principal maritime port in Argentina.

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Portsmouth

Portsmouth is the second largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England.

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Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan

The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc., also referred to as PotashCorp, is a Canadian corporation based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

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President of Mexico

The President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the head of state and government of Mexico.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وَزِیرِ اَعظَم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic." The Prime minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economical growth, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, and is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals.

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Private company limited by guarantee

In British and Irish company law, a private company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation of the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Privately held company

A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.

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Privatization

Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.

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Production for use

Production for use is a phrase referring to the principle of economic organization and production taken as a defining criterion for a socialist economy.

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Property

In the abstract, property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Proton Bank

Proton Bank (in Greek Proton Τράπεζα Α.Ε.) was established in 2001 as Τράπεζα Επενδυτικών Δραστηριοτήτων Α.Ε. and officially commenced its operations as a specialised investment bank in 2002.

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Public company

A public, publicly traded, publicly held company or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.

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Public sector

The public sector is the part of the economy concerned with providing various government services.

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Quebec

Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quiet Revolution

The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions.

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Radio in Argentina

Radio in Argentina is an important facet of the nation's media and culture.

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Rafael La Porta

Rafael La Porta (born c. 1962) is the Nobel Foundation Professor of Finance at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles running on rails.

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Rail transport in Argentina

The Argentine railway network consisted of a network at the end of the Second World War and was, in its time, one of the most extensive and prosperous in the world.

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Railtrack

Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track, signalling, tunnels, bridges, level crossings and all but a handful of the stations of the British railway system from 1994 until 2002.

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Railway nationalisation in Argentina

In 1948, during President Juan Perón's first term of office, the seven British-owned and three French-owned railway companies then operating in Argentina, were purchased by the state.

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Railway nationalization

Railway nationalization is the act of taking rail transport assets into public ownership.

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Railway Nationalization Act

The brought many of Japan's private railway lines under national control.

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RATP Group

The RATP Group (French: Groupe RATP), also known as the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (English: Autonomous Operator of Parisian Transports) is a state-owned public transport operator headquartered in Paris, France.

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Red Eléctrica de España

Red Eléctrica de España is a partly state-owned and public limited Spanish corporation which operates the national electricity grid in Spain, where it operates the national power transmission system.

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Redistribution of income and wealth

Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, monetary policies, welfare, land reform, charity, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

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Reformism

Reformism is the belief that gradual changes through and within existing institutions can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic system and political structures.

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Renationalization of YPF

President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina introduced a bill on April 16, 2012, for the partial renationalization of YPF, the nation's largest energy firm.

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Renault

Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.

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Renfe Operadora

Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1668-mm "Iberian gauge", 1435-mm "European gauge" and 1000-mm "Metre Gauge" networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).

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Reprivatization

Reprivatization refers to the process of restoring to its former owners properties seized by a government, or to the process of compensating previously uncompensated former owners.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI, Hindi:भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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Resolution Trust Corporation

The Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) was a U.S. government-owned asset management company run by Lewis William Seidman and charged with liquidating assets, primarily real estate-related assets such as mortgage loans, that had been assets of savings and loan associations (S&Ls) declared insolvent by the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) as a consequence of the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s.

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Resona Holdings

() is the holding company of, the fifth-largest banking group in Japan as of 2012.

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Rolling stock

The term Rolling stock originally referred to any vehicles that move on a railway.

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Rolls-Royce Holdings

Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public holding company that, through its various subsidiaries, designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.

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Rolls-Royce Limited

Rolls-Royce Limited is a renowned British car-manufacturing and, later, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Sir Frederick Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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Rudolf Hilferding

Rudolf Hilferding (10 August 1877 – 11 February 1941) was an Austrian-born Marxist economist, leading socialist theorist,International Institute of Social History, Rodolf Hilferding Papers.

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Rumasa

José María Ruiz-Mateos Sociedad Anónima (Rumasa) was a holding company founded by Spanish entrepreneur José María Ruiz Mateos and expropriated by the Spanish government on February 23, 1983.

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Salvador Allende

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

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Santander Group

The Santander Group is a Spanish banking group centered on Banco Santander, S.A. and is the largest bank in the Eurozone by market value.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Saudi Aramco

Saudi Aramco (أرامكو السعودية), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company) is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

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Savings and loan association

A savings and loan association (or S&L), also known as a thrift, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage and other loans.

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Savings bank

A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits and paying interest on those deposits.

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Scottish Government

The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba, Scots Government) is the executive branch of the devolved government of Scotland.

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Secretary of State for Scotland

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba, Secretar o State for Scotland) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".

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Sequestration (law)

Sequestration (in law) is the act of removing, separating, or seizing anything from the possession of its owner under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state.

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Seylan Bank

Seylan Bank PLC is a publicly owned Commercial Bank in Sri Lanka.

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SNCF

SNCF (Société nationale des chemins de fer français; "National society of French railways" or "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company and manages the rail traffic in France and the Principality of Monaco.

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Snoras

Bankas Snoras AB or simply SNORAS was a commercial bank, founded in Lithuania operating in all three Baltic states.

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SNS Bank

SNS Bank is a Dutch retail bank offering financial products to both companies and individuals.

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Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.

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Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.

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Socialist state

The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.

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Socialization (economics)

Social ownership encompasses the various forms of ownership of the means of production for socialist economic systems.

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Sonae

Sonae (Sonae SGPS, S.A.) is a Portuguese retail company (Sonae MC and Sonae SR) with two big partnerships in the shopping centers areas (Sonae Sierra) and the Software and Information Systems, Media and Telecommunications (Sonaecom).

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Space industry

Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions, and related services.

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Sparisjóðabanki

SPB (former Sparisjóðabanki Íslands) was a commercial bank in Reykjavík, Iceland, focusing on wholesale and investment banking services to savings banks, Icelandic and foreign financial institutions and other customers.

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Sparisjóður Reykjavíkur og nágrennis

Sparisjóður Reykjavíkur og nágrennis (English: Reykjavík Savings Bank), often shortened to SPRON was an Icelandic savings bank. It had six branches, all in the Reykjavík capital area. The bank was established March 5, 1932, and was nationalized in 2009 following a major banking and financial crisis in Iceland. Most assets were subsequently moved to Nýja Kaupþing.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.

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Sri Lanka Transport Board

The Sri Lanka Transport Board (formerly: Ceylon Transport Board, CTB) is a bus service provider in Sri Lanka.

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State Bank of India

State Bank of India is an Indian multinational, Public Sector banking and financial services company.

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State capitalism

State capitalism is usually described as an economic system in which commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity is undertaken by the state, where the means of production are organized and managed as business enterprises, including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor, and centralized management.

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State Management Scheme

The State Management Scheme (or 'the scheme') was the UK government's take over of the brewing, distribution and sale of liquor in three regions of the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1973.

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State ownership

State ownership, also called public ownership, government ownership or state property, are property interests that are vested in the state, rather than an individual or private entity.

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State socialism

State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.

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State-owned enterprise

A state-owned enterprise (SOE) otherwise known as a: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government.

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Statism

In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.

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Steel

Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Steel mill

A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.

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Straumur Investment Bank

Straumur Investment Bank hf. (Straumur Fjárfestingabanki, usually referred to simply as Straumur) was founded as a regional investment bank headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland.

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Suez Canal

The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

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Suez Canal Company

The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company (Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short) was the corporation that constructed and operated the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869.

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Swan Hunter

Swan Hunter, formerly known as "Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson", is a shipbuilding design, engineering and management company.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.

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Telecom Italia

Telecom Italia is an Italian telecommunications company which provides telephony services, mobile services, and DSL data services.

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Television in Argentina

Argentine television broadcasting began in 1951 with the inaugural of then state-owned Canal 7, developed by Radio Belgrano executive Jaime Yankelevich.

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Tennessee Valley Authority

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.

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Ternium

Ternium is a manufacturer of flat and long steel products with production centers in Argentina, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and the United States.

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The Journal of Finance

The Journal of Finance is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Finance Association.

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The Royal Bank of Scotland

The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Baunk o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, and together with NatWest and Ulster Bank, provides banking facilities throughout the UK and Ireland.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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Thomas Cook & Son

Thomas Cook & Son, originally simply Thomas Cook, was a company founded by Thomas Cook, a cabinet-maker, in 1841 to carry temperance supporters by railway between the cities of Leicester, Nottingham, Derby and Birmingham.

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Tokyo Electric Power Company

, also known as or TEPCO, is a Japanese electric utility servicing Japan's Kantō region, Yamanashi Prefecture, and the eastern portion of Shizuoka Prefecture.

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Toll Domestic Forwarding

Toll Domestic Forwarding (TDF) is a division of the Toll Group specialising in freight forwarding by road, rail and sea within and between Australia and New Zealand.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British Labour Party politician, who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007.

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Transportation Security Administration

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States.

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Tranz Rail

Tranz Rail, formally Tranz Rail Holdings Limited (New Zealand Rail Limited until 1995), was the main rail operator in New Zealand from 1991 until it was purchased by Toll Holdings in 2003.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Treuhandanstalt

The Treuhandanstalt ("Trust agency"), colloquially referred to as Treuhand, was an agency established by the government of the German Democratic Republic to privatize East German enterprises, Volkseigene Betriebe (VEBs), prior to the unification of Germany.

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Troubled Asset Relief Program

The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) is a program of the United States government to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was signed into law by U.S. President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Kingdom general election, 1979

The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.

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United Kingdom general election, 1997

The United Kingdom general election of 1997 was held on 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA, GA, or, from the Assemblée Générale, "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.

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United Rocket and Space Corporation

The United Rocket and Space Corporation (Объединенная ракетно-космическая корпорация) or URSC is a Russian joint-stock corporation formed by the Russian government in 2013 to renationalize the Russian space sector.

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United States Army Military Government in Korea

The United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK; Korean: 재조선 미육군 사령부 군정청 Jaejoseonmiyuggunsalyeongbugunjeongcheong; Hanja: 在朝鮮美陸軍司令部軍政廳 Jaejoseonmilyuggunsalyeongbugunjeongcheong) was the official ruling body of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula from September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948.

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United States Railroad Administration

The United States Railroad Administration (USRA) was the name of the nationalized railroad system of the United States between 1917 and 1920.

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United States Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America heading the U.S. Department of State, principally concerned with foreign affairs and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

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Via Rail

Via Rail Canada (generally shortened to Via Rail or Via; styled corporately as VIA Rail Canada) is an independent crown corporation, subsidised by the Minister of Transport, to offer intercity passenger rail services in Canada.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Virgin Money UK

Virgin Money plc is a UK-based bank and financial services company owned by the Virgin Group and founded by Sir Richard Branson in March 1995.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a, born 7 October 1952) has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012, succeeding Dmitry Medvedev.

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Water Act 1973

The Water Act 1973 (1973 c.37) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reorganised the water, sewage and river management industry in England and Wales.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Yarrow Shipbuilders

Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited (YSL), often styled as simply Yarrows, was a major shipbuilding firm based in the Scotstoun district of Glasgow on the River Clyde.

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York

York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England, and is the traditional county town of Yorkshire to which it gives its name.

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Yousaf Raza Gillani

Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani also spelled Gilani (Urdu, Saraiki:;; born 9 June 1952) is a Pakistani politician who served as the 16th Prime minister of Pakistan from 25 March 2008 until his retroactive disqualification and ouster by the Supreme Court of Pakistan on 26 April 2012.

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YPF

YPF, the initials of Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales; English: "Fiscal Oilfields ", is a vertically integrated Argentine energy company, engaged in the exploration and production of oil and gas, and the transportation, refining, and marketing of gas and petroleum products.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician and statesman who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.

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2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package

A bank rescue package totalling some £500 billion (approximately $850 billion) was announced by the British government on 8 October 2008, as a response to the ongoing global financial crisis.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalization

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